Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2234

Search results for: mathematical and trait anxiety

2234 EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatiana A. Golovko, Yulia V. Kovas

Abstract:

EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions. The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16-20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band were associated with differences between anterior and posterior cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual resources.

Keywords: EEG, brain activity, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, mathematical and trait anxiety

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2233 Athletes with High Mental Toughness Levels Experiencing Less Anxiety

Authors: H. Analuie, M. Faruque, S. Saha, H. Hashim, M. Muzaimi

Abstract:

Though mental toughness has long been explored in sport psychology, much of our understanding on the topic remains largely unexplored. The concept is used widely, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand the construct and its related variables. This research investigated the correlation between mental toughness and trait anxiety to determine whether mentally tough athletes generally experience more or less anxiety. A sample of 57 men (M age = 25.4 years, s=4.66) and 45 women (M age = 23.5 years, s=5.73) participated in a variety of sports were recruited, where mental toughness was measured using MTQ48. Levels of trait anxiety were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Series of Pearson correlations between trait anxiety, overall mental toughness, and the six subscales of mental toughness showed significant (p> .05) relationships. As predicted, greater mental toughness was associated with less reported trait anxiety. Independent t-tests found significant differences (p> .05) in overall mental toughness, the mental toughness subscales or trait anxiety between men and women. More research is required to understand how mentally tough athletes experience less anxiety in comparison to those who are not as mentally tough. Our findings suggest that relationships observed in this study emphasize the need for the inclusion of trait anxiety in mental toughness interventions.

Keywords: mental toughness, trait anxiety, MTQ48, sport psychology

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2232 The Effects of Emotional Working Memory Training on Trait Anxiety

Authors: Gabrielle Veloso, Welison Ty

Abstract:

Trait anxiety is a pervasive tendency to attend to and experience fears and worries to a disproportionate degree, across various situations. This study sought to determine if participants who undergo emotional working memory training will have significantly lower scores on the trait anxiety scales post-intervention. The study also sought to determine if emotional regulation mediated the relationship between working memory training and trait anxiety. Forty-nine participants underwent 20 days of computerized emotional working memory training called Emotional Dual n-back, which involves viewing a continuous stream of emotional content on a grid, and then remembering the location and color of items presented on the grid. Participants of the treatment group had significantly lower trait anxiety compared to controls post-intervention. Mediation analysis determined that working memory training had no significant relationship to anxiety as measured by the Beck’s Anxiety Inventory-Trait (BAIT), but was significantly related to anxiety as measured by form Y2 of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2). Emotion regulation, as measured by the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), was found not to mediate between working memory training and trait anxiety reduction. Results suggest that working memory training may be useful in reducing psychoemotional symptoms rather than somatic symptoms of trait anxiety. Moreover, it proposes for future research to further look into the mediating role of emotion regulation via neuroimaging and the development of more comprehensive measures of emotion regulation.

Keywords: anxiety, emotion regulation, working-memory, working-memory training

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2231 The Relationship between General Self-Efficacy, Perfectionism and Trait Anxiety: A Study among Gifted Students

Authors: Marialena Kostouli, Georgia Tsoulfa

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between general self-efficacy, perfectionism, and gifted students’ trait anxiety. One hundred fifty three students, who were all selected and enrolled at the Center for Talented Youth (CTY) - Greece summer program, participated in the study. The sample consisted of 78 males (51%) and 75 females (49%), with a mean age of 14.96 years (SD = 1.16 years). Three self-report questionnaires were used for the purposes of the current study, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale, the State-Trait anxiety inventory and the General Self-Efficacy scale. The results revealed a significant correlation between trait anxiety, general self-efficacy and the four sub-scales of perfectionism (concern over mistakes and doubts about actions, excessive concern with parents’ expectations and evaluation, excessively high personal standards and concern with precision, order, and organization). It was also found that the female CTY students experience greater levels of trait anxiety compared to the male CTYers. Moreover, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the possible predictors of gifted students’ trait anxiety. The analysis showed that general self-efficacy and the concern over mistakes and doubts about actions significantly predicted the trait anxiety of the gifted children that we examined. Avenues of further research and implications for the development of interventions to help gifted students promote their general self-efficacy, reduce their concern over their actions and develop strategies in order to cope with their anxiety are discussed.

