Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6985

Search results for: miRNA:mRNA interaction network

6985 Intra-miR-ExploreR, a Novel Bioinformatics Platform for Integrated Discovery of MiRNA:mRNA Gene Regulatory Networks

Authors: Surajit Bhattacharya, Daniel Veltri, Atit A. Patel, Daniel N. Cox

Abstract:

miRNAs have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, however identification of biologically-relevant target genes for this epigenetic regulatory mechanism remains a significant challenge. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed a novel tool in R, Intra-miR-ExploreR, that facilitates integrated discovery of miRNA targets by incorporating target databases and novel target prediction algorithms, using statistical methods including Pearson and Distance Correlation on microarray data, to arrive at high confidence intragenic miRNA target predictions. We have explored the efficacy of this tool using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for bioinformatics analyses and functional validation. A number of putative targets were obtained which were also validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Additional features of the tool include downloadable text files containing GO analysis from DAVID and Pubmed links of literature related to gene sets. Moreover, we are constructing interaction maps of intragenic miRNAs, using both micro array and RNA-seq data, focusing on neural tissues to uncover regulatory codes via which these molecules regulate gene expression to direct cellular development.

Keywords: miRNA, miRNA:mRNA target prediction, statistical methods, miRNA:mRNA interaction network

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6984 Identification of miRNA-miRNA Interactions between Virus and Host in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

Authors: Kai-Yao Huang, Tzong-Yi Lee, Pin-Hao Ho, Tzu-Hao Chang, Cheng-Wei Chang

Abstract:

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects much people around the world, and there were many researches mention that many diseases were caused by HCMV. To understand the mechanism of HCMV lead to diseases during infection. We observe a microRNA (miRNA) – miRNA interaction between HCMV and host during infection. We found HCMV miRNA sequence component complementary with host miRNA precursors, and we also found that the host miRNA abundances were decrease in HCMV infection. Hence, we focus on the host miRNA which may target by the other HCMV miRNA to find theirs target mRNAs expression and analysis these mRNAs affect what kind of signaling pathway. Interestingly, we found the affected mRNA play an important role in some diseases related pathways, and these diseases had been annotated by HCMV infection. Results: From our analysis procedure, we found 464 human miRNAs might be targeted by 26 HCMV miRNAs and there were 291 human miRNAs shows the concordant decrease trend during HCMV infection. For case study, we found hcmv-miR-US22-5p may regulate hsa-mir-877 and we analysis the KEGG pathway which built by hsa-mir-877 validate target mRNA. Additionally, through survey KEGG Disease database found that these mRNA co-regulate some disease related pathway for instance cancer, nerve disease. However, there were studies annotated that HCMV infection casuse cancer and Alzheimer. Conclusions: This work supply a different scenario of miRNA target interactions(MTIs). In previous study assume miRNA only target to other mRNA. Here we wonder there is possibility that miRNAs might regulate non-mRNA targets, like other miRNAs. In this study, we not only consider the sequence similarity with HCMV miRNAs and human miRNA precursors but also the expression trend of these miRNAs. Then we analysis the human miRNAs validate target mRNAs and its associated KEGG pathway. Finally, we survey related works to validate our investigation.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, microRNA, miRNA

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6983 Diagnostic Evaluation of Micro Rna (miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378) in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ossama Abdelmotaal, Olfat Shaker, Tarek Salman, Lamiaa Nabeel, Mostafa Shabayek

Abstract:

Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is an important worldwide health problem. Colonoscopy is used in detecting CRC suffer from drawbacks where colonoscopy is an invasive method. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the usefulness of detecting miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in the sera of colorectal cancer patients as new diagnostic tools. This study includes malignant (Colo Rectal Cancer patients, n= 64)) and healthy (n=27) groups. The studied groups were subjected to colonoscopic examination and estimation of miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in sera by RT-PCR. miRNA-21 showed the statistically significantly highest median fold change. miRNA-378 showed statistically significantly lower value (Both showed over-expression). miRNA-215 showed the statistically significantly lowest median fold change (It showed down-regulation). Overall the miRNA (21-215 and 378) appear to be promising method of detecting CRC and evaluating its stages.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miRNA-21, miRNA-215, miRNA-378

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6982 Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-21 as High Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Regina R. Gunawan, Indwiani Astuti, H. Raden Danarto

Abstract:

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is caused by mutations that alter the function of normal human genes and give rise to cancer genes. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that regulates the gen through complementary bond towards mRNA target and cause mRNA degradation. miRNA works by either promoting or suppressing cell proliferation. miRNA level expression in cancer may offer another value of miRNA as a biomarker in cancer diagnostic. miRNA-21 is believed to have a role in carcinogenesis by enhancing proliferation, anti-apoptosis, cell cycle progression and invasion of tumor cells. Hsa-miR-21-5p marker has been identified in Prostate Cancer (PCa) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patient’s urine. This research planned to explore the diagnostic performance of miR-21 to differentiate PCa and BPH patients. In this study, urine samples were collected from 20 PCa patients and 20 BPH patients. miR-21 relative expression against the reference gene was analyzed and compared between the two. miRNA expression was analyzed using the comparative quantification method to find the fold change. miR-21 validity in identifying PCa patients was performed by quantifying the sensitivity and specificity with the contingency table. miR-21 relative expression against miR-16 in PCa patient and in BPH patient has 12,98 differences in fold change. From a contingency table of Cq expression of miR-21 in identifying PCa patients from BPH patient, Cq miR-21 has 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. miR-21 relative expression can be used in discriminating PCa from BPH by using a urine sample. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 has higher sensitivity compared to PSA (Prostate specific antigen), therefore miR-21 has a high potential to be analyzed and developed more.

