Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7767

Search results for: minimum remaining values (MRV)

7767 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
7766 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury

Abstract:

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
7765 Effects of Reclamation on Seasonal Dynamic of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in Suaeda salsa

Authors: Yajun Qiao, Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Shuqing An

Abstract:

In order to relieve the pressure on a land resource from a huge population, reclamation has occurred in many coastal wetlands. Plants can maintain their elemental composition within normal limits despite the variations of external conditions. Reclamation may affect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in the plant to some extent by altering physical and chemical properties of soil in a coastal wetland. We reported the seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in root, stem and leaf of Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and in soil between reclamation plots and natural plots. Our results of three-way ANOVA indicated that sampling season always had significant effect on C, N, P concentrations and their ratios; organ had no significant effect on N, P concentration and N:P; plot type had no significant effect on N concentration and C:N. Sampling season explained the most variability of tissue N and P contents, C:N, C:P and N:P, while it’s organ for C using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. By independent sample T-test, we found that reclamation affect more on C, N and P stoichiometry of stem than that of root or leaf on the whole. While there was no difference between reclamation plots and natural plots for soil in four seasons. For three organs, C concentration had peak values in autumn and minimum values in spring while N concentration had peak values in spring and minimum values in autumn. For P concentration, three organs all had peak values in spring; however, the root had minimum value in winter, the stem had that in autumn, and leaf had that in summer. The seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in a leaf of Suaeda salsa were much steadier than that in root or stem under the drive of reclamation.

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, reclamation, seasonal dynamic, Suaeda salsa

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7764 The Hall Coefficient and Magnetoresistance in Rectangular Quantum Wires with Infinitely High Potential under the Influence of a Laser Radiation

Authors: Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The Hall Coefficient (HC) and the Magnetoresistance (MR) have been studied in two-dimensional systems. The HC and the MR in Rectangular Quantum Wire (RQW) subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field in the presence of a Strong Electromagnetic Wave (EMW) characterized by electric field are studied in this work. Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with optical phonons, we obtain the analytic expressions for the HC and the MR with a dependence on magnetic field, EMW frequency, temperatures of systems and the length characteristic parameters of RQW. These expressions are different from those obtained for bulk semiconductors and cylindrical quantum wires. The analytical results are applied to GaAs/GaAs/Al. For this material, MR depends on the ratio of the EMW frequency to the cyclotron frequency. Indeed, MR reaches a minimum at the ratio 5/4, and when this ratio increases, it tends towards a saturation value. The HC can take negative or positive values. Each curve has one maximum and one minimum. When magnetic field increases, the HC is negative, achieves a minimum value and then increases suddenly to a maximum with a positive value. This phenomenon differs from the one observed in cylindrical quantum wire, which does not have maximum and minimum values.

Keywords: hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation

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7763 Comparative Evaluation of Vanishing Interfacial Tension Approach for Minimum Miscibility Pressure Determination

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi

Abstract:

Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) plays a great role in determining the displacement efficiency of different gas injection processes. Experimental techniques for MMP determination include industrially recommended slim tube, vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) and rising bubble apparatus (RBA). In this paper, MMP measurement study using slim tube and VIT experimental techniques for two different crude oil samples (M and N) both in live and stock tank oil forms is being presented. VIT measured MMP values for both 'M' and 'N' live crude oils were close to slim tube determined MMP values with 6.4 and 5 % deviation respectively. Whereas for both oil samples in stock tank oil form, VIT measured MMP showed a higher unacceptable deviation from slim tube determined MMP. This higher difference appears to be related to high stabilized crude oil heavier fraction and lack of multiple contacts miscibility. None of the different nine deployed crude oil and CO2 MMP computing correlations could result in reliable MMP, close to slim tube determined MMP. Since VIT determined MMP values for both considered live crude oils are in close match with slim tube determined MMP values, it confirms reliable, reproducible, rapid and cheap alternative for live crude oil MMP determination. Whereas VIT MMP determination for stock tank oil case needed further investigation about stabilization / destabilization mechanism of oil heavier ends and multiple contacts miscibility development issues.

Keywords: minimum miscibility pressure, interfacial tension, multiple contacts miscibility, heavier ends

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
7762 Fire Safety Engineering of Wood Dust Layer or Cloud

Authors: Marzena Półka, Bożena Kukfisz

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of dust explosion hazards in the process industries. It includes selected testing method of dust explosibility and presentation two of them according to experimental standards used by Department of Combustion and Fire Theory in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the article are presented values of maximum acceptable surface temperature (MAST) of machines operating in the presence of dust cloud and chosen dust layer with thickness of 5 and 12,5mm. The comparative analysis, points to the conclusion that the value of the minimum ignition temperature of the layer (MITL) and the minimum ignition temperature of dust cloud (MTCD) depends on the granularity of the substance. Increasing the thickness of the dust layer reduces minimum ignition temperature of dust layer. Increasing the thickness of dust at the same time extends the flameless combustion and delays the ignition.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, industrial hazards, minimum ignition temperature, wood dust

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7761 Values Education in Military Schools and Işıklar Air Force High School Sample

Authors: Mehmet Eren Çelik

Abstract:

Values are notions that help people to decide what is good or not and to direct their attitude. Teaching values has always been very important throughout the history. Values should be thought in younger ages to get more efficiency. Therefore military schools are the last stop to learn values effectively. That’s why values education in military schools has vital importance. In this study the military side of values education is examined. The purpose of the study is to show how important values education is and why military students need values education. First of all what value is and what values education means is clearly explained and values education in schools and specifically in military schools is stated. Then values education in Işıklar Air Force High School exemplifies the given information.

Keywords: Işıklar Air Force High School, military school, values, values education

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7760 Analysis of Temporal Factors Influencing Minimum Dwell Time Distributions

Authors: T. Pedersen, A. Lindfeldt

Abstract:

The minimum dwell time is an important part of railway timetable planning. Due to its stochastic behaviour, the minimum dwell time should be considered to create resilient timetables. While there has been significant focus on how to determine and estimate dwell times, to our knowledge, little research has been carried out regarding temporal and running direction variations of these. In this paper, we examine how the minimum dwell time varies depending on temporal factors such as the time of day, day of the week and time of the year. We also examine how it is affected by running direction and station type. The minimum dwell time is estimated by means of track occupation data. A method is proposed to ensure that only minimum dwell times and not planned dwell times are acquired from the track occupation data. The results show that on an aggregated level, the average minimum dwell times in both running directions at a station are similar. However, when temporal factors are considered, there are significant variations. The minimum dwell time varies throughout the day with peak hours having the longest dwell times. It is also found that the minimum dwell times are influenced by weekday, and in particular, weekends are found to have lower minimum dwell times than most other days. The findings show that there is a potential to significantly improve timetable planning by taking minimum dwell time variations into account.

Keywords: minimum dwell time, operations quality, timetable planning, track occupation data

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7759 Influence of the Molar Concentration and Substrate Temperature on Fluorine-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Chemically Sprayed

Authors: J. Ramirez, A. Maldonado, M. de la L. Olvera

Abstract:

The effect of both the molar concentration of the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the electrical, morphological, structural and optical properties of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on glass substrates, is analyzed in this work. All the starting solutions employed were aged for ten days before the deposition. The results show that as the molar concentration increases, a decrease in the electrical resistivity values is obtained, reaching the minimum in films deposited from a 0.4 M solution at 500°C. A further increase in the molar concentration leads to a very slight increase in the resistivity. On the other hand, as the substrate temperature is increased, the resistivity decreases and a tendency towards to minimum value is evidenced; taking the molar concentration as parameter, minimum values are reached at 500°C. The attain of ZnO:F thin films, with a resistivity as low as 7.8×10-3 Ώcm (sheet resistance of 130 Ώ/☐ and film thickness of 600 nm) measured in as-deposited films is reported here for the first time. The concurrent effect of the high molar concentration of the starting solution, the substrate temperature values used, and the ageing of the starting solution, which might cause polymerization of the zinc ions with the fluorine species, enhance the electrical properties. The structure of the films is polycrystalline, with a (002) preferential growth. Molar concentration rules the surface morphology as at low concentration an hexagonal and porous structure is developed changing to a uniform compact and small grain size surface in the films deposited with the high molar concentrations.

Keywords: zinc oxide, chemical spray, thin films, TCO

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7758 Design and Performance Analysis of Resource Management Algorithms in Response to Emergency and Disaster Situations

Authors: Volkan Uygun, H. Birkan Yilmaz, Tuna Tugcu

Abstract:

This study focuses on the development and use of algorithms that address the issue of resource management in response to emergency and disaster situations. The presented system, named Disaster Management Platform (DMP), takes the data from the data sources of service providers and distributes the incoming requests accordingly both to manage load balancing and minimize service time, which results in improved user satisfaction. Three different resource management algorithms, which give different levels of importance to load balancing and service time, are proposed for the study. The first one is the Minimum Distance algorithm, which assigns the request to the closest resource. The second one is the Minimum Load algorithm, which assigns the request to the resource with the minimum load. Finally, the last one is the Hybrid algorithm, which combines the previous two approaches. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated with respect to waiting time, success ratio, and maximum load ratio. The metrics are monitored from simulations, to find the optimal scheme for different loads. Two different simulations are performed in the study, one is time-based and the other is lambda-based. The results indicate that, the Minimum Load algorithm is generally the best in all metrics whereas the Minimum Distance algorithm is the worst in all cases and in all metrics. The leading position in performance is switched between the Minimum Distance and the Hybrid algorithms, as lambda values change.

Keywords: emergency and disaster response, resource management algorithm, disaster situations, disaster management platform

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7757 A Compared Approach between Moderate Islamic Values and Basic Human Values

Authors: Adel Bessadok

Abstract:

The theory of values postulates that each human has a set of values, or attractive and trans-situational goals, that drive their actions. The Basic Human Values as an incentive construct that apprehends human's values have been shown to govern a wide range of human behaviors. Individuals within and within societies have very different value preferences that reflect their enculturation, their personal experiences, their social places and their genetic heritage. Using a focus group composed by Islamic religious Preachers and a sample of 800 young students; this ongoing study will establish Moderate Islamic Values parameters. We analyze later, for the same students sample the difference between Moderate Islamic Values and Schwartz’s Basic Human Values. Keywords—Moderate Islamic Values, Basic Human Values, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

Keywords: moderate Islamic values, basic human values, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis

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7756 Remaining Useful Life (RUL) Assessment Using Progressive Bearing Degradation Data and ANN Model

Authors: Amit R. Bhende, G. K. Awari

Abstract:

Remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is one of key technologies to realize prognostics and health management that is being widely applied in many industrial systems to ensure high system availability over their life cycles. The present work proposes a data-driven method of RUL prediction based on multiple health state assessment for rolling element bearings. Bearing degradation data at three different conditions from run to failure is used. A RUL prediction model is separately built in each condition. Feed forward back propagation neural network models are developed for prediction modeling.

Keywords: bearing degradation data, remaining useful life (RUL), back propagation, prognosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
7755 Nonlinear Evolution on Graphs

Authors: Benniche Omar

Abstract:

We are concerned with abstract fully nonlinear differential equations having the form y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)) where A is an m—dissipative operator (possibly multi—valued) defined on a subset D(A) of a Banach space X with values in X and f is a given function defined on I×X with values in X. We consider a graph K in I×X. We recall that K is said to be viable with respect to the above abstract differential equation if for each initial data in K there exists at least one trajectory starting from that initial data and remaining in K at least for a short time. The viability problem has been studied by many authors by using various techniques and frames. If K is closed, it is shown that a tangency condition, which is mainly linked to the dynamic, is crucial for viability. In the case when X is infinite dimensional, compactness and convexity assumptions are needed. In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of near viability for a given graph K with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)). Roughly speaking, the graph K is said to be near viable with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)), if for each initial data in K there exists at least one trajectory remaining arbitrary close to K at least for short time. It is interesting to note that the near viability is equivalent to an appropriate tangency condition under mild assumptions on the dynamic. Adding natural convexity and compactness assumptions on the dynamic, we may recover the (exact) viability. Here we investigate near viability for a graph K in I×X with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)) where A and f are as above. We emphasis that the t—dependence on the perturbation f leads us to introduce a new tangency concept. In the base of a tangency conditions expressed in terms of that tangency concept, we formulate criteria for K to be near viable with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)). As application, an abstract null—controllability theorem is given.

Keywords: abstract differential equation, graph, tangency condition, viability

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7754 Agreement between Basal Metabolic Rate Measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Estimated by Prediction Equations in Obese Groups

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is widely used and an accepted measure of energy expenditure. Its principal determinant is body mass. However, this parameter is also correlated with a variety of other factors. The objective of this study is to measure BMR and compare it with the values obtained from predictive equations in adults classified according to their body mass index (BMI) values. 276 adults were included into the scope of this study. Their age, height and weight values were recorded. Five groups were designed based on their BMI values. First group (n = 85) was composed of individuals with BMI values varying between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2. Those with BMI values varying from 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 constituted Group 2 (n = 90). Individuals with 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, 35.0-39.9 kg/m2, > 40.0 kg/m2 were included in Group 3 (n = 53), 4 (n = 28) and 5 (n = 20), respectively. The most commonly used equations to be compared with the measured BMR values were selected. For this purpose, the values were calculated by the use of four equations to predict BMR values, by name, introduced by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations University (UNU), Harris and Benedict, Owen and Mifflin. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, post-Hoc Tukey and Pearson’s correlation tests were performed by a statistical program designed for Windows (SPSS, version 16.0). p values smaller than 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Mean ± SD of groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for measured BMR in kcal were 1440.3 ± 210.0, 1618.8 ± 268.6, 1741.1 ± 345.2, 1853.1 ± 351.2 and 2028.0 ± 412.1, respectively. Upon evaluation of the comparison of means among groups, differences were highly significant between Group 1 and each of the remaining four groups. The values were increasing from Group 2 to Group 5. However, differences between Group 2 and Group 3, Group 3 and Group 4, Group 4 and Group 5 were not statistically significant. These insignificances were lost in predictive equations proposed by Harris and Benedict, FAO/WHO/UNU and Owen. For Mifflin, the insignificance was limited only to Group 4 and Group 5. Upon evaluation of the correlations of measured BMR and the estimated values computed from prediction equations, the lowest correlations between measured BMR and estimated BMR values were observed among the individuals within normal BMI range. The highest correlations were detected in individuals with BMI values varying between 30.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. Correlations between measured BMR values and BMR values calculated by FAO/WHO/UNU as well as Owen were the same and the highest. In all groups, the highest correlations were observed between BMR values calculated from Mifflin and Harris and Benedict equations using age as an additional parameter. In conclusion, the unique resemblance of the FAO/WHO/UNU and Owen equations were pointed out. However, mean values obtained from FAO/WHO/UNU were much closer to the measured BMR values. Besides, the highest correlations were found between BMR calculated from FAO/WHO/UNU and measured BMR. These findings suggested that FAO/WHO/UNU was the most reliable equation, which may be used in conditions when the measured BMR values are not available.

Keywords: adult, basal metabolic rate, fao/who/unu, obesity, prediction equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
7753 A Kruskal Based Heuxistic for the Application of Spanning Tree

Authors: Anjan Naidu

Abstract:

In this paper we first discuss the minimum spanning tree, then we use the Kruskal algorithm to obtain minimum spanning tree. Based on Kruskal algorithm we propose Kruskal algorithm to apply an application to find minimum cost applying the concept of spanning tree.

Keywords: Minimum Spanning tree, algorithm, Heuxistic, application, classification of Sub 97K90

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7752 Determining Best Fitting Distributions for Minimum Flows of Streams in Gediz Basin

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan

Abstract:

Today, the need for water sources is swiftly increasing due to population growth. At the same time, it is known that some regions will face with shortage of water and drought because of the global warming and climate change. In this context, evaluation and analysis of hydrological data such as the observed trends, drought and flood prediction of short term flow has great deal of importance. The most accurate selection probability distribution is important to describe the low flow statistics for the studies related to drought analysis. As in many basins In Turkey, Gediz River basin will be affected enough by the drought and will decrease the amount of used water. The aim of this study is to derive appropriate probability distributions for frequency analysis of annual minimum flows at 6 gauging stations of the Gediz Basin. After applying 10 different probability distributions, six different parameter estimation methods and 3 fitness test, the Pearson 3 distribution and general extreme values distributions were found to give optimal results.

Keywords: Gediz Basin, goodness-of-fit tests, minimum flows, probability distribution

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7751 Challenging the Constitutionality of Mandatory Sentences: A South African Perspective

Authors: Alphonso Goliath

Abstract:

With mandatory minimum sentences, even with its qualification of “substantial and compelling circumstances”, the sentence severity for violent crimes has increased substantially to combat crime. Considering the upsurge in violent crime, the paper argues that minimum sentences failed to prevent or curb violent crime. These sentences deprive offenders more than what is reasonably necessary of their freedom to curb the offense and punish the offender. Minimum sentences amount to cruel, inhuman, and degrading punishment unjustified and vulnerable to constitutional challenge.

Keywords: constitutionality, deterrence, incapacitation, minimum sentencing legislation, prison overcrowding, rehabilitation, recidivism, retribution, violent crime

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7750 Meteorological Effect on Exergetic and Exergoeconomics Parameters of a Wind Turbine

Authors: Muhammad Abid

Abstract:

In this study, we performed the comparative exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses of a wind turbine over a period of twelve months from 1st January to 30th December 2011. The turbine is part of a wind-PV hybrid system with hydrogen storage, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The rated power output from this turbine is 1.7 W with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and cut-in/cut-out wind speeds of 3/14 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine exergy efficiencies and their relation with meteorological variables, such as temperature and density. We also calculate exergoeconomic parameter R ̇_ex and its dependence on the temperature, using the average values for twelve months of the year considered for comparison purposes. The exergy efficiency changes from 0.12 to 0.31 while the density varies between 1.31 and 1.2 kg/m3 for different temperature values. The R ̇_ex has minimum and maximum values of 0.02 and 0.81, respectively, while the temperature is in the range of 8-24°C for various wind velocity values.

Keywords: exergy, efficiency, renewable energy, wind energy, meteorological variables

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7749 On the Basis Number and the Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Paths with Wheels

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat

Abstract:

For a given graph G, the set Ԑ of all subsets of E(G) forms an |E(G)| dimensional vector space over Z2 with vector addition X⊕Y = (X\Y ) [ (Y \X) and scalar multiplication 1.X = X and 0.X = Ø for all X, Yϵ Ԑ. The cycle space, C(G), of a graph G is the vector subspace of (E; ⊕; .) spanned by the cycles of G. Traditionally there have been two notions of minimality among bases of C(G). First, a basis B of G is called a d-fold if each edge of G occurs in at most d cycles of the basis B. The basis number, b(G), of G is the least non-negative integer d such that C(G) has a d-fold basis; a required basis of C(G) is a basis for which each edge of G belongs to at most b(G) elements of B. Second, a basis B is called a minimum cycle basis (MCB) if its total length Σ BϵB |B| is minimum among all bases of C(G). The lexicographic product GρH has the vertex set V (GρH) = V (G) x V (H) and the edge set E(GρH) = {(u1, v1)(u2, v2)|u1 = u2 and v1 v2 ϵ E(H); or u1u2 ϵ E(G) and there is α ϵ Aut(H) such that α (v1) = v2}. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with paths is presented. Also, the length of the longest cycle of a minimum cycle basis is determined. Moreover, the basis number for the wreath product of the same is investigated.

Keywords: cycle space, minimum cycle basis, basis number, wreath product

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
7748 South African Mandatory Minimum Sentencing: Causes and Consequences

Authors: Alphonso Augustine Goliath

Abstract:

In 1997 South Africa adopted legislation introducing severe mandatory minimum sentences. This was a political response to counter the escalating violent crime the country experienced when it transitioned to democracy. Despite minimum sentences being fully operational for more than two decades, violent crimes like murder and rape have not abated. This paper provides a critique of the efficacy of minimums sentences with a primary focus on the legislation’s main aim of preventing or curbing crime, its relationship with prison overcrowding, and its continued constitutionality.

Keywords: constitutionality, deterrence, incapacitation, minimum sentencing legislation, prison overcrowding, rehabilitation, recidivism, retribution, violent crime

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7747 Minimum Half Power Beam Width and Side Lobe Level Reduction of Linear Antenna Array Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Saeed Ur Rahman, Naveed Ullah, Muhammad Irshad Khan, Quensheng Cao, Niaz Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

In this paper the optimization performance of non-uniform linear antenna array is presented. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to minimize Side Lobe Level (SLL) and Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW). The purpose of using the PSO algorithm is to get the optimum values for inter-element spacing and excitation amplitude of linear antenna array that provides a radiation pattern with minimum SLL and HPBW. Various design examples are considered and the obtain results using PSO are confirmed by comparing with results achieved using other nature inspired metaheuristic algorithms such as real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and biogeography (BBO) algorithm. The comparative results show that optimization of linear antenna array using the PSO provides considerable enhancement in the SLL and HPBW.

Keywords: linear antenna array, minimum side lobe level, narrow half power beamwidth, particle swarm optimization

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7746 Comparison of the Effect of Feldspathic Porcelain and Zirconia on Natural Tooth Wear

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Enamel wear is among the main disadvantages of ceramic restorations. Recently, use of full zirconia crowns without dental porcelain has been suggested. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feldspathic porcelain and zirconia on the wear of natural teeth. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 22 zirconia specimens were fabricated; out of which, 11 specimens were polished and used as zirconia specimens while the remaining 11 were used to fabricate porcelain specimens. A total of 22 natural human teeth were also collected. The natural teeth were photographed by a stereomicroscope in a fixed position and the distance from the cusp tip to a reference point was measured. Next, 11 teeth opposed zirconia and the remaining 11 opposed porcelain specimens in a chewing simulator and subjected to 120,000 masticatory cycles. The teeth were photographed again and the greatest difference between the before and after values was recorded. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) wear rate was 153.8±95.68 and 306.3±127.74, in the zirconia and porcelain groups, respectively; and the two groups had a statistically significant difference in this respect (P=0.007). Conclusion: The mean wear was significantly lower in teeth opposing zirconia than in those opposing feldspathic porcelain.

Keywords: natural tooth wear, feldspathic porcelain, zirconia, effect

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7745 Minimum Data of a Speech Signal as Special Indicators of Identification in Phonoscopy

Authors: Nazaket Gazieva

Abstract:

Voice biometric data associated with physiological, psychological and other factors are widely used in forensic phonoscopy. There are various methods for identifying and verifying a person by voice. This article explores the minimum speech signal data as individual parameters of a speech signal. Monozygotic twins are believed to be genetically identical. Using the minimum data of the speech signal, we came to the conclusion that the voice imprint of monozygotic twins is individual. According to the conclusion of the experiment, we can conclude that the minimum indicators of the speech signal are more stable and reliable for phonoscopic examinations.

Keywords: phonogram, speech signal, temporal characteristics, fundamental frequency, biometric fingerprints

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7744 Develop a Software to Hydraulic Redesign a Depropanizer Column to Minimize Energy Consumption

Authors: Mahdi Goharrokhi, Rasool Shiri, Eiraj Naser

Abstract:

A depropanizer column of a particular refinery was redesigned in this work. That is, minimum reflux ratio, minimum number of trays, feed tray location and the hydraulic characteristics of the tower were calculated and compared with the actual values of the existing tower. To Design review of the tower, fundamental equations were used to develop software which its results were compared with two commercial software results. In each case PR EOS was used. Based on the total energy consumption in reboiler and condenser, feed tray location was also determined using case study definition for tower.

Keywords: column, hydraulic design, pressure drop, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
7743 Brain Tumor Segmentation Based on Minimum Spanning Tree

Authors: Simeon Mayala, Ida Herdlevær, Jonas Bull Haugsøen, Shamundeeswari Anandan, Sonia Gavasso, Morten Brun

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a minimum spanning tree-based method for segmenting brain tumors. The proposed method performs interactive segmentation based on the minimum spanning tree without tuning parameters. The steps involve preprocessing, making a graph, constructing a minimum spanning tree, and a newly implemented way of interactively segmenting the region of interest. In the preprocessing step, a Gaussian filter is applied to 2D images to remove the noise. Then, the pixel neighbor graph is weighted by intensity differences and the corresponding minimum spanning tree is constructed. The image is loaded in an interactive window for segmenting the tumor. The region of interest and the background are selected by clicking to split the minimum spanning tree into two trees. One of these trees represents the region of interest and the other represents the background. Finally, the segmentation given by the two trees is visualized. The proposed method was tested by segmenting two different 2D brain T1-weighted magnetic resonance image data sets. The comparison between our results and the standard gold segmentation confirmed the validity of the minimum spanning tree approach. The proposed method is simple to implement and the results indicate that it is accurate and efficient.

Keywords: brain tumor, brain tumor segmentation, minimum spanning tree, segmentation, image processing

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7742 Value Analysis of Islamic Banking and Conventional Banking to Measure Value Co-Creation

Authors: Amna Javed, Hisashi Masuda, Youji Kohda

Abstract:

This study examines the value analysis in Islamic and conventional banking services in Pakistan. Many scholars have focused on co-creation of values in services but mainly economic values not non-economic. As Islamic banking is based on Islamic principles that are more concerned with non-economic values (well-being, partnership, fairness, trust worthy, and justice) than economic values as money in terms of interest. This study is important to know the providers point of view about the co-created values, because, it may be more sustainable and appropriate for today’s unpredictable socioeconomic environment. Data were collected from 4 banks (2 Islamic and 2 conventional banks). Text mining technique is applied for data analysis, and values with 100% occurrences in Islamic banking are chosen. The results reflect that Islamic banking is more centric towards non-economic values than economic values and it promotes team work and partnership concept by applying Islamic spirit and trust worthiness concept.

Keywords: economic values, Islamic banking, non-economic values, value system

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
7741 Vector Quantization Based on Vector Difference Scheme for Image Enhancement

Authors: Biji Jacob

Abstract:

Vector quantization algorithm which uses minimum distance calculation for codebook generation, a time consuming calculation performed on each pixel values leads to computation complexity. The codebook is updated by comparing the distance of each vector to their centroid vector and measure for their closeness. In this paper vector quantization is modified based on vector difference algorithm for image enhancement purpose. In the proposed scheme, vector differences between the vectors are considered as the new generation vectors or new codebook vectors. The codebook is updated by comparing the new generation vector with a threshold value having minimum error with the parent vector. The minimum error decides the fitness of each newly generated vector. Thus the codebook is generated in an adaptive manner and the fitness value is determined for the suppression of the degraded portion of the image and thereby leads to the enhancement of the image through the adaptive searching capability of the vector quantization through vector difference algorithm. Experimental results shows that the vector difference scheme efficiently modifies the vector quantization algorithm for enhancing the image with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), Euclidean distance (E_dist) as the performance parameters.

Keywords: codebook, image enhancement, vector difference, vector quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
7740 GIS-Based Topographical Network for Minimum “Exertion” Routing

Authors: Katherine Carl Payne, Moshe Dror

Abstract:

The problem of minimum cost routing has been extensively explored in a variety of contexts. While there is a prevalence of routing applications based on least distance, time, and related attributes, exertion-based routing has remained relatively unexplored. In particular, the network structures traditionally used to construct minimum cost paths are not suited to representing exertion or finding paths of least exertion based on road gradient. In this paper, we introduce a topographical network or “topograph” that enables minimum cost routing based on the exertion metric on each arc in a given road network as it is related to changes in road gradient. We describe an algorithm for topograph construction and present the implementation of the topograph on a road network of the state of California with ~22 million nodes.

Keywords: topograph, RPE, routing, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
7739 Improved FP-Growth Algorithm with Multiple Minimum Supports Using Maximum Constraints

Authors: Elsayeda M. Elgaml, Dina M. Ibrahim, Elsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Association rule mining is one of the most important fields of data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiple support frequent pattern growth algorithm which we called “MSFP-growth” that enhancing the FP-growth algorithm by making infrequent child node pruning step with multiple minimum support using maximum constrains. The algorithm is implemented, and it is compared with other common algorithms: Apriori-multiple minimum supports using maximum constraints and FP-growth. The experimental results show that the rule mining from the proposed algorithm are interesting and our algorithm achieved better performance than other algorithms without scarifying the accuracy.

Keywords: association rules, FP-growth, multiple minimum supports, Weka tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
7738 Values That Should Be Taken into Account in the Arts: The Tension between Economic Influences and Cultural Values

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

Recently the two matters of how to evaluate art and what the influencing economic effects on cultural values are have attracted many researchers to investigate them. Therefore, in the present article the researcher made an attempt to answer the above questions. However, the fundamental distinction between this article and the other ones is in comparing the economic value (shown by monetary phrases) with cultural values (that reflects the aesthetic values and the importance of the artist). This article shows a different and trivial distinction that has a very clearly pivotal significance in the process of cultural policy making. The economic activities would be influenced when there are cultural values. The increase of commercial activities is measured by impact assessment. In other words, the value of culture is reflected in the satisfaction of the users of cultural activities. This kind of value is measured by “willingness to pay” researches. The researcher believes that these two values are dominant in the cultural policy but they include many aspects and are presented by different kinds of communities.

Keywords: economic influence, cultural values, monetary phrases, aesthetic values

Procedia PDF Downloads 317