Keywords: general self-efficacy, gifted students, perfectionism, trait anxiety

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2230 In Search of the Chosen One: The Effectiveness of Video Games to Reduce the Intensity of Anxiety - State in College Students

Authors: Gerardo Hernández Sierra

Abstract:

Today, we are exposed to different anxiogenic stimuli, some of those stimuli (such as traffic, noise, etc.) generates anxiety in people, being the anxiety a factor that can develop different disorders in people. Therefore, and to improve the quality of life of people it is necessary to find new and helpful tools according to the times we’re living to decrease their anxiety state. Moreover, video games are consolidated globally as a way of interactive entertainment characterized by being available to many people, being fun and easy to play. Even so, people reports that they like playing videogames because they decrease their stress (an anxiety detonator). This research will seek the effectiveness of some videogame genres to reduce the intensity of state anxiety in students. Using State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to do a monitoring of the levels of anxiety pre and post displayed the videogames.

Keywords: anxiety, state trait anxiety inventory (STAI), stress, videogames

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2229 The Impact of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety on Oscillatory Brain Activity during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatyana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Yulia V. Kovas

Abstract:

The present study compared spectral-power indexes and cortical topography of brain activity in a sample characterized by different levels of trait and mathematical anxiety. 52 healthy Russian-speakers (age 17-32; 30 males) participated in the study. Participants solved an error recognition task under 3 conditions: A lexical condition (simple sentences in Russian), and two numerical conditions (simple arithmetic and complicated algebraic problems). Trait and mathematical anxiety were measured using self-repot questionnaires. EEG activity was recorded simultaneously during task execution. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) were used to analyze spectral-power changes in brain activity. Additionally, sLORETA was applied in order to localize the sources of brain activity. When exploring EEG activity recorded after tasks onset during lexical conditions, sLORETA revealed increased activation in frontal and left temporal cortical areas, mainly in the alpha/beta frequency ranges. When examining the EEG activity recorded after task onset during arithmetic and algebraic conditions, additional activation in delta/theta band in the right parietal cortex was observed. The ERSP plots reveled alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three (lexical, arithmetic and algebraic) conditions. The level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the amplitude of alpha/beta desynchronization. The level of mathematical anxiety was negatively correlated with the amplitude of theta synchronization and of alpha/beta desynchronization. Overall, trait anxiety was related with an increase in brain activation during task execution, whereas mathematical anxiety was associated with increased inhibitory-related activity. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the №11.G34.31.0043 grant from the Government of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: anxiety, EEG, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, alpha/beta desynchronization

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2228 A Neuropsychological Investigation of the Relationship between Anxiety Levels and Loss of Inhibitory Cognitive Control in Ageing and Dementia

Authors: Nasreen Basoudan, Andrea Tales, Frederic Boy

Abstract:

Non-clinical anxiety may be comprised of state anxiety - temporarily experienced anxiety related to a specific situation, and trait anxiety - a longer lasting response or a general disposition to anxiety. While temporary and occasional anxiety whether as a mood state or personality dimension is normal, nonclinical anxiety may influence many more components of information processing than previously recognized. In ageing and dementia-related research, disease characterization now involves attempts to understand a much wider range of brain function such as loss of inhibitory control, as against the more common focus on memory and cognition. However, in many studies, the tendency has been to include individuals with clinical anxiety disorders while excluding persons with lower levels of state or trait anxiety. Loss of inhibitory cognitive control can lead to behaviors such as aggression, reduced sensitivity to others, sociopathic thoughts and actions. Anxiety has also been linked to inhibitory control, with research suggesting that people with anxiety are less capable of inhibiting their emotions than the average person. This study investigates the relationship between anxiety and loss of inhibitory control in younger and older adults, using a variety of questionnaires and computers-based tests. Based on the premise that irrespective of classification, anxiety is associated with a wide range of physical, affective, and cognitive responses, this study explores evidence indicative of the potential influence anxiety per se on loss of inhibitory control, in order to contribute to discussion and appropriate consideration of anxiety-related factors in methodological practice.