Keywords: benign prostate hyperplasia, biomarker, miRNA-21, prostate cancer

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6981 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal

Abstract:

Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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6980 LncRNA-miRNA-mRNA Networks Associated with BCR-ABL T315I Mutation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Adenike Adesanya, Nonthaphat Wong, Xiang-Yun Lan, Shea Ping Yip, Chien-Ling Huang

Abstract:

Background: The most challenging mutation of the oncokinase BCR-ABL protein T315I, which is commonly known as the “gatekeeper” mutation and is notorious for its strong resistance to almost all tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), especially imatinib. Therefore, this study aims to identify T315I-dependent downstream microRNA (miRNA) pathways associated with drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. Methods: T315I-carrying K562 cell clones (K562-T315I) were generated by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Imatinib-treated K562-T315I cells were subjected to small RNA library preparation and next-generation sequencing. Putative lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks were analyzed with (i) DESeq2 to extract differentially expressed miRNAs, using Padj value of 0.05 as cut-off, (ii) STarMir to obtain potential miRNA response element (MRE) binding sites of selected miRNAs on lncRNA H19, (iii) miRDB, miRTarbase, and TargetScan to predict mRNA targets of selected miRNAs, (iv) IntaRNA to obtain putative interactions between H19 and the predicted mRNAs, (v) Cytoscape to visualize putative networks, and (vi) several pathway analysis platforms – Enrichr, PANTHER and ShinyGO for pathway enrichment analysis. Moreover, mitochondria isolation and transcript quantification were adopted to determine the new mechanism involved in T315I-mediated resistance of CML treatment. Results: Verification of the CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis with digital droplet PCR detected the mutation abundance of ≥80%. Further validation showed the viability of ≥90% by cell viability assay, and intense phosphorylated CRKL protein band being detected with no observable change for BCR-ABL and c-ABL protein expressions by Western blot. As reported by several investigations into hematological malignancies, we determined a 7-fold increase of H19 expression in K562-T315I cells. After imatinib treatment, a 9-fold increment was observed. DESeq2 revealed 171 miRNAs were differentially expressed K562-T315I, 112 out of these miRNAs were identified to have MRE binding regions on H19, and 26 out of the 112 miRNAs were significantly downregulated. Adopting the seed-sequence analysis of these identified miRNAs, we obtained 167 mRNAs. 6 hub miRNAs (hsa-let-7b-5p, hsa-let-7e-5p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-129-5p, and hsa-miR-372-3p) and 25 predicted genes were identified after constructing hub miRNA-target gene network. These targets demonstrated putative interactions with H19 lncRNA and were mostly enriched in pathways related to cell proliferation, senescence, gene silencing, and pluripotency of stem cells. Further experimental findings have also shown the up-regulation of mitochondrial transcript and lncRNA MALAT1 contributing to the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks induced by BCR-ABL T315I mutation. Conclusions: Our results have indicated that lncRNA-miRNA regulators play a crucial role not only in leukemogenesis but also in drug resistance, considering the significant dysregulation and interactions in the K562-T315I cell model generated by CRISPR-Cas9. In silico analysis has further shown that lncRNAs H19 and MALAT1 bear several complementary miRNA sites. This implies that they could serve as a sponge, hence sequestering the activity of the target miRNAs.

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib resistance, lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA, T315I mutation

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6979 Iron Response Element-mRNA Binding to Iron Response Protein: Metal Ion Sensing

Authors: Mateen A. Khan, Elizabeth J. Theil, Dixie J. Goss

Abstract:

Cellular iron homeostasis is accomplished by the coordinated regulated expression of iron uptake, storage, and export. Iron regulate the translation of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA by interaction with an iron regulatory protein (IRPs). Iron increases protein biosynthesis encoded in iron responsive element. The noncoding structure IRE-mRNA, approximately 30-nt, folds into a stem loop to control synthesis of proteins in iron trafficking, cell cycling, and nervous system function. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed the presence of one binding site on IRP1 for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA. Scatchard analysis revealed the binding affinity (Kₐ) and average binding sites (n) for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA were 68.7 x 10⁶ M⁻¹ and 9.2 x 10⁶ M⁻¹, respectively. In order to understand the relative importance of equilibrium and stability, we further report the contribution of electrostatic interactions in the overall binding of two IRE-mRNA with IRP1. The fluorescence quenching of IRP1 protein was measured at different ionic strengths. The binding affinity of IRE-mRNA to IRP1 decreases with increasing ionic strength, but the number of binding sites was independent of ionic strength. Such results indicate a differential contribution of electrostatics to the interaction of IRE-mRNA with IRP1, possibly related to helix bending or stem interactions and an overall conformational change. Selective destabilization of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase RNA/protein complexes as reported here explain in part the quantitative differences in signal response to iron in vivo and indicate possible new regulatory interactions.

Keywords: IRE-mRNA, IRP1, binding, ionic strength

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6978 Prediction of Solanum Lycopersicum Genome Encoded microRNAs Targeting Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Zobia Sarwar, Salah-ud-Din

Abstract:

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) belongs to the genus Tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). It is one of the most devastating pathogens of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) and heavily damages the crop yield each year around the globe. In this study, we retrieved 329 mature miRNA sequences from two microRNA databases (miRBase and miRSoldb) and checked the putative target sites in the downloaded-genome sequence of TSWV. A consensus of three miRNA target prediction tools (RNA22, miRanda and psRNATarget) was used to screen the false-positive microRNAs targeting sites in the TSWV genome. These tools calculated different target sites by calculating minimum free energy (mfe), site-complementarity, minimum folding energy and other microRNA-mRNA binding factors. R language was used to plot the predicted target-site data. All the genes having possible target sites for different miRNAs were screened by building a consensus table. Out of these 329 mature miRNAs predicted by three algorithms, only eight miRNAs met all the criteria/threshold specifications. MC-Fold and MC-Sym were used to predict three-dimensional structures of miRNAs and further analyzed in USCF chimera to visualize the structural and conformational changes before and after microRNA-mRNA interactions. The results of the current study show that the predicted eight miRNAs could further be evaluated by in vitro experiments to develop TSWV-resistant transgenic tomato plants in the future.

Keywords: tomato spotted wild virus (TSWV), Solanum lycopersicum, plant virus, miRNAs, microRNA target prediction, mRNA

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6977 A Hybrid Feature Selection and Deep Learning Algorithm for Cancer Disease Classification

Authors: Niousha Bagheri Khulenjani, Mohammad Saniee Abadeh

Abstract:

Learning from very big datasets is a significant problem for most present data mining and machine learning algorithms. MicroRNA (miRNA) is one of the important big genomic and non-coding datasets presenting the genome sequences. In this paper, a hybrid method for the classification of the miRNA data is proposed. Due to the variety of cancers and high number of genes, analyzing the miRNA dataset has been a challenging problem for researchers. The number of features corresponding to the number of samples is high and the data suffer from being imbalanced. The feature selection method has been used to select features having more ability to distinguish classes and eliminating obscures features. Afterward, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier for classification of cancer types is utilized, which employs a Genetic Algorithm to highlight optimized hyper-parameters of CNN. In order to make the process of classification by CNN faster, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is recommended for calculating the mathematic equation in a parallel way. The proposed method is tested on a real-world dataset with 8,129 patients, 29 different types of tumors, and 1,046 miRNA biomarkers, taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.

Keywords: cancer classification, feature selection, deep learning, genetic algorithm

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6976 Computational Identification of Signalling Pathways in Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Angela U. Makolo, Temitayo A. Olagunju

Abstract:

The knowledge of signaling pathways is central to understanding the biological mechanisms of organisms since it has been identified that in eukaryotic organisms, the number of signaling pathways determines the number of ways the organism will react to external stimuli. Signaling pathways are studied using protein interaction networks constructed from protein-protein interaction data obtained using high throughput experimental procedures. However, these high throughput methods are known to produce very high rates of false positive and negative interactions. In order to construct a useful protein interaction network from this noisy data, computational methods are applied to validate the protein-protein interactions. In this study, a computational technique to identify signaling pathways from a protein interaction network constructed using validated protein-protein interaction data was designed. A weighted interaction graph of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s Yeast) organism using the proteins as the nodes and interactions between them as edges was constructed. The weights were obtained using Bayesian probabilistic network to estimate the posterior probability of interaction between two proteins given the gene expression measurement as biological evidence. Only interactions above a threshold were accepted for the network model. A pathway was formalized as a simple path in the interaction network from a starting protein and an ending protein of interest. We were able to identify some pathway segments, one of which is a segment of the pathway that signals the start of the process of meiosis in S. cerevisiae.

Keywords: Bayesian networks, protein interaction networks, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, signalling pathways

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6975 Identification of microRNAs in Early and Late Onset of Parkinson’s Disease Patient

Authors: Ahmad Rasyadan Arshad, A. Rahman A. Jamal, N. Mohamed Ibrahim, Nor Azian Abdul Murad

Abstract:

Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex and asymptomatic disease where patients are usually diagnosed at late stage where about 70% of the dopaminergic neurons are lost. Therefore, identification of molecular biomarkers is crucial for early diagnosis of PD. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short nucleotide non-coding small RNA which regulates the gene expression in post-translational process. The involvement of these miRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases includes maintenance of neuronal development, necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Thus, miRNA could be a potential biomarkers for diagnosis of PD. Objective: This study aim to identify the miRNA involved in Late Onset PD (LOPD) and Early Onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls. Methods: This is a case-control study involved PD patients in the Chancellor Tunku Muhriz Hospital at the UKM Medical Centre. miRNA samples were extracted using miRNeasy serum/plasma kit from Qiagen. The quality of miRNA extracted was determined using Agilent RNA 6000 Nano kit in the Bioanalyzer. miRNA expression was performed using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 chip from Affymetrix. Microarray was performed in EOPD (n= 7), LOPD (n=9) and healthy control (n=11). Expression Console and Transcriptomic Analyses Console were used to analyze the microarray data. Result: miR-129-5p was significantly downregulated in EOPD compared to LOPD with -4.2 fold change (p = <0.050. miR-301a-3p was upregulated in EOPD compared to healthy control (fold = 10.3, p = <0.05). In LOPD versus healthy control, miR-486-3p (fold = 15.28, p = <0.05), miR-29c-3p (fold = 12.21, p = <0.05) and miR-301a-3p (fold = 10.01, p =< 0.05) were upregulated. Conclusion: Several miRNA have been identified to be differentially expressed in EOPD compared to LOPD and PD versus control. These miRNAs could serve as the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. However, these miRNAs need to be validated in a larger sample size.

Keywords: early onset PD, late onset PD, microRNA (miRNA), microarray

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6974 Oncogenic Role of MicroRNA-346 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-Cadherin Pathway

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here, we report the definition of miR-346 as an oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.

Keywords: microRNA-346, miR-346, XPC, non-small cell lung cancer, oncogenesis

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6973 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On, Ka-Lok Ng

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: microRNA, miRNAs, lung cancer, machine learning, Naïve Bayes, SVM

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6972 Human Skin Identification Using a Specific mRNA Marker at Different Storage Durations

Authors: Abla A. Ali, Heba A. Abd El Razik, Nadia A. Kotb, Amany A. Bayoumi, Laila A. Rashed

Abstract:

The detection of human skin through mRNA-based profiling is a very useful tool for forensic investigations. The aim of this study was definitive identification of human skin at different time intervals using an mRNA marker late cornified envelope gene 1C. Ten middle-aged healthy volunteers of both sexes were recruited for this study. Skin samples controlled with blood samples were taken from the candidates to test for the presence of our targeted mRNA marker. Samples were kept at dry dark conditions to be tested at different time intervals (24 hours, one week, three weeks and four weeks) for detection and relative quantification of the targeted marker by RT PCR. The targeted marker could not be detected in blood samples. The targeted marker showed the highest mean value after 24 hours (11.90 ± 2.42) and the lowest mean value (7.56 ± 2.56) after three weeks. No marker could be detected at four weeks. This study verified the high specificity and sensitivity of mRNA marker in the skin at different storage times up to three weeks under the study conditions.

Keywords: human skin, late cornified envelope gene 1C, mRNA marker, time intervals

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6971 MicroRNA-1246 Expression Associated with Resistance to Oncogenic BRAF Inhibitors in Mutant BRAF Melanoma Cells

Authors: Jae-Hyeon Kim, Michael Lee

Abstract:

Intrinsic and acquired resistance limits the therapeutic benefits of oncogenic BRAF inhibitors in melanoma. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by repressing their translation. Thus, we investigated miRNA expression patterns in melanoma cell lines to identify candidate biomarkers for acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. Here, we used Affymetrix miRNA V3.0 microarray profiling platform to compare miRNA expression levels in three cell lines containing BRAF inhibitor-sensitive A375P BRAF V600E cells, their BRAF inhibitor-resistant counterparts (A375P/Mdr), and SK-MEL-2 BRAF-WT cells with intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibitor. The miRNAs with at least a two-fold change in expression between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines, were identified as differentially expressed. Averaged intensity measurements identified 138 and 217 miRNAs that were differentially expressed by 2 fold or more between: 1) A375P and A375P/Mdr; 2) A375P and SK-MEL-2, respectively. The hierarchical clustering revealed differences in miRNA expression profiles between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines for miRNAs involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. In particular, 43 miRNAs were identified whose expression was consistently altered in two BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines, regardless of intrinsic and acquired resistance. Twenty five miRNAs were consistently upregulated and 18 downregulated more than 2-fold. Although some discrepancies were detected when miRNA microarray data were compared with qPCR-measured expression levels, qRT-PCR for five miRNAs (miR-3617, miR-92a1, miR-1246, miR-1936-3p, and miR-17-3p) results showed excellent agreement with microarray experiments. To further investigate cellular functions of miRNAs, we examined effects on cell proliferation. Synthetic oligonucleotide miRNA mimics were transfected into three cell lines, and proliferation was quantified using a colorimetric assay. Of the 5 miRNAs tested, only miR-1246 altered cell proliferation of A375P/Mdr cells. The transfection of miR-1246 mimic strongly conferred PLX-4720 resistance to A375P/Mdr cells, implying that miR-1246 upregulation confers acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition. We also found that PLX-4720 caused much greater G2/M arrest in A375P/Mdr cells transfected with miR-1246mimic than that seen in scrambled RNA-transfected cells. Additionally, miR-1246 mimic partially caused a resistance to autophagy induction by PLX-4720. These results indicate that autophagy does play an essential death-promoting role inPLX-4720-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that miRNA expression profiling in melanoma cells can provide valuable information for a network of BRAF inhibitor resistance-associated miRNAs.

Keywords: microRNA, BRAF inhibitor, drug resistance, autophagy

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6970 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment, android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment

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6969 Intramuscular Heat Shock Protein 72 and Heme Oxygenase-1 mRNA are Reduced in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Evidence That Insulin Resistance is Associated with a Disturbed Antioxidant Defense Mechanism

Authors: Ghibeche Abderrahmane

Abstract:

To examine whether genes associated with cellular defense against oxidative stress are associated with insulin sensitivity, patients with type 2 diabetes (n=7) and age-matched (n=5) and young (n=9) control subjects underwent a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for 120 min. Muscle samples were obtained before and after the clamp and analyzed for heat shock protein (HSP)72 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA, intramuscular triglyceride content, and the maximal activities of β-hyroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) and citrate synthase (CS). Basal expression of both HSP72 and HO-1 mRNA were lower (P < 0.05) by 33 and 55%, respectively, when comparing diabetic patients with age-matched and young control subjects, with no differences between the latter groups. Both basal HSP72 (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and HO-1 (r = 0.50,P < 0.05) mRNA expression correlated with the glucose infusion rate during the clamp. Significant correlations were also observed between HSP72 mRNA and both β-HAD (r = 0.61, P < 0.01) and CS (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). HSP72 mRNA was induced (P < 0.05) by the clamp in all groups. Although HO-1 mRNA was unaffected by the clamp in both the young and age-matched control subjects, it was increased (P < 0.05) ∼70-fold in the diabetic patients after the clamp. These data demonstrate that genes involved in providing cellular protection against oxidative stress are defective in patients with type 2 diabetes and correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and markers of muscle oxidative capacity. The data provide new evidence that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes involves perturbations to the antioxidant defense mechanism within skeletal muscle.

Keywords: euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic, HSP72, mRNA, diabete

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6968 Comparison of Extracellular miRNA from Different Lymphocyte Cell Lines and Isolation Methods

Authors: Christelle E. Chua, Alicia L. Ho

Abstract:

The development of a panel of differential gene expression signatures has been of interest in the field of biomarker discovery for radiation exposure. In the absence of the availability of exposed human subjects, lymphocyte cell lines have often been used as a surrogate to human whole blood, when performing ex vivo irradiation studies. The extent of variation between different lymphocyte cell lines is currently unclear, especially with regard to the expression of extracellular miRNA. This study compares the expression profile of extracellular miRNA isolated from different lymphocyte cell lines. It also compares the profile of miRNA obtained when different exosome isolation kits are used. Lymphocyte cell lines were created using lymphocytes isolated from healthy adult males of similar racial descent (Chinese American and Chinese Singaporean) and immortalised with Epstein-Barr virus. The cell lines were cultured in exosome-free cell culture media for 72h and the cell culture supernatant was removed for exosome isolation. Two exosome isolation kits were used. Total exosome isolation reagent (TEIR, ThermoFisher) is a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based exosome precipitation kit, while ExoSpin (ES, Cell Guidance Systems) is a PEG-based exosome precipitation kit that includes an additional size exclusion chromatography step. miRNA from the isolated exosomes were isolated using miRNEASY minikit (Qiagen) and analysed using nCounter miRNA assay (Nanostring). Principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that the overall extracellular miRNA expression profile differed between the lymphocyte cell line originating from the Chinese American donor and the cell line originating from the Chinese Singaporean donor. As the gender, age and racial origins of both donors are similar, this may suggest that there are other genetic or epigenetic differences that account for the variation in extracellular miRNA gene expression in lymphocyte cell lines. However, statistical analysis showed that only 3 miRNA genes had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05, suggesting that the differences may not be of that great a significance as to impact overall conclusions drawn from different cell lines. Subsequent analysis using cell lines from other donors will give further insight into the reproducibility of results when difference cell lines are used. PCA results also suggested that the method of exosome isolation impacted the expression profile. 107 miRNA had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05. This suggests that the inclusion of an additional size exclusion chromatography step altered the subset of the extracellular vesicles that were isolated. In conclusion, these results suggest that extracellular miRNA can be isolated and analysed from exosomes derived from lymphocyte cell lines. However, care must be taken in the choice of cell line and method of exosome isolation used.

Keywords: biomarker, extracellular miRNA, isolation methods, lymphocyte cell line

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6967 Expression of miRNA 335 in Gall Bladder Cancer: A Correlative Study

Authors: Naseem Fatima, A. N. Srivastava, Tasleem Raza, Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

Introduction: Carcinoma gallbladder is third most common gastrointestinal lethal disease with the highest incidence and mortality rate among women in Northern India. Scientists have found several risk factors that make a person more likely to develop gallbladder cancer; among these risk factors, deregulation of miRNAs has been demonstrated to be one of the most crucial factors. The changes in the expression of specific miRNA genes result in the control of inflammation, cell cycle regulation, stress response, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion thus mediate the process in tumorgenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MiRNA-335 and may as a molecular marker in early detection of gallbladder cancer in suspected cases. Material and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients with gallbladder cancer aged between 30-75 years were registered for the study. Total RNA was extracted from tissue by using the mirVANA MiRNA isolation Kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The MiRNA- 335 and U6 snRNA-specific cDNA were reverse-transcribed from total RNA using Taqman microRNA reverse-transcription kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. TaqMan MiRNA probes hsa-miR-335 and Taqman Master Mix without AmpEase UNG, Individual real-time PCR assays were performed in a 20 μL reaction volume on a Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus™) to detect MiRNA-335 expression in tissue. Relative quantification of target MiRNA expression was evaluated using the comparative cycle threshold (CT) method. The correlation was done in between cycle threshold (CT Value) of target MiRNA in gallbladder cancer with respect to non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder. Each sample was examined in triplicate. The Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used to determine the expression of miR-335. Results: MiRNA335 was found to be significantly downregulated in the gallbladder cancer tissue (P<0.001), when compared with non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder cases. Out of 20 cases, 75% showed reduced expression of MiRNA335, were at last stage of disease with low overall survival rate and remaining 25% were showed up-regulated expression of MiRNA335 with high survival rate. Conclusion: The present study showed that reduced expression of MiRNA335 is associated with the advancement of the disease, and its deregulation may provide important clues to understanding it as a prognostic marker and opportunities for future research.

Keywords: carcinoma gallbladder, downregulation, MiRNA-335, RT-PCR assay

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6966 Prototype of an Interactive Toy from Lego Robotics Kits for Children with Autism

Authors: Ricardo A. Martins, Matheus S. da Silva, Gabriel H. F. Iarossi, Helen C. M. Senefonte, Cinthyan R. S. C. de Barbosa

Abstract:

This paper is the development of a concept of the man/robot interaction. More accurately in developing of an autistic child that have more troubles with interaction, here offers an efficient solution, even though simple; however, less studied for this public. This concept is based on code applied thought out the Lego NXT kit, built for the interpretation of the robot, thereby can create this interaction in a constructive way for children suffering with Autism.

Keywords: lego NXT, interaction, BricX, autismo, ANN (Artificial Neural Network), MLP back propagation, hidden layers

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6965 Increase in Specificity of MicroRNA Detection by RT-qPCR Assay Using a Specific Extension Sequence

Authors: Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee

Abstract:

We describe an innovative method for highly specific detection of miRNAs using a specially modified method of poly(A) adaptor RT-qPCR. We use uniquely designed specific extension sequence, which plays important role in providing an opportunity to affect high specificity of miRNA detection. This method involves two steps of reactions as like previously reported and which are poly(A) tailing and reverse-transcription followed by real-time PCR. Firstly, miRNAs are extended by a poly(A) tailing reaction and then converted into cDNA. Here, we remarkably reduced the reaction time by the application of short length of poly(T) adaptor. Next, cDNA is hybridized to the 3’-end of a specific extension sequence which contains miRNA sequence and results in producing a novel PCR template. Thereafter, the SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR progresses with a universal poly(T) adaptor forward primer and a universal reverse primer. The target miRNA, miR-106b in human brain total RNA, could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude, which demonstrate that the assay displays a dynamic range of at least 7 logs. In addition, the better specificity of this novel extension-based assay against well known poly(A) tailing method for miRNA detection was confirmed by melt curve analysis of real-time PCR product, clear gel electrophoresis and sequence chromatogram images of amplified DNAs.

Keywords: microRNA(miRNA), specific extension sequence, RT-qPCR, poly(A) tailing assay, reverse transcription

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6964 An Improvement of ComiR Algorithm for MicroRNA Target Prediction by Exploiting Coding Region Sequences of mRNAs

Authors: Giorgio Bertolazzi, Panayiotis Benos, Michele Tumminello, Claudia Coronnello

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression levels of messenger RNAs. MicroRNA regulation activity depends on the recognition of binding sites located on mRNA molecules. ComiR (Combinatorial miRNA targeting) is a user friendly web tool realized to predict the targets of a set of microRNAs, starting from their expression profile. ComiR incorporates miRNA expression in a thermodynamic binding model, and it associates each gene with the probability of being a target of a set of miRNAs. ComiR algorithms were trained with the information regarding binding sites in the 3’UTR region, by using a reliable dataset containing the targets of endogenously expressed microRNA in D. melanogaster S2 cells. This dataset was obtained by comparing the results from two different experimental approaches, i.e., inhibition, and immunoprecipitation of the AGO1 protein; this protein is a component of the microRNA induced silencing complex. In this work, we tested whether including coding region binding sites in the ComiR algorithm improves the performance of the tool in predicting microRNA targets. We focused the analysis on the D. melanogaster species and updated the ComiR underlying database with the currently available releases of mRNA and microRNA sequences. As a result, we find that the ComiR algorithm trained with the information related to the coding regions is more efficient in predicting the microRNA targets, with respect to the algorithm trained with 3’utr information. On the other hand, we show that 3’utr based predictions can be seen as complementary to the coding region based predictions, which suggests that both predictions, from 3'UTR and coding regions, should be considered in a comprehensive analysis. Furthermore, we observed that the lists of targets obtained by analyzing data from one experimental approach only, that is, inhibition or immunoprecipitation of AGO1, are not reliable enough to test the performance of our microRNA target prediction algorithm. Further analysis will be conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the tool with data from other species, provided that validated datasets, as obtained from the comparison of RISC proteins inhibition and immunoprecipitation experiments, will be available for the same samples. Finally, we propose to upgrade the existing ComiR web-tool by including the coding region based trained model, available together with the 3’UTR based one.

Keywords: AGO1, coding region, Drosophila melanogaster, microRNA target prediction

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6963 An Efficient Algorithm for Global Alignment of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Duc Dong Do, Ngoc Ha Tran, Thanh Hai Dang, Cao Cuong Dang, Xuan Huan Hoang

Abstract:

Global aligning two protein-protein interaction networks is an essentially important task in bioinformatics/computational biology field of study. It is a challenging and widely studied research topic in recent years. Accurately aligned networks allow us to identify functional modules of proteins and/ororthologous proteins from which unknown functions of a protein can be inferred. We here introduce a novel efficient heuristic global network alignment algorithm called FASTAn, including two phases: the first to construct an initial alignment and the second to improve such alignment by exerting a local optimization repeated procedure. The experimental results demonstrated that FASTAn outperformed the state-of-the-art global network alignment algorithm namely SPINAL in terms of both commonly used objective scores and the run-time.

Keywords: FASTAn, Heuristic algorithm, biological network alignment, protein-protein interaction networks

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6962 Computational Model for Predicting Effective siRNA Sequences Using Whole Stacking Energy (ΔG) for Gene Silencing

Authors: Reena Murali, David Peter S.

Abstract:

The small interfering RNA (siRNA) alters the regulatory role of mRNA during gene expression by translational inhibition. Recent studies shows that up regulation of mRNA cause serious diseases like Cancer. So designing effective siRNA with good knockdown effects play an important role in gene silencing. Various siRNA design tools had been developed earlier. In this work, we are trying to analyze the existing good scoring second generation siRNA predicting tools and to optimize the efficiency of siRNA prediction by designing a computational model using Artificial Neural Network and whole stacking energy (ΔG), which may help in gene silencing and drug design in cancer therapy. Our model is trained and tested against a large data set of siRNA sequences. Validation of our results is done by finding correlation coefficient of experimental versus observed inhibition efficacy of siRNA. We achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.727 in our previous computational model and we could improve the correlation coefficient up to 0.753 when the threshold of whole tacking energy is greater than or equal to -32.5 kcal/mol.

Keywords: artificial neural network, double stranded RNA, RNA interference, short interfering RNA

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6961 In Silico Analysis of Salivary miRNAs to Identify the Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

Authors: Andleeb Zahra, Itrat Rubab, Sumaira Malik, Amina Khan, Muhammad Jawad Khan, M. Qaiser Fatmi

Abstract:

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use in an early diagnostic tool. miRNAs are small, double stranded, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by deregulating mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in modifying various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response. Dis-regulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect the cell growth, and this may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in oral cancer (OC) to assist early detection of cancer as well as to propose a list of genes that can potentially be used as biomarkers of OC. We used gene expression data by microarrays already available in literature. Materials and Methods: In the first step, a total of 318 miRNAs involved in oral carcinoma were shortlisted followed by the prediction of their target genes. Simultaneously, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of oral carcinoma from all experiments were identified. The common genes between lists of DEGs of OC based on experimentally proven data and target genes of each miRNA were identified. These common genes are the targets of specific miRNA, which is involved in OC. Finally, a list of genes was generated which may be used as biomarker of OC. Results and Conclusion: In results, we included some of pathways in cancer to show the change in gene expression under the control of specific miRNA. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) provided a list of major biomarkers like CDH2, CDK7 and functional enrichment analysis identified the role of miRNA in major pathways like cell adhesion molecules pathway affected by cancer. We observed that at least 25 genes are regulated by maximum number of miRNAs, and thereby, they can be used as biomarkers of OC. To better understand the role of miRNA with respect to their target genes further experiments are required, and our study provides a platform to better understand the miRNA-OC relationship at genomics level.

Keywords: biomarkers, gene expression, miRNA, oral carcinoma

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6960 MicroRNA Differential Profiling in Hepatitis C Patients Undergoing Major Surgeries: Propofol versus Sevoflurane Anesthesia

Authors: Hala Demerdash, Ola M. Zanaty, Emad Eldin Arida

Abstract:

Background: This study investigated the micoRNA expression changes induced by Sevoflurane and Propofol and their effects on liver functions. Patients and methods: The study was designed as randomized controlled study, carried out on 200 adult patients, scheduled for major surgeries under general anesthesia (GA). Patients were randomly divided into four groups; groups SC and PC included chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients where SC group are patients receiving Sevoflurane, and PC group are patients receiving Propofol anesthesia. While S and P groups included non- hepatitis patients; S group are patients receiving Sevoflurane and P group are patients receiving Propofol. Anesthesia in Group S and SC patients was maintained by sevoflurane, while anesthesia in Group P and PC patients was maintained by propofol infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for PT, PTT and liver enzymes. Serum samples were analyzed for microRNA before and after surgery. Results: Results show miRNA-122 and miRNA-21 were absent in serum of S and P groups in pre-operative samples. However, they were expressed in SC and PC groups. In post-operative samples; miRNA-122 revealed an increased expression in all groups; with more exaggerated response in SC group. On the other hand miRNA-21 revealed increased expression in both SC and PC groups; a slight expression in S group with absent expression in P group. There was a post-operative negative correlation between miR-122 and ALT (r=-0.46) in SC group and (r=-0.411) in PC group and positive correlation between ALT and miR-21 (r=0.335) in SC group and (r=0.379) in PC group. The amount of blood loss was positively correlated with miR-122 (r=0.366) in SC group and (r=0.384) in PC group. Conclusion: Propofol anesthesia is safer than Sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with CHC. Sevoflurane and Propofol anesthesia affect miRNA expression in both CHC and non-hepatitis patients.

Keywords: anesthesia, chronic hepatitis C, micoRNA, propofol, sevoflurane

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6959 The Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma(PRP) on Wounds of OLEFT Rats Using Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA

Authors: Ho Seong Shin

Abstract:

Introduction: A research in relation to wound healing also showed that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was effective on normal tissue regeneration. Nonetheless, there is no evidence that when platelet-rich plasma was applied on diabetic wound, it normalize diabetic wound healing process. In this study, we have analyzed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression to know the effect of PRP on diabetic wounds using Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA. Materials and Methods: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from blood of 6 rats. The whole 120-mL was added immediately to an anticoagulant. Citrate phosphonate dextrose(CPD) buffer (0.15 mg CPDmL) in a ratio of 1 mL of CPD buffer to 5 mL of blood. The blood was then centrifuged at 220g for 20minutes. The supernatant was saved to produce fibrin glue. The participate containing PRP was used for second centrifugation at 480g for 20 minutes. The pellet from the second centrifugation was saved and diluted with supernatant until the platelet concentration became 900,000/μL. Twenty male, 4week-old OLETF rats were underwent operation; each rat had two wounds created on left and right sides. The each wound of left side was treated with PRP gel, the wound of right side was treated with physiologic saline gauze. Results: RT-PCR analysis; The levels of MMP-2 mRNA in PRP applied tissues were positively related to postwounding days, whereas MMP-2 mRNA expression in saline-applied tissues remained in 5day after treatment. MMP-9 mRNA was undetectable in saline-applied tissues for either tissue, except 3day after treatment. Following PRP-applied tissues, MMP-9 mRNA expression was detected, with maximal expression being seen at third day. The levels of MMP-9 mRNA in PRP applied tissues were reported high intensity of optical density related to saline applied tissues.

Keywords: diabetes, MMP-2, MMP-9, OLETF, PRP, wound healing MMP-9

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6958 A Kernel-Based Method for MicroRNA Precursor Identification

Authors: Bin Liu

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, functioning in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The discrimination of the real pre-miRNAs from the false ones (such as hairpin sequences with similar stem-loops) is necessary for the understanding of miRNAs’ role in the control of cell life and death. Since both their small size and sequence specificity, it cannot be based on sequence information alone but requires structure information about the miRNA precursor to get satisfactory performance. Kmers are convenient and widely used features for modeling the properties of miRNAs and other biological sequences. However, Kmers suffer from the inherent limitation that if the parameter K is increased to incorporate long range effects, some certain Kmer will appear rarely or even not appear, as a consequence, most Kmers absent and a few present once. Thus, the statistical learning approaches using Kmers as features become susceptible to noisy data once K becomes large. In this study, we proposed a Gapped k-mer approach to overcome the disadvantages of Kmers, and applied this method to the field of miRNA prediction. Combined with the structure status composition, a classifier called imiRNA-GSSC was proposed. We show that compared to the original imiRNA-kmer and alternative approaches. Trained on human miRNA precursors, this predictor can achieve an accuracy of 82.34 for predicting 4022 pre-miRNA precursors from eleven species.

Keywords: gapped k-mer, imiRNA-GSSC, microRNA precursor, support vector machine

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6957 Trend Detection Using Community Rank and Hawkes Process

Authors: Shashank Bhatnagar, W. Wilfred Godfrey

Abstract:

We develop in this paper, an approach to find the trendy topic, which not only considers the user-topic interaction but also considers the community, in which user belongs. This method modifies the previous approach of user-topic interaction to user-community-topic interaction with better speed-up in the range of [1.1-3]. We assume that trend detection in a social network is dependent on two things. The one is, broadcast of messages in social network governed by self-exciting point process, namely called Hawkes process and the second is, Community Rank. The influencer node links to others in the community and decides the community rank based on its PageRank and the number of users links to that community. The community rank decides the influence of one community over the other. Hence, the Hawkes process with the kernel of user-community-topic decides the trendy topic disseminated into the social network.

Keywords: community detection, community rank, Hawkes process, influencer node, pagerank, trend detection

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6956 Aza-Flavanones as Small Molecule Inhibitors of MicroRNA-10b in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Debasmita Mukhopadhyay, Manika Pal Bhadra

Abstract:

MiRNAs contribute to oncogenesis either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Hence, discovery of miRNA-based therapeutics are imperative to ameliorate cancer. Modulation of miRNA maturation is accomplished via several therapeutic agents, including small molecules and oligonucleotides. Due to the attractive pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules over oligonucleotides, we set to identify small molecule inhibitors of a metastasis-inducing microRNA. Cytotoxicity profile of aza-flavanone C1 was analyzed in a panel of breast cancer cells employing the NCI-60 screen protocols. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and western blotting of apoptotic or EMT markers were performed to analyze the effect of C1. A dual luciferase assay unequivocally suggested that C1 repressed endogenous miR-10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. A derivative of aza-flavanone C1 is shown as a strong inhibitor miR-10b. Blockade of miR-10b by C1 resulted in decreased expression of miR-10b targets in an aggressive breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. Abrogation of TWIST1, an EMT-inducing transcription factor also contributed to C1 mediated apoptosis. Moreover C1 exhibited a specific and selective down-regulation of miR-10b and did not function as a general inhibitor of miRNA biogenesis or other oncomiRs of breast carcinoma. Aza-flavanone congener C1 functions as a potent inhibitor of the metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b. Our present study provides evidence for targeting metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b with a derivative of Aza-flavanone. Better pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules place them as attractive agents compared to nucleic acids based therapies to target miRNA. Further work, in generating analogues based on aza-flavanone moieties will significantly improve the affinity of the small molecules to bind miR-10b. Finally, it is imperative to develop small molecules as novel miRNA-therapeutics in the fight against cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, microRNA, metastasis, EMT

Procedia PDF Downloads 461