Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1448

Search results for: cobalt manganese oxide

1448 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif


The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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1447 Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Bahadoran, M. Zomorodian


The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.

Keywords: cobalt oxide nano balls, carbon aerogel, synthesize, nanostructure

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1446 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese-Cobalt Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Vasko Idakiev, Tatyana Tabakova, Krasimir Ivanov


Formaldehyde production by selective oxidation of methanol is an important industrial process. The main by-products in the waste gas are CO and dimethyl ether (DME). The idea of this study is to combine the advantages of both Cu-Mn and Cu-Co catalytic systems by obtaining a new mixed Cu-Mn-Co catalyst with high activity and selectivity at the simultaneous oxidation of CO, methanol, and DME. Two basic Cu-Mn samples with high activity were selected for further investigation: (i) manganese-rich Cu-Mn/γ–Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5 and (ii) copper-rich Cu-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 2:1. Manganese in these samples was replaced by cobalt in the whole concentration region, and catalytic properties were determined. The results show a general trend of decreasing the activity toward DME oxidation and increasing the activity toward CO and methanol oxidation with the increase of cobalt up to 60% for both groups of catalyst. This general trend, however, contains specific features, depending on the composition of the catalyst and the nature of the oxidized gas. The catalytic activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 2:1 is gradually changed with increasing the cobalt content. The activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 1: 5 passes through a maximum at 60% manganese replacement by cobalt, probably due to the formation of highly dispersed Co-based spinel structures (Co3O4 and/or MnCo2O4). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, methanol and DME oxidation. Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio 1:5 and Co/Mn molar ratio 1.5 in the active component can ensure successful oxidation of CO, CH3OH and DME. The active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds - CuO, Co3O4, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, MnCo2O4 and CuCo2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Co molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this effect being quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Co catalysts, oxidation, carbon oxide, VOCs

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1445 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar


The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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1444 Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Cobalt, Nickel, Lithium, and Manganese from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: E. K. Hardwick, L. B. Siwela, J. G. Falconer, M. E. Mathibela, W. Rolfe


Lithium-ion battery (LiB) demand has increased with the advancement in technologies. The applications include electric vehicles, cell phones, laptops, and many more devices. Typical components of the cathodes include lithium, cobalt, nickel, and manganese. Recycling the spent LiBs is necessary to reduce the ecological footprint of their production and use and to have a secondary source of valuable metals. A hydrometallurgical method was investigated for the recovery of cobalt and nickel from LiB cathodes. The cathodes were leached using a chloride solution. Ion exchange was then used to recover the chloro-complexes of the metals. The aim of the research was to determine the efficiency of a chloride leach, as well as ion exchange operating capacities that can be achieved for LiB recycling, and to establish the optimal operating conditions (ideal pH, temperature, leachate and eluant, flowrate, and reagent concentrations) for the recovery of the cathode metals. It was found that the leaching of the cathodes could be hindered by the formation of refractory metal oxides of cathode components. A reducing agent was necessary to improve the leaching rate and efficiency. Leaching was achieved using various chloride-containing solutions. The chloro-complexes were absorbed by the ion exchange resin and eluted to produce concentrated cobalt, nickel, lithium, and manganese streams. Chromatographic separation of these elements was achieved. Further work is currently underway to determine the optimal operating conditions for the recovery by ion exchange.

Keywords: cobalt, ion exchange, leachate formation, lithium-ion batteries, manganese, nickel

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1443 Study on the Controlled Growth of Lanthanum Hydroxide and Manganese Oxide Nano Composite under the Presence of Cationic Surfactant

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Verma


Lanthanum hydroxide and manganese oxide nanocomposite are synthesized by chemical routes. Physical characterization is done by TEM to look at the size and dispersion of the nanoparticles in the composite. Chemical characterization is done by X-ray diffraction technique and FTIR to ascertain the attachment of the functionalities and bond stretching. Further thermal analysis is done by thermogravimetric analysis to find the tendency of the thermal decomposition in the elevated temperature range of 0-1000°C. Proper analysis and correlation of the various results obtained suggested the controlled growth of crystalline without agglomeration and good stability in the various temperature ranges of the composite.

