Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Navneet Manjhi

23 Human Gait Recognition Using Moment with Fuzzy

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, Navneet Manjhi, M. K.Gupta, Bimi Jain


A reliable gait features are required to extract the gait sequences from an images. In this paper suggested a simple method for gait identification which is based on moments. Moment values are extracted on different number of frames of gray scale and silhouette images of CASIA database. These moment values are considered as feature values. Fuzzy logic and nearest neighbour classifier are used for classification. Both achieved higher recognition.

Keywords: gait, fuzzy logic, nearest neighbour, recognition rate, moments

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22 Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for LTE Applications by Applying FDSC Model

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Jesada Sivaraks, Peerawat Promkladpanao, Nattakit Suriyakrai, Navneet Madan


In this paper, a compact microstrip patch antenna is designed for mobile LTE applications by applying the frequency-dependent Smith-Chart (FDSC) model. The FDSC model is adopted in this research to reduce the error on the frequency-dependent characteristics. The Ansoft HFSS and various techniques is applied to meet frequency and size requirements. The proposed method within this research is suitable for use in computer-aided microstrip antenna design and RF integrated circuit (RFIC) design.

Keywords: frequency-dependent, smith-chart, microstrip, antenna, LTE, CAD

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21 Employing GIS to Analyze Areas Prone to Flooding: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Sanpachai Huvanandana, Settapong Malisuwan, Soparwan Tongyuak, Prust Pannachet, Anong Phoepueak, Navneet Madan


Many regions of Thailand are prone to flooding due to tropical climate. A commonly increasing precipitation in this continent results in risk of flooding. Many efforts have been implemented such as drainage control system, multiple dams, and irrigation canals. In order to decide where the drainages, dams, and canal should be appropriately located, the flooding risk area should be determined. This paper is aimed to identify the appropriate features that can be used to classify the flooding risk area in Thailand. Several features have been analyzed and used to classify the area. Non-supervised clustering techniques have been used and the results have been compared with ten years average actual flooding area.

Keywords: flood area clustering, geographical information system, flood features

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20 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Sakshi Batra, Suresh Gupta, Pratik Pande, Navneet Kaur, Lovdeep Kaur


The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: bioremediation, cultural growth, dyes, environment

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19 Magnetoelectric Coupling in Hetero-Structured Nano-Composite of BST-BLFM Films

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Jasbir S. HUndal


Hetero-structured nano-composite thin film of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/Bi0.9La0.1Fe0.9Mn0.1O3 (BST/BLFM) has been prepared by chemical solution deposition method with various BST to BLFM thickness ratios. These films have been deposited over on p-type Si (100) substrate. These samples exhibited low leakage current, large grain size and uniform distribution of particles. The maximum remanent polarization (Pr) was achieved in the heterostructures with thickness ratio of 2.65. The dielectric tenability, electric hysteresis (P-E), ME coupling coefficient, magnetic hysteresis (M-H), ferromagnetic exchange interaction and magnetoelectric measurements were carried out. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy has been employed to investigate the surface morphology of these heterostructured nano-composite films.

Keywords: magnetoelectric, Schottky emission, interface coupling, dielectric tenability, electric hysteresis (P-E), ME coupling coefficient, magnetic hysteresis (M-H)

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18 Ferroelectricity in Nano-Composite Films of Sodium Nitrite: Starch Prepared by Drop Cast Technique

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal


Nano-composite films of sodium nitrite (NaNO2): Starch with different proportions of NaNO2 and Starch have been prepared by drop cast technique. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-V) have been traced using modified Sawyar-Tower circuit. The films containing equal proportions of NaNO2 and Starch exhibit optimized ferroelectric properties. The stability of the remanent polarization, Pr in the optimized nano-composite films exhibit improved stability over the pure NaNO2 films. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been employed to investigate the surface morphology. AFM images clearly reveal the nano sized particles of NaNO2 dispersed in starch with small value of surface roughness.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, nano-composite films, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), nano composite film

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17 Ferroelectricity in Fused Potassium Nitrate-Polymer Composite Films