Keywords: anxiety, ageing, dementia, inhibitory control

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2227 The Relationship between Level of Anxiety and the Development of Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency

Authors: Ewa Mojs, Katarzyna Wiechec, Maia Kubiak, Wlodzimierz Samborski

Abstract:

Interactions between mother’s psychological condition and child’s health status are complex and derive from the nature of the mother-child relationship. The aim of the study was to analyze the issue of anxiety amongst mothers of short children in the aspect of growth hormone therapy. The study was based on a group of 101 mothers of originally short-statured children – 70 with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and 31 undergoing the diagnostic process, without any treatment. Collected medical data included child's gender, height and weight, chronological age, bone age delay, and rhGH therapy duration. For all children, the height SDS and BMI SDS were calculated. To evaluate anxiety in mothers, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used. Obtained results revealed low trait anxiety levels, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. State anxiety levels were average when mothers of all children were analyzed together, but when divided into groups, statistical differences appeared. Mothers of children without diagnosis and treatment had significantly higher levels of state anxiety than mothers of children with GHD receiving appropriate therapy. These results show, that the occurrence of growth failure in children is not related to high maternal trait anxiety, but the lack of diagnosis and lack of appropriate treatment generates higher levels of maternal state anxiety than the process of rh GH therapy in the offspring. Commencement of growth hormone therapy induce a substantial reduction of the state anxiety in mothers, and the duration of treatment causes its further decrease.

Keywords: anxiety, development, growth hormone deficiency, motherhood

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2226 A Quantitative Study Identifying the Prevalence of Anxiety in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

Adult students with dyslexia in higher education can receive support for their cognitive needs but may also experience negative emotion such as anxiety due to their dyslexia in connection with their studies. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that adult dyslexic learners have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers. A quantitative approach was used to measure differences in academic and social anxiety between 102 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia compared to 72 students with no history of learning difficulties. Academic and social anxiety was measured in a questionnaire based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings showed that dyslexic students showed statistically significant higher levels of academic, but not social anxiety in comparison to the non-dyslexic sample. Dyslexic students in higher education show academic anxiety levels that are well above what is shown by students without dyslexia. The implications of this for the dyslexia practitioner is that delivery of strategies to deal with anxiety should be seen equally as important, if not more so, than interventions to deal with cognitive difficulties.

Keywords: Academic, Anxiety, Dyslexia, Quantitative

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2225 Effectiveness of Laughter Yoga in Reducing Anxiety among Pre-Operative Patients for Scheduled Major Surgery

Authors: Denise Allison D. Garcia, Camille C. Garcia, Keanu Raphael Garrido, Crestita B. Tan

Abstract:

Introduction: Anxiety is a common problem among pre-operative patients. Several methods or interventions are being applied in order to relieve anxiety. Laughter yoga, however, is a method that has been used to relieve anxiety but has not yet been tested to pre-operative patients. Therefore, this study determined the effectiveness of laughter yoga in reducing anxiety among pre-operative middle-aged patients scheduled for major surgery. Methods: After Ethics Review Board approval, a quasi-experimental study was conducted among 40 purposely-selected pre-operative patients in two tertiary hospitals. Anxiety level was measured prior to administration of laughter yoga using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory with a Cronbach alpha of 0.83. After Laughter yoga, anxiety level was then measured again. Gathered data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 using paired and independent t-test and ANCOVA. Results: After analysis of the data gathered, the results showed that there was a significant decrease in the anxiety level of patients in the experimental group. From an anxiety level of 44.00, the rating went down to 36.85. Meanwhile in the control group, the anxiety level at the pretest at 41.25 went up to 42.50. Laughter yoga was an effective non-pharmacologic intervention for reducing anxiety of pre-operative patients. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that laughter yoga causes a significant decrease in the anxiety level of patients.

Keywords: anxiety, laughter yoga, non-pharmacologic, pre-operative

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2224 The Effects of Fearing Cancer in Women

Authors: E. Kotrotsiou, A. S. Topsioti, S. Mantzoukas, E. Dragioti, M. Gouva

Abstract:

Introduction: The literature has demonstrated that individual and psychological factors have a direct effect on the perceptions and attitudes of women with cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the fear of cancer and anxiety. Aim: To examine the impact of the fear of cancer in women with state and trait anxiety of women. Methods: A community sample of 286 women (mean age 39.6 years, SD = 9.5 ranged 20-60) participated in the current study. The women completed a) State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for fear of cancer. Results: The perception of fear in women with cancer is statistically independent from their age (t–test, p = 0.58), their family status (χ2, p = 0.519), their place of residency (χ2, p = 0.148), the manifestation of gynecological cancer (χ2, p = 0.979) or the manifestation of any type of cancer in the family (χ2, p = 0.277). In contrast, it was observed that there was a dependence in relation to a total of phobias (χ2, p = 0.003), the fear of illness (χ2, p< 0.001) and the fear of heights (χ2, p = 0.004). Furthermore, the participants that responded that they feared cancer displayed greater level of stress both as situation (t=-3.462; p=0.001) and as a trait of their personality (t=-4.377; p<0.001), and at the same time they displayed greater levels of depression in comparisons with the other participants. Furthermore, following multiple linear regression analysis it was observed that the participants that responded positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8, 3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively to the question if they feared cancer (B=8.3; p=0.016; R2=0.506). Conclusion: Women’s fear of cancer is statistically independent from their age, family status, place of residency, the manifestation of gynaecological cancer and with the manifestation of cancer any type in the family. In contrast, there is a dependency with the total of phobias, fear of illness and fear of heights. Women that state that they have a fear of cancer manifest greater levels of stress from the rest of the participants both as situation and as a trait of their personality (p = 0.001 and p< 0.001 accordingly). In specific, the study demonstrated that the participants that positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8,3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively.

Keywords: fear, women health, anxiety, psychology, cancer

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2223 Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation: Comparing the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale/Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, Numerical Verbal Rating Scale, Categorization Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

Authors: Roya Yumul, Chse, Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra

Abstract:

Background: Preoperative anxiety has been shown to be caused by the fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting, given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item extensive questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgment, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparative analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceeds VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%), or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusions: Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: preoperative anxiety, visual facial anxiety scale, numerical verbal anxiety scale, state-trait anxiety inventory

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2222 Comparison of the Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale to the Categorization Scale, the Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation

Authors: Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, Roya Yumul, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra

Abstract:

Background:It is crucial to detect the patient’s existing anxiety to assist patients in perioperative setting which isto be cause by fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Yumul Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgement, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparison analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceed VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%) or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusion:Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: numerical verbal anxiety scale, preoperative anxiety, state-trait anxiety inventory, visual facial anxiety scale

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2221 Speech Anxiety in Higher Education Students-Retention of an Ancestral Trait: A Study into the Students' Perspective of Communication Anxiety with Suggestions on How to Minimise Student Distress

Authors: Paul D. Facey, Claire Morgan

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Speech anxiety is thought to be deep-seated within the human evolutionary lineage.As a result, almost all people display high levels of anxiety when asked to communicate in front of an audience.However, proficiency in oral communication is considered as an essential skill for a graduate career and significant emphasis is placed on developing these skills in many degree programs.Because of this, many degree schemes incorporate some form of assessed dialogic presentation. Yet, a student’s anxiety over public speaking, especially if severe, can be so great that at worst it can cause the student to withdraw from their study. This study investigated how students perceive their own levels of anxiety when faced with public speaking using the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) questionnaire developed by McCroskey. Additionally, students were asked to provide examples of adjustments that could be implemented that they felt would alleviate some/all of their anxiety. The results of the study indicated that the majority of the students experienced a moderate level of anxiety. However, further analysis showed that of those who were in the moderate anxiety’ group, 43% fell into the higher range suggesting that overall more