Keywords: nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, lanthanum hydroxide, manganese oxide

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1442 Reduction Behavior of Medium Grade Manganese Ore from Karangnunggal during a Sintering Process in Methane Gas

Authors: H. Aripin, I. Made Joni, Edvin Priatna, Nundang Busaeri, Svilen Sabchevski


In this investigation, manganese has been produced from medium grade manganese ore from Karangnunggal mine (West Java, Indonesia). The ores were grinded using a jar mill to pass through a 150 mesh sieve. The effects of keeping it at a temperature of 1200 °C in methane gas on the structural properties have been studied. The material’s properties have been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It has been found that the ore contains MnO₂ as the main constituents at about 46.80 wt.%. It can be also observed that the ore particles are agglomerated forming dense grains with different texture and morphology. The irregular-shaped grains with dark contrast, the large brighter grains, and smaller grains with bright texture and smooth surfaces are associated with the presence of manganese, calcium, and quartz, respectively. From XRD patterns, MnO₂ is reduced to hausmannite (Mn₃O₄), manganosite (MnO) and manganese carbide (Mn₇C₃). At a temperature of 1200°C the keeping time does not have any effect on the formation of crystals and the crystalline phases remain almost unchanged in the time range from 15 to 90 minutes. An increase of the keeping time up to 45 minutes during the sintering process leads to an increase of the MnO concentration, while at 90 minutes, the concentration decreases. At longer keeping times the excess reaction of the methane gas and manganese oxide in the ore causes an increase of carbon deposition. As a result, it blocks the particle surface and then hinders the reduction process of manganese oxide. From FTIR spectrum allows one to explain that the appearance of C=O stretching mode arises from absorption of atmospheric methane and manganese oxide of the ore. The intensity of this band increases with increasing the keeping time, indicating an increase of carbon deposition on the surface of manganese oxide.

Keywords: manganese, medium grade manganese ore, structural properties, keeping the temperature, carbon deposition

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1441 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng


This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

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1440 Synergistic Extraction Study of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat


The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm-3 TOPO in chloroform. From an synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

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1439 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer


Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2, and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: bilirubin oxidase, enzymatic fuel cell, glucose oxidase, nanoparticles

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1438 Effect of Nanoparticles Concentration, pH and Agitation on Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743: An Optimization Study

Authors: Adeyemi Isaac Sanusi, Gueguim E. B. Kana


Nanoparticles have received attention of the scientific community due to their biotechnological potentials. They exhibit advantageous size, shape and concentration-dependent catalytic, stabilizing, immunoassays and immobilization properties. This study investigates the impact of metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743. Nine different nanoparticles were synthesized using precipitation method and microwave treatment. The nanoparticles synthesized were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fermentation processes were carried out at varied NPs concentrations (0 – 0.08 wt%). Highest ethanol concentrations were achieved after 24 h using Cobalt NPs (5.07 g/l), Copper NPs (4.86 g/l) and Manganese NPs (4.74 g/l) at 0.01 wt% NPs concentrations, which represent 13%, 8.7% and 5.4% increase respectively over the control (4.47 g/l). The lowest ethanol concentration (0.17 g/l) was obtained when 0.08 wt% of Silver NPs was used. And lower ethanol concentrations were observed at higher NPs concentration. Ethanol concentration decrease after 24 h for all the processes. In all set up with NPs, the pH was observed to be stable and the stability was directly proportional to nanoparticles concentrations. These findings suggest that the presence of some of the NPs in the bioprocesses has catalytic and pH stabilizing potential. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743 was enhanced in the presence of Cobalt NPs, Copper NPs and Manganese NPs. Optimization study using response surface methodology (RSM) will further elucidate the impact of these nanoparticles on bioethanol production.