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal


The ferroelectric properties of fused potassium nitrate (KNO3)- polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films have been investigated. The composite films of KNO3-PVA have been prepared by solvant cast technique and then fused over the brass substrate. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-E) have been obtained at room temperature using modified Sawyer-Tower circuit. Percentage of back switching and differential dielectric constant has been derived from P-V loops. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirm the formation of ferroelectric phase (phase III) in these composite films. The AFM and FE-SEM studies have been used to study the surface morphology of these composite films. The values of remanemt polarization, coercive field, back switching, crystallite size, lattice parameters, and surface roughness have been estimated and correlated.

Keywords: ferroelectric polymer composite, remanemt polarization, back switching, crystallite size, lattice parameters and surface roughness

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16 Phase Transition in Iron Storage Protein Ferritin

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Ferritin is a protein which present in the blood of mammals. It maintains the need of iron inside the body. It has an antiferromagnetic iron core, 7-8 nm in size, which is encapsulated inside a protein cage. The thickness of this protein shell is about 2-3 nm. This protein shell reduces the interaction among particles and make ferritin a model superparamagnet. The major composition of ferritin core is mineral ferrihydrite. The molecular formula of ferritin core is (FeOOH)8[FeOOPO3H2]. In this study, we discuss the phase transition of ferritin. We characterized ferritin using x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron micrograph, thermogravimetric analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that ferritin core is amorphous in nature with average particle size of 8 nm. The thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis curves shows mass loss at different temperatures. We heated ferritin at these temperatures. It is found that ferritin core starts decomposing after 390^o C. At 1020^o C, the ferritin core is finally converted to alpha phase of iron oxide. Magnetization behavior of final sample clearly shows the iron oxyhydroxide core is completely converted to alpha iron oxide.

Keywords: Antiferromagnetic, Ferritin, Phase, Superparamagnetic

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15 Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Collision Avoidance Multicasting Protocol in VANETs

Authors: Navneet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh


In Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data Dissemination is a challenging task. There are number of techniques, types and protocols available for disseminating the data but in order to preserve limited bandwidth and to disseminate maximum data over networks makes it more challenging. There are broadcasting, multicasting and geocasting based protocols. Multicasting based protocols are found to be best for conserving the bandwidth. One such protocol named BEAM exists that improves the performance of Vehicular Adhoc Networks by reducing the number of in-network message transactions and thereby efficiently utilizing the bandwidth during an emergency situation. But this protocol may result in multicar chain collision as there was no V2V communication. So, this paper proposes a new protocol named Enhanced Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Multicasting Protocol (EBECM) that will overcome the limitations of existing BEAM protocol. And Simulation results will show the improved performance of EBECM in terms of Routing overhead, throughput and PDR when compared with BEAM protocol.

Keywords: BEAM, data dissemination, emergency situation, vehicular adhoc network

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14 Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra


FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.

Keywords: FT-NIR, dough, e-nose, proofing, principal component analysis

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13 Prevalence of Microalbuminuria and Its Relation with Various Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet


Microalbuminuria is the earliest detectable marker of diabetic nephropathy. We planned to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics and correlate with various risk factor. We randomly selected 100 type 1 diabetic patients after inclusion and exclusion criteria from DCRC, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner. Clinical examinations for anthropometeric parameters, hypertension, retinopathy, glycaemic status, lipid profile were done and microalbuminuria was estimated by micral test. Microalbuminuria was seen in 38% patients. The mean urinary albumin concentration was 96.61 mg/l in microalbuminuria positive cases, 134 mg/L in hypertensive patients while 74.5 mg/L in normal patients. Mean diabetic duration was 6.43 years in microalbuminurics. Albumin excretion increased significantly with age at onset of 10-18 years and declined thereafter. Microalbuminuria cases exhibited mean cholesterol 181.63 mg%, TG 130.94 mg%, LDL 109.87 mg%, HDL 57.5 mg% and VLDL 30.64 mg%. Mean urinary albumin concentration in patients with retinopathy was 160.52 mg/L while 78.66 mg/L without retinopathy. In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, a strong positive association was seen between microalbuminuria and hypertension (OR=5.087, CI=2.1319-12.101), fasting blood sugar (OR=3. 491, CI=1.138-10.70), duration of diabetes (OR=3.41, CI=1.360-8.55) and HbA1c (OR=2.381, CI-=1.1-5.64). The present study indicates that microalbuminuria is a common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by careful management of risk factors.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, hypertension

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12 Recent Trend in Gluten-Free Bakery Products

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, H. N. Mishra


In the context of bakery products, the gluten component of wheat has a crucial role in stabilizing the gas-cell and crumb structures, appearance, mouth feel and maintaining the rheological properties, thus the acceptability of these products. However, because of coeliac disease, some individuals cannot tolerate the protein gliadin present in the gluten fraction of wheat flour. Also termed as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, it is a common chronicle disorder in populations throughout the world with average prevalence of 0.37%. The safest way for celiac sufferers is to stay away from gluten-containing foods such as wheat, rye, barley as well as durum wheat, spelt wheat, and triticale. Thus, in view of the current increasing incidence of gluten intolerant sufferers (due to improved diagnostic procedures), the development of gluten-free cereal-based bakery products suitable for celiac patients represents a challenging and serious task, but also very demanding call for food technologists as well as for the bakers. The use of alternative cereal starches (like rice, soy, maize, potato and so on), gums, hydrocolloids, dietary fibres, alternative protein sources, prebiotics and combinations of them represent the most widespread approach used as replacement to mimic gluten in the manufacture of industrial processable gluten-free bakery products due to their structure-building and water binding properties.

Keywords: gluten-free, coeliac disease, alternative flour, hydrocolloid, crumb structure

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11 Fiber Optic Asparagine Biosensor for Fruit Juices by Co-Immobilization of L-Asparaginase and Phenol Red

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ritu Narula, Navneet Kaur


Asparagine is vital amino acid which is required for the development of brain and it regulates the equilibrium of central nervous system. Asparagine is the chief amino acid that forms acrylamide in baked food by reacting with reducing sugars at high temperature ( Millard Reaction i.e. amino acids and sugars give new flavors at high temperature). It can also be a parameter of freshness in fruit juices because on storage of juices at 37°C caused an 87% loss in the total free amino acids and major decrease was recorded in asparagine contents. With this significance of monitoring asparagine, in the present work a biosensor for determining asparagine in fruit juices is developed. For the construction of biosensor L-asparaginase enzyme (0.5 IU) was co-immobilized with phenol red on TEOS chitosan sol-gel plastic disc and fixed on the fiber optic tip. Tip was immersed in a cell having 5ml of substrate and absorption was noted at response time of 5 min with 10-1 - 10-10 M concentrations of asparagine at 538 nm. L-asparaginase was extracted and from Solanum nigrum Asparagine biosensor was applied fruit juices on the monitoring asparagine contents. L-asparagine concentration found to be present in fruit juices like Guava Juice, Apple Juice, Mango Juice, Litchi juice, Strawberry juice, Pineapple juice Lemon juice, and Orange juice. Hence the developed biosensor has commercial aspects in quality insurance of fruit juices.

Keywords: fiber optic biosensor, chitosan, teos, l-asparaginase

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10 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna


A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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9 Antihyperglycemic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller in Diabetic Mice

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet


Foeniculum vulgare Miller is a biennial medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferaceae). It is a hardy, perennial–umbelliferous herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. The aim is to study the control of blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Method used for extraction was continuous hot percolation method in which Soxhlet apparatus was used.95%ethanol was used as solvent. Male albino mice weighing about 20-25 g obtained from Guru Angad Dev University of Veterinary Science, Ludhiana were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of 125 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in sterile saline (11). After 48 h, animals with serum glucose level above 200 mg/dl (diabetic) were selected for the study. Blood samples from mice were collected by retro-orbital puncture (ROP) technique. Serum glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. Single administration (single dose) of aqueous extract of fennel (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in diabetic Swiss albino mice, showed reduction in serum glucose level after 45 min. Maximum reduction in serum glucose level was seen at doses of 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of fennel in all doses except 25 mg/kg did not cause any significant decrease in blood glucose. It may be said that the aqueous extract of fennel decreased the serum glucose level and improved glucose tolerance owing to the presence of aldehyde moiety. The aqueous extract of fennel has antihyperglycemic activity as it lowers serum glucose level in diabetic mice.

Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare Miller, antihyperglycemic, diabetic mice, Umbelliferaceae

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8 Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose, HbA1C and Lipid Variables in Individuals with Newly Onset Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma


Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It influences glucose metabolism by potentiating the action as taking part in insulin signal amplification mechanism. A placebo-controlled single blind, prospective study was carried out to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile in newly onset patients with type-2 diabetes. Total 40 newly onset type-2 diabetics were selected and after one month stabilization further randomly divided into two groups viz. study group and placebo group. The study group received 9 gm brewer’s yeast (42 μ Cr) daily and the other placebo group received yeast devoid of chromium for 3 months. Subjects were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile were analyzed at beginning and completion of the study. Results revealed that fasting blood glucose level significantly reduced in the subjects consuming yeast supplemented with chromium (197.65±6.68 to 103.68±6.64 mg/dl; p<0.001). HbA1C values improved significantly from 9.51±0.26% to 6.86±0.28%; p<0.001 indicating better glycaemic control. In experimental group total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels were also significantly reduced from 199.66±3.11 to 189.26±3.01 mg/dl; p<0.02, 144.94±8.31 to 126.01±8.26; p<0.05 and 119.19±1.71 to 99.58±1.10; p<0.001 respectively. These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: type-2 diabetes, chromium, glucose, HbA1C

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7 Formulation and Evaluation of TDDS for Sustained Release Ondansetron HCL Patches

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma


The skin can be used as the site for drug administration for continuous transdermal drug infusion into the systemic circulation. For the continuous diffusion/penetration of the drugs through the intact skin surface membrane-moderated systems, matrix dispersion type systems, adhesive diffusion controlled systems and micro reservoir systems have been developed. Various penetration enhancers are used for the drug diffusion through skin. In matrix dispersion type systems, the drug is dispersed in the solvent along with the polymers and solvent allowed to evaporate forming a homogeneous drug-polymer matrix. Matrix type systems were developed in the present study. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system comprising of ondansetron-HCl with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric combinations using solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was studied by infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed no physical-chemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. The patches were further subjected to various physical evaluations along with the in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin. On the basis of results obtained form the in vitro study and physical evaluation, the patches containing hydrophilic polymers i.e. polyvinyl alcohol and poly vinyl pyrrolidone with oleic acid as the penetration enhancer(5%) were considered as suitable for large scale manufacturing with a backing layer and a suitable adhesive membrane.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, penetration enhancers, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, ondansetron HCl

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6 Computational Investigation of V599 Mutations of BRAF Protein and Its Control over the Therapeutic Outcome under the Malignant Condition

Authors: Mayank, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh


The V599 mutations in the BRAF protein are extremely oncogenic, responsible for countless of malignant conditions. Along with wild type, V599E, V599D, and V599R are the important mutated variants of the BRAF proteins. The BRAF inhibitory anticancer agents are continuously developing, and sorafenib is a BRAF inhibitor that is under clinical use. The crystal structure of sorafenib bounded to wild type, and V599 is known, showing a similar interaction pattern in both the case. The mutated 599th residue, in both the case, is also found not interacting directly with the co-crystallized sorafenib molecule. However, the IC50 value of sorafenib was found extremely different in both the case, i.e., 22 nmol/L for wild and 38 nmol/L for V599E protein. Molecular docking study and MMGBSA binding energy results also revealed a significant difference in the binding pattern of sorafenib in both the case. Therefore, to explore the role of distinctively situated 599th residue, we have further conducted comprehensive computational studies. The molecular dynamics simulation, residue interaction network (RIN) analysis, and residue correlation study results revealed the importance of the 599th residue on the therapeutic outcome and overall dynamic of the BRAF protein. Therefore, although the position of 599th residue is very much distinctive from the ligand-binding cavity of BRAF, still it has exceptional control over the overall functional outcome of the protein. The insight obtained here may seem extremely important and guide us while designing ideal BRAF inhibitory anticancer molecules.

Keywords: BRAF, oncogenic, sorafenib, computational studies

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5 Estimation of Particle Size Distribution Using Magnetization Data

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Magnetic nanoparticles possess fascinating properties which make their behavior unique in comparison to corresponding bulk materials. Superparamagnetism is one such interesting phenomenon exhibited only by small particles of magnetic materials. In this state, the thermal energy of particles become more than their magnetic anisotropy energy, and so particle magnetic moment vectors fluctuate between states of minimum energy. This situation is similar to paramagnetism of non-interacting ions and termed as superparamagnetism. The magnetization of such systems has been described by Langevin function. But, the estimated fit parameters, in this case, are found to be unphysical. It is due to non-consideration of particle size distribution. In this work, analysis of magnetization data on NiO nanoparticles is presented considering the effect of particle size distribution. Nanoparticles of NiO of two different sizes are prepared by heating freshly synthesized Ni(OH)₂ at different temperatures. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single phase of NiO. The diffraction lines are seen to be quite broad indicating the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The average crystallite size are estimated to be about 6 and 8 nm. The samples are also characterized by transmission electron microscope. Magnetization of both sample is measured as function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization are measured as a function of temperature to determine the bifurcation temperature. The magnetization is also measured at several temperatures in superparamagnetic region. The data are fitted to an appropriate expression considering a distribution in particle size following a least square fit procedure. The computer codes are written in PYTHON. The presented analysis is found to be very useful for estimating the particle size distribution present in the samples. The estimated distributions are compared with those determined from transmission electron micrographs.

Keywords: anisotropy, magnetization, nanoparticles, superparamagnetism

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4 FT-NIR Method to Determine Moisture in Gluten Free Rice-Based Pasta during Drying

Authors: Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra


Pasta is one of the most widely consumed food products around the world. Rapid determination of the moisture content in pasta will assist food processors to provide online quality control of pasta during large scale production. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared method (FT-NIR) was developed for determining moisture content in pasta. A calibration set of 150 samples, a validation set of 30 samples and a prediction set of 25 samples of pasta were used. The diffuse reflection spectra of different types of pastas were measured by FT-NIR analyzer in the 4,000-12,000 cm-1 spectral range. Calibration and validation sets were designed for the conception and evaluation of the method adequacy in the range of moisture content 10 to 15 percent (w.b) of the pasta. The prediction models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, were developed in the near-infrared. Conventional criteria such as the R2, the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square errors of estimation (RMSEE) as well as the number of PLS factors were considered for the selection of three pre-processing (vector normalization, minimum-maximum normalization and multiplicative scatter correction) methods. Spectra of pasta sample were treated with different mathematic pre-treatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and moisture content. The moisture content in pasta predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (R2 = 0.983), which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of moisture content in pasta. The best calibration model was developed with min-max normalization (MMN) spectral pre-processing (R2 = 0.9775). The MMN pre-processing method was found most suitable and the maximum coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9875 was obtained for the calibration model developed.

Keywords: FT-NIR, pasta, moisture determination, food engineering

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3 Radiation Skin Decontamination Formulation

Authors: Navneet Sharma, Himanshu Ojha, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rakesh Kumar Sharma


Radio-nuclides decontamination is an important task because any extra second of deposition leads to deleterious health effects. We had developed and characterise nanoemulsion of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens using phase inversion temperature (PIT) method and evaluate its decontamination efficacy (DE). The solubility of the drug was determined in various oils and surfactants. Nanoemulsion developed with an HLB value of 11 and different ratios of the surfactants 10% (7:3, w/w), oil (20%, w/w), and double distilled water (70%) were selected. Formulation was characterised by multi-photon spectroscopy and parameters like viscosity, droplet size distribution, zeta potential and stability were optimised. In vitro and Ex vivo decontamination efficacy (DE) was evaluated against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131, and Thallium-201 as radio-contaminants applied over skin of Sprague-Dawley rat and human tissue equivalent model. Contaminants were removed using formulation soaked in cotton swabs at different time intervals and whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using SPECT gamma camera before and after decontamination attempt. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was found to be significant (p <0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens was compared with placebo and recorded to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for 99mTc, 131I and 201Tl respectively. Ex-vivo complexation study of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion with surrogate nuclides of radioactive thallium and Iodine, were performed on rat skin mounted on Franz diffusion cell using high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). More than 90% complexation of the formulation with these nuclides was observed. Results demonstrate that the prepared nanoemulsion formulation was found efficacious for the decontamination of radionuclides from a large contaminated population.

Keywords: p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens, skin decontamination, radiological emergencies, nanoemulsion, iodine-131, thallium-201

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2 Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.

Keywords: anisotropy, superparamagnetic, nanoparticle, magnetization

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1 Design Flood Estimation in Satluj Basin-Challenges for Sunni Dam Hydro Electric Project, Himachal Pradesh-India

Authors: Navneet Kalia, Lalit Mohan Verma, Vinay Guleria


Introduction: Design Flood studies are essential for effective planning and functioning of water resource projects. Design flood estimation for Sunni Dam Hydro Electric Project located in State of Himachal Pradesh, India, on the river Satluj, was a big challenge in view of the river flowing in the Himalayan region from Tibet to India, having a large catchment area of varying topography, climate, and vegetation. No Discharge data was available for the part of the river in Tibet, whereas, for India, it was available only at Khab, Rampur, and Luhri. The estimation of Design Flood using standard methods was not possible. This challenge was met using two different approaches for upper (snow-fed) and lower (rainfed) catchment using Flood Frequency Approach and Hydro-metrological approach. i) For catchment up to Khab Gauging site (Sub-Catchment, C1), Flood Frequency approach was used. Around 90% of the catchment area (46300 sqkm) up to Khab is snow-fed which lies above 4200m. In view of the predominant area being snow-fed area, 1 in 10000 years return period flood estimated using Flood Frequency analysis at Khab was considered as Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). The flood peaks were taken from daily observed discharges at Khab, which were increased by 10% to make them instantaneous. Design Flood of 4184 cumec thus obtained was considered as PMF at Khab. ii) For catchment between Khab and Sunni Dam (Sub-Catchment, C2), Hydro-metrological approach was used. This method is based upon the catchment response to the rainfall pattern observed (Probable Maximum Precipitation - PMP) in a particular catchment area. The design flood computation mainly involves the estimation of a design storm hyetograph and derivation of the catchment response function. A unit hydrograph is assumed to represent the response of the entire catchment area to a unit rainfall. The main advantage of the hydro-metrological approach is that it gives a complete flood hydrograph which allows us to make a realistic determination of its moderation effect while passing through a reservoir or a river reach. These studies were carried out to derive PMF for the catchment area between Khab and Sunni Dam site using a 1-day and 2-day PMP values of 232 and 416 cm respectively. The PMF so obtained was 12920.60 cumec. Final Result: As the Catchment area up to Sunni Dam has been divided into 2 sub-catchments, the Flood Hydrograph for the Catchment C1 has been routed through the connecting channel reach (River Satluj) using Muskingum method and accordingly, the Design Flood was computed after adding the routed flood ordinates with flood ordinates of catchment C2. The total Design Flood (i.e. 2-Day PMF) with a peak of 15473 cumec was obtained. Conclusion: Even though, several factors are relevant while deciding the method to be used for design flood estimation, data availability and the purpose of study are the most important factors. Since, generally, we cannot wait for the hydrological data of adequate quality and quantity to be available, flood estimation has to be done using whatever data is available. Depending upon the type of data available for a particular catchment, the method to be used is to be selected.

Keywords: design flood, design storm, flood frequency, PMF, PMP, unit hydrograph

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