Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1254

Search results for: plastic rotation

1254 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure Based on Plastic Rotation

Authors: Kahil Amar, Meziani Faroudja, Khelil Nacim


The principal objective of this study is the evaluation of the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures, taking into account of the behavior laws, reflecting the real behavior of materials, using CASTEM2000 software. A finite element model used is based in modified Takeda model with Timoshenko elements for columns and beams. This model is validated on a Vecchio experimental reinforced concrete (RC) frame model. Then, a study focused on the behavior of a RC frame with three-level and three-story in order to visualize the positioning the plastic hinge (plastic rotation), determined from the curvature distribution along the elements. The results obtained show that the beams of the 1st and 2nd level developed a very large plastic rotations, or these rotations exceed the values corresponding to CP (Collapse prevention with cp qCP = 0.02 rad), against those developed at the 3rd level, are between IO and LS (Immediate occupancy and life Safety with qIO = 0.005 rad and rad qLS = 0.01 respectively), so the beams of first and second levels submit a very significant damage.

Keywords: seismic performance, performance level, pushover analysis, plastic rotation, plastic hinge

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1253 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim


Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The same geometric and material conditions with Yanglin Gong’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed. The equation for calculating rotation at ultimate moment is first proposed.

Keywords: finite element method, moment and rotation, rotation at ultimate moment, single-web angle connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1252 Finite Elemental Simulation of the Combined Process of Asymmetric Rolling and Plastic Bending

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, M. Sverdlik


Traditionally, the need in items represents a large body of rotation (e.g. shrouds of various process units: a converter, a mixer, a scrubber, a steel ladle and etc.) is satisfied by using them at engineering enterprises. At these enterprises large parts of bodies of rotation are made on stamping units or bending and forming machines. In Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University in alliance with JSC "Magnitogorsk Metal and Steel Works" there was suggested and implemented the technology for producing such items based on a combination of asymmetric rolling processes and plastic bending under conditions of the plate mill. In this paper, based on finite elemental mathematical simulation in technology of a combined process of asymmetric rolling and bending plastic has been improved. It is shown that for the same curvature along the entire length of the metal sheet it is necessary to introduce additional asymmetry speed when rolling front end and tape trailer. Production of large bodies of rotation at mill 4500 JSC "Magnitogorsk Metal and Steel Works" showed good convergence of theoretical and experimental values of the curvature of the metal. Economic effect obtained more than 1.0 million dollars.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, plastic bending, combined process, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1251 High Speed Image Rotation Algorithm

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Hyungjin Cho, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing step in image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with rotation matrix multiplication. However it requires lots of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric function calculations, so it takes long execution time. We propose a new high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. We compare the proposed algorithm with the conventional rotation one with various size images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation ones.

Keywords: high speed rotation operation, image processing, image rotation, pattern recognition, transformation matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
1250 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju


Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: connections, finite element analysis, seismic design, steel intermediate moment frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
1249 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang


In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1248 Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.

Keywords: high-speed rotation operation, image rotation, transform matrix, image processing, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1247 Algorithms of ABS-Plastic Extrusion

Authors: Dmitrii Starikov, Evgeny Rybakov, Denis Zhuravlev


Plastic for 3D printing is very necessary material part for printers. But plastic production is technological process, which implies application of different control algorithms. Possible algorithms of providing set diameter of plastic fiber are proposed and described in the article. Results of research were proved by existing unit of filament production.

Keywords: ABS-plastic, automation, control system, extruder, filament, PID-algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1246 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Arjita Biswas, Sandeep Potnis


Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: bituminous roads, experiments, performance, plastic roads

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1245 Complex Rigid-Plastic Deformation Model of Tow Degree of Freedom Mechanical System under Impulsive Force

Authors: Abdelouaheb Rouabhi


In order to study the plastic resource of structures, the elastic-plastic single degree of freedom model described by Prandtl diagram is widely used. The generalization of this model to tow degree of freedom beyond the scope of a simple rigid-plastic system allows investigating the plastic resource of structures under complex disproportionate by individual components of deformation (earthquake). This macro-model greatly increases the accuracy of the calculations carried out. At the same time, the implementation of the proposed macro-model calculations easier than the detailed dynamic elastic-plastic calculations existing software systems such as ANSYS.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, single degree of freedom model, rigid-plastic system, plastic resource, complex plastic deformation, macro-model

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1244 Design of Reduced Links for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


Link-to-column connection in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) has been a critical problem since the link flange connected to the column fractured prior to the required link rotation. Even though the problem in link-to-column connection still exist, the use of an eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF have high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under repeated lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In order to address this problem, a reduced web and flange link section is proposed and evaluated in this study. Reducing the web with holes makes the link to control the failure at the edge of holes introduced. Reducing the flange allows the link to control the location at which the plastic hinge is formed. Thus, the failure supposed to occur in the link flange connected at the connection move to the web and to the reduced link flange. Nonlinear FE analysis and experimental investigations have been done on the developed links, and the result shows that the link satisfies the plastic rotation limit recommended in AICS-360-10. Design equations that define the behavior of the proposed link have been recommended, and the equations were verified through the experimental and FE analysis results.

Keywords: EBFs, earthquake disaster, link-to-column connection, reduced link section

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1243 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh


In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1242 Effect of Rotation Rate on Chemical Segregation during Phase Change

Authors: Nouri Sabrina, Benzeghiba Mohamed, Ghezal Abderrahmane


Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended Darcy model, which includes the time derivative and Coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It was found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetic field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axially. When the convection is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: numerical simulation, heat and mass transfer, vertical solidification, chemical segregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
1241 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle


Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: design, machine, plastic waste, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1240 Plastic Degradation Activity of Bacillus Sp. Isolated from the Gut of Plastic-Fed Yellow Mealworm

Authors: Najat El-Kurdi, Sherif Hammad, Mohamed Ghazi, Sahar El-Shatoury, Khaled Zakaria


The increasing number of plastic production and its importance to humanity in daily life made it a headache to the planet earth. The persistence of plastic wastes in the environment formed a serious problem. They are prominent with their capability to resist microbial degradation for decades. Thus, it was crucial to find ways to eliminate the plastics without depending on conventional recycling methods, which causes the formation of more hazardous compounds and doubles the problem. In this paper, mealworms were fed with a mixture of plastic wastes such as plastic bags, Styrofoam, PE foam, and plastic tarpaulins film as the sole food source for a month. Frass was collected at the end of the test and examined using FTIR analysis. Also, the gut bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA. The results show the mineralization of plastic in the frass of plastic-fed worms when compared to control. The 16S rRNA and the BLAST analysis showed that the obtained isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus Sp especially Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analysis showed their relatedness to the other Bacillus species in the NCBI database.

Keywords: mealworm, waste management, plastic-degrading bacteria, gut microbiome, Bacillus sp

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1239 Experimental Assessment of Polypropylene Plastic Aggregates(PPA) for Pavement Construction: Their Mechanical Properties via Marshall Test

Authors: Samiullah Bhatti, Safdar Abbas Zaidi, Syed Murtaza Ali Jafri


This research paper presents the results of using plastic aggregate in flexible pavement. Plastic aggregates have been prepared with polypropylene (PP) recycled products and have been tested with Marshall apparatus. Grade 60/70 bitumen has been chosen for this research with a total content of 2.5 %, 3 % and 3.5 %. Plastic aggregates are mixed with natural aggregates with different proportions and it ranges from 10 % to 100 % with an increment of 10 %. Therefore, a total of 10 Marshall cakes were prepared with plastic aggregates in addition to a standard pavement sample. In total 33 samples have been tested for Marshall stability, flow and voids in mineral aggregates. The results show an increase in the value when it changes from 2.5 % bitumen to 3 % and after then it goes again toward declination. Thus, 3 % bitumen content has been found as the most optimum value for flexible pavements. Among all the samples, 20 % PP aggregates sample has been found satisfactory with respect to all the standards provided by ASTM. Therefore, it is suggested to use 20 plastic aggregates in flexible pavement construction. A comparison of bearing capacity and skid resistance is also observed.

Keywords: marshall test, polypropylene plastic, plastic aggregates, flexible pavement alternative, recycling of plastic waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1238 Continuous Manufacturing of Ultra Fine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Methods

Authors: Aslı Günay Bulutsuz, Mehmet Emin Yurci


Severe plastic deformation techniques are top-down deformation methods which enable superior mechanical properties by decreasing grain size. Different kind severe plastic deformation methods have been widely being used at various process temperature and geometries. Besides manufacturing advantages of severe plastic deformation technique, most of the types are being used only at the laboratory level. They cannot be adapted to industrial usage due to their continuous manufacturability and manufacturing costs. In order to enhance these manufacturing difficulties and enable widespread usage, different kinds of methods have been developed. In this review, a comprehensive literature research was fulfilled in order to highlight continuous severe plastic deformation methods.

Keywords: continuous manufacturing, severe plastic deformation, ultrafine grains, grain size refinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1237 PLA Plastic as Biodegradable Material for 3D Printers

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš


Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials which are biodegradable and also available for 3D printing within Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production. Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced by conventional technologies as injection moulding.

Keywords: 3D printing, biodegradable plastic, fused deposition modeling, PLA plastic, rapid prototyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
1236 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun


This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1235 Impacts of Low-Density Polyethylene (Plastic Shopping Bags) on Structural Strength and Permeability of Hot-Mix-Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Chayanon Boonyuid


This paper experiments the effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the structural strength and permeability of hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) pavements. Different proportions of bitumen (4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5% and 6% of total aggregates) and plastic (5%, 10% and 15% of bitumen) contents in HMA mixtures were investigated to estimate the optimum mixture of bitumen and plastic in HMA pavement with long-term performance. Marshall Tests and Falling Head Tests were performed to experiment the structure strength and permeability of HMA mixtures with different percentages of plastic materials and bitumen. The laboratory results show that the optimum binder content was 5.5% by weight of aggregates with higher contents of plastic materials, increase structural stability, reduce permanent deformation, increase ductility, and improve fatigue life of HMA pavements. The use of recycled plastic shopping bags can reduce the use of bitumen content by 0.5% - 1% in HMA mixtures resulting in cheaper material costs with better long-term performance. The plastic materials increase the impermeability of HMA pavements. This study has two-fold contributions: optimum contents of both bitumen and plastic materials in HMA mixtures and the impacts of plastic materials on the permeability of HMA pavements.

Keywords: plastic bags, bitumen, structural strength, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1234 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal


The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1233 Numerical Simulation of the Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

Authors: Nouri Sabrina


Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in Vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended darcy model, whıch includes the time derivative and coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It is found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetıc field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axıally. When the convectıon is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: rotating vertical solidification, Finite Volume Method, heat and mass transfer, porous medium, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1232 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


The development of new construction materials using recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or post-consumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters investigated include: Fiber length ranging from 20 to 50 mm, and fiber volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources conservation.

Keywords: mortar, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, RF recycled fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1231 Process Parameter Study on Friction Push Plug Welding of AA6061 Alloy

Authors: H. Li, W. Qin, Ben Ye


Friction Push Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid phase welding suitable for repairing defective welds and filling self-reacting weld keyholes in Friction Stir Welds. In FPPW process, a tapered shaped plug is rotated at high speed and forced into a tapered hole in the substrate. The plug and substrate metal is softened by the increasing temperature generated by friction and material plastic deformation. This paper aims to investigate the effect of process parameters on the quality of the weld. Orthogonal design methods were employed to reduce the amount of experiment. Three values were selected for each process parameter, rotation speed (1500r/min, 2000r/min, 2500r/min), plunge depth (2mm, 3mm, 4mm) and plunge speed (60mm/min, 90mm/min, 120r/min). AA6061aluminum alloy plug and substrate plate was used in the experiment. In a trial test with the plunge depth of 1mm, a noticeable defect appeared due to the short plunge time and insufficient temperature. From the recorded temperature profiles, it was found that the peak temperature increased with the increase of the rotation speed, plunge speed and plunge depth. In the initial stage, the plunge speed was the main factor affecting heat generation, while in the steady state welding stage, the rotation speed played a more important role. The FPPW weld defect includes flash and incomplete penetration in the upper, middle and bottom interface with the substrate. To obtain defect free weld, the higher rotation speed and proper plunge depth were recommended.

Keywords: friction push plug welding, process parameter, weld defect, orthogonal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1230 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan


This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
1229 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
1228 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin


This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.

Keywords: CAM, multi-axis milling machining, transformation matrix, rotation angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1227 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade


Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, density, plastic fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1226 Morpho-Anatomical Responses of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown with Different Colored Plastic Mulch

Authors: Edmar N. Franquera, Renato C. Mabesa, Rene Rafael C. Espino, Edralina P. Serrano, Eduardo P. Paningbatan Jr.


The potential of growing lettuce with different colored plastic mulch silver (control), red, orange, yellow and green was evaluated using two lettuce varieties, Looseleaf and Romaine. The experiment was laid out on split plot design following the Randomized Complete Block Design. The Looseleaf variety had better performance in terms of plant fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, root length, plant height and yield. However, better response was observed in Romaine in terms of leaf diameter, leaf length, root dry weight and root fresh weight. The color of the mulch reflected different qualities of light and hence the quality of absorbed light by the lettuce plants. A higher Far red and red ratio (FR:R) was obtained from green plastic mulch which was followed by the red plastic mulch. The different colored plastic mulch affected the growth and developmental responses of leaf lettuce morphological and leaf anatomical characteristics. Data in all growth morphological and yield parameters showed that those grown with red plastic mulch had better response and had longer stomates than those lettuce grown with the other colored plastic mulch. The soil temperature 10 cm below the plastic mulch was significantly influenced by the color of the mulch. The red plastic mulch had the highest soil temperature recorded while the lowest soil temperature recorded was within the yellow plastic mulch.

Keywords: anatomical, lettuce, morpholological, plastic mulch

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
1225 Relation between Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain and Hip Rotation

Authors: Mohamed M. Diab, Koura G. Mohamed, A. Balbaa, Radwan Sh. Ahamed


Background: Chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) is the most common complaint of the working-age population. Mechanical low back pain is often a chronic, dull, aching pain of varying intensity that affects the lower spine. In the current proposal the hip rotation-CMLBP relationship is based on that limited hip motion will be compensated by motion in the lumbopelvic region and this increase force translates to the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there a relationship between chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) and hip medial and lateral rotation (peak torque and Range of motion (ROM) in patients with CMLBP. Methods: Sixty patients with CMLBP diagnosed by an orthopedist participated in the current study after signing a consent form. Their mean of age was (23.76±2.39) years, mean of weight (71.8±12.7) (Kg), mean of height (169.65±7.49) (Cm) and mean of BMI (25.5±3.86) (Kg/m2). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain. Fluid Filled Inclinometer was used to measure Hip rotation ROM (medial and lateral). Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to measure peak torque of hip rotators muscles (medial and lateral), concentric peak torque with tow Isokinetic speeds (60ᵒ/sec and 180ᵒ/sec) was selected to measure peak torque. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is poor relationship between pain and hip external rotation ROM, also there is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotation ROM. There is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotators peak torque and hip external rotators peak torque in both speeds. Conclusion: Depending on the current study it is not recommended to give an importance to hip rotation in treating Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain.

Keywords: hip rotation ROM, hip rotators strength, low back pain, chronic mechanical

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