Keywords: agitation, bioethanol, nanoparticles concentration, optimization, pH value

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1437 Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Oxide and Cu-Doped Cobalt Oxide as Photocatalyst for Model Dye Degradation

Authors: Vrinda P. S. Borker


Major water pollutants are dyes from effluents of industries. Different methods have been tried to degrade or treat the effluent before it is left to the environment. In order to understand the degradation process and later apply it to effluents, solar degradation study of methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR), the model dyes was carried out in the presence of photo-catalysts, the oxides of cobalt oxide Co₃O₄, and copper doped cobalt oxides (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and (Co₀.₉₅Cu₀.₀₅)₃O₄. They were prepared from oxalate complex and hydrazinated oxalate complex of cobalt as well as mix metals, copper, and cobalt. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR. Complexes were decomposed to form oxides and were characterized by XRD. They were found to be monophasic. Solar degradation of MR and MB was carried out in presence of these oxides in acidic and basic medium. Degradation was faster in alkaline medium in the presence of Co₃O₄ obtained from hydrazinated oxalate. Doping of nanomaterial oxides modifies their characteristics. Doped cobalt oxides are found to photo-decolourise MR in alkaline media efficiently. In the absence of photocatalyst, solar degradation of alkaline MR does not occur. In acidic medium, MR is minimally decolorized even in the presence of photocatalysts. The industrial textile effluent contains chemicals like NaCl and Na₂CO₃ along with the unabsorbed dye. It is reported that these two chemicals hamper the degradation of dye. The chemicals like K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ are reported to enhance degradation. The solar degradation study of MB in presence of photocatalyst (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and these four chemicals reveals that presence of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ enhances degradation. It proves that H₂O₂ generates hydroxyl ions required for degradation of dye and the sulphate anion radical being strong oxidant attacks dye molecules leading to its fragmentation rapidly. Thus addition of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ during solar degradation in presence of (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ helps to break the organic moiety efficiently.

Keywords: cobalt oxides, Cu-doped cobalt oxides, H₂O₂ in dye degradation, photo-catalyst, solar dye degradation

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1436 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa


To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: polypyrrole, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity

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1435 Study of Receiving Opportunity of Water Soluble and Non-Ballast Micro Fertilizer on the Base of Manganese-Containing Materials

Authors: Marine Shavlakadze


From the raw material base existed in Georgia (manganese ores, manganese containing mud), particularly, within the point of view of production availability, especial interest is paid to micro- fertilizers containing manganese. As a result of conducted investigation, there was established receiving of such manganese containing materials on the basis of manganese raw-material base (ore, mud) existed in Georgia, which shall be able to maximally provide assimilation ability of manganese, as microelement, in the desired period of time. And also, determinant of effectiveness and competitiveness of received materials with new composition shall become high content (more than 30%) of microelements in them (in comparison with existed similar products), when the total sum of useful components presented in them (active i.e. assimilated) is more than 50-70%, i.e. received materials belong to the materials having low-ballast and functionally revealed possibilities.

Keywords: manganese, fertilizers, non-ballast, micro- fertilizers

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1434 Alumina Supported Copper-manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Georgi V. Avdeev, Tatyana T. Tabakova


In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best copper-manganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196 oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area&pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.

Keywords: supported copper-manganese catalysts, CO, VOCs oxidation, combustion of exhaust gases

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1433 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions

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1432 Comparative Evaluation of High Pure Mn3O4 Preparation Technique between the Conventional Process from Electrolytic Manganese and a Sustainable Approach Directly from Low-Grade Rhodochrosite

Authors: Fang Lian, Zefang Chenli, Laijun Ma, Lei Mao


Up to now, electrolytic process is a popular way to prepare Mn and MnO2 (EMD) with high purity. However, the conventional preparation process of manganese oxide such as Mn3O4 with high purity from electrolytic manganese metal is characterized by long production-cycle, high-pollution discharge and high energy consumption especially initially from low-grade rhodochrosite, the main resources for exploitation and applications in China. Moreover, Mn3O4 prepared from electrolytic manganese shows large particles, single morphology beyond the control and weak chemical activity. On the other hand, hydrometallurgical method combined with thermal decomposition, hydrothermal synthesis and sol-gel processes has been widely studied because of its high efficiency, low consumption and low cost. But the key problem in direct preparation of manganese oxide series from low-grade rhodochrosite is to remove completely the multiple impurities such as iron, silicon, calcium and magnesium. It is urgent to develop a sustainable approach to high pure manganese oxide series with character of short process, high efficiency, environmentally friendly and economical benefit. In our work, the preparation technique of high pure Mn3O4 directly from low-grade rhodochrosite ore (13.86%) was studied and improved intensively, including the effective leaching process and the short purifying process. Based on the same ion effect, the repeated leaching of rhodochrosite with sulfuric acid is proposed to improve the solubility of Mn2+ and inhibit the dissolution of the impurities Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, the repeated leaching process could make full use of sulfuric acid and lower the cost of the raw material. With the aid of theoretical calculation, Ba(OH)2 was chosen to adjust the pH value of manganese sulfate solution and BaF2 to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ completely in the process of purifying. Herein, the recovery ratio of manganese and removal ratio of the impurity were evaluated via chemical titration and ICP analysis, respectively. Comparison between conventional preparation technique from electrolytic manganese and a sustainable approach directly from low-grade rhodochrosite have also been done herein. The results demonstrate that the extraction ratio and the recovery ratio of manganese reached 94.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The heavy metal impurities has been decreased to less than 1ppm, and the content of calcium, magnesium and sodium has been decreased to less than 20ppm, which meet standards of high pure reagent for energy and electronic materials. In compare with conventional technique from electrolytic manganese, the power consumption has been reduced to ≤2000 kWh/t(product) in our short-process approach. Moreover, comprehensive recovery rate of manganese increases significantly, and the wastewater generated from our short-process approach contains low content of ammonia/ nitrogen about 500 mg/t(product) and no toxic emissions. Our study contributes to the sustainable application of low-grade manganese ore. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the National Science and Technology Support Program of China (No.2015BAB01B02) for financial support to the work.

Keywords: leaching, high purity, low-grade rhodochrosite, manganese oxide, purifying process, recovery ratio

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1431 Cobalt Ions Adsorption by Quartz and Illite and Calcite from Waste Water

Authors: Saad A. Aljlil


Adsorption of cobalt ions on quartz and illite and calcite from waste water was investigated. The effect of pH on the adsorption of cobalt ions was studied. The maximum capacities of cobalt ions of the three adsorbents increase with increasing cobalt solution temperature. The maximum capacities were (4.66) mg/g for quartz, (3.94) mg/g for illite, and (3.44) mg/g for calcite. The enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy for adsorption of cobalt ions on the three adsorbents were calculated. It was found that the adsorption process of the cobalt ions of the adsorbent was an endothermic process. consequently increasing the temperature causes the increase of the cobalt ions adsorption of the adsorbents. Therefore, the adsorption process is preferred at high temperature levels. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using Langmuir model, Freundlich model. The experimental data of cobalt ions of the adsorbents correlated well with Freundlich model.

Keywords: adsorption, Langmuir, Freundlich, quartz, illite, calcite, waste water

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1430 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptilolite by Ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto


Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.

Keywords: clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH

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1429 Designing Active Sites on Amicyanin Using Histidine S Plus Cobalt, and Measuring Their Functional Activity

Authors: Han-Bin Kim, Sooim Shin, Moonsung Choi


There is a growing interest in introducing a desired functional group on enzymes in the field of protein engineering. In here, various redox centers were newly created using histidine tag, which is widely used for protein purification, plus cobalt in one of cupredoxins, amicyanin. The coordination of Cobalt-His tag and reactivity of the Co²⁺ loaded His-tag also were characterized. 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tag were introduced on amicyanin by site-directed mutagenesis, and then Co²⁺ was loaded on each His-tagged amicyanin. The spectral changes at 330 nm corresponding to cobalt binding on His-tag site indicated the binding ratio of 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tag to cobalt as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 respectively. Based on kinetic studies of binding cobalt to 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tagged amicyanin, the nature of the sites was elucidated. In addition, internal electron transfer properties between Cu¹⁺ site and engineered site of amicyanin were determined. These results provide insight into improvement of metal coordination and alternation of the redox properties of metal as a new catalytic site on proteins.

Keywords: amicyanin, cobalt, histidine, protein engineering

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1428 Optimization of Cobalt Oxide Conversion to Co-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks

Authors: Aleksander Ejsmont, Stefan Wuttke, Joanna Goscianska


Gaining control over particle shape, size and crystallinity is an ongoing challenge for many materials. Especially metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) are recently widely studied. Besides their remarkable porosity and interesting topologies, morphology has proven to be a significant feature. It can affect the further material application. Thus seeking new approaches that enable MOF morphology modulation is important. MOFs are reticular structures, where building blocks are made up of organic linkers and metallic nodes. The most common strategy of ensuring metal source is using salts, which usually exhibit high solubility and hinder morphology control. However, there has been a growing interest in using metal oxides as structure-directing agents towards MOFs due to their very low solubility and shape preservation. Metal oxides can be treated as a metal reservoir during MOF synthesis. Up to now, reports in which receiving MOFs from metal oxides mostly present ZnO conversion to ZIF-8. However, there are other oxides, for instance, Co₃O₄, which often is overlooked due to their structural stability and insolubility in aqueous solutions. Cobalt-based materials are famed for catalytic activity. Therefore the development of their efficient synthesis is worth attention. In the presented work, an optimized Co₃O₄transition to Co-MOFviaa solvothermal approach was proposed. The starting point of the research was the synthesis of Co₃O₄ flower petals and needles under hydrothermal conditions using different cobalt salts (e.g., cobalt(II) chloride and cobalt(II) nitrate), in the presence of urea, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as a capping agent. After receiving cobalt hydroxide, the calcination process was performed at various temperatures (300–500 °C). Then cobalt oxides as a source of cobalt cations were subjected to reaction with trimesic acid in solvothermal environment and temperature of 120 °C leading to Co-MOF fabrication. The solution maintained in the system was a mixture of water, dimethylformamide, and ethanol, with the addition of strong acids (HF and HNO₃). To establish how solvents affect metal oxide conversion, several different solvent ratios were also applied. The materials received were characterized with analytical techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy,low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was confirmed that the synthetic routes have led to the formation of Co₃O₄ and Co-based MOF varied in shape and size of particles. The diffractograms showed receiving crystalline phase for Co₃O₄, and also for Co-MOF. The Co₃O₄ obtained from nitrates and with using low-temperature calcination resulted in smaller particles. The study indicated that cobalt oxide particles of different size influence the efficiency of conversion and morphology of Co-MOF. The highest conversion was achieved using metal oxides with small crystallites.

Keywords: Co-MOF, solvothermal synthesis, morphology control, core-shell

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1427 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji


The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

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1426 Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water

Authors: Hyun Kyu Lee, Won Zin Oh, June Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Sang June Choi, Hak Soo Kim


The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.

Keywords: permanganate reduction, spontaneous decomposition, water oxidation, acidity, temperature, permanganate concentration, chemical decontamination, nuclear power plant

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1425 Morphostructural Characterization of Zinc and Manganese Nano-Oxides

Authors: Adriana-Gabriela Plaiasu, Catalin Marian Ducu


The interest in the unique properties associated with materials having structures on a nanometer scale has been increasing at an exponential rate in last decade. Among the functional mineral compounds such as perovskite (CaTiO3), rutile (TiO2), CaF2, spinel (MgAl2O4), wurtzite (ZnS), zincite (ZnO) and the cupric oxide (CuO) has been used in numerous applications such as catalysis, semiconductors, batteries, gas sensors, biosensors, field transistors and medicine. The Solar Physical Vapor Deposition (SPVD) presented in the paper as elaboration method is an original process to prepare nanopowders working under concentrated sunlight in 2kW solar furnaces. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chemical and microstructural characteristics of zinc and manganese oxides synthesized nanophases has been systematically studied using XRD, TEM and SEM.

Keywords: characterization, morphological, nano-oxides, structural

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1424 Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat


Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.

Keywords: capric acid, Cobalt(II), copper(II), liquid-liquid extraction

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1423 Manganese and Other Geothermal Minerals Exposure to Residents in Ketenger Village, Banyumas, Indonesia

Authors: Rita Yuniatun, Dewi Fadlilah Firdausi, Anida Hanifah, Putrisuvi Nurjannah Zalqis, Erza Nur Afrilia, Akrima Fajrin Nurimani, Andrew Luis Krishna


Manganese (Mn) is one of the potential contaminants minerals geothermal water. Preliminary studies conducted in Ketenger village, the nearest village with Baturaden hot spring, showed that the concentration of Mn in water supply has exceeded the reference value. Mineral contamination problem in Ketenger village is not only Mn, but also other potential geothermal minerals, such as chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), sulfide (S2-), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and zinc (Zn). It becomes a concern because generally the residents still use ground water as the water source for their daily needs, including drinking and cooking. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the distribution of mineral contamination in drinking water and food and to estimate the health risks possibility from the exposure. Four minerals (Mn, Fe, S2-, and Cr6+) were analyzed in drinking water, carbohydrate sources, vegetables, fishes, and fruits. The test results indicate that Mn concentration in drinking water is 0.35 mg/L, has exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) according to the US EPA (MCL = 0.005 mg/L), whereas other minerals still comply with the standards. In addition, we found that the average of Mn concentration in the carbohydrate sources is quite high (1.87 mg/Kg). Measurement results in Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) and the Risk Quotient (RQ) found that exposure to manganese and other geothermal minerals in drinking water and food are safe from the non-carcinogenic effects in each age group (RQ<1). So, geothermal mineral concentrations in drinking water and food has no effect on non-carcinogenic risk in Ketenger’s residents because of CDI is also influenced by other parameters such as the duration of exposure and the rate of consumption. However, it was found that intake of essential minerals (Mn and Fe) are deficient in every age group. So that, the addition of Mn and Fe intake is recommended.

Keywords: CDI, contaminant, geothermal minerals, manganese, RQ

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1422 Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposite Prepared by Microwave Method and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim


Supercapacitors are energy storage devices capable of storing more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further use of a post-heat treatment unlike the conventional processes, in which calcination is generally employed after obtaining the initial product. Furthermore, it also offers a shorter reaction time at low temperatures and low power requirements, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an electrode material. The as-prepared electrode exhibited a high capacitance of 953 F•g^−1 at 1 A•g^−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. Moreover, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg^−1 at a power density of 720 W•kg^−1, and a high power density of 7200 W•kg^−1 at an energy density of 38 Wh•kg^−1. The successful methodology was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, thereby providing an active electrode material with very promising electrochemical performance.

Keywords: cobalt-manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

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1421 Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Ingy N. Bkrey, Ahmed A. Moniem


We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μ on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50 μ MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.

Keywords: electrode deposition, flexible, graphene oxide, graphene, high power CO2 Laser, MnO2

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1420 High Electrochemical Performance of Electrode Material Based On Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposites

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Deivasigamani Ranjith Kumar, Jae-Jin Shim


The quest for alternative sources of energy storage had led to the exploration on supercapacitors. Hybrid supercapacitors, a combination of carbon-based material and transition metals, had yielded long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an active electrode material. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further post-heat treatment. Additionally, it offers shorter reaction time at low temperature and low power requirement, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. The as-prepared electrode material demonstrated a high capacitance of 953 F•g−1 at 1 A•g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg−1 (power density of 720 W•kg−1) and a high power density of 7200 W•kg−1 (energy density of 38 Wh•kg−1). The successful synthesis was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, with very promising electrochemical performance that can be used as an active material in supercapacitors.

Keywords: cobalt manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

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1419 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao


Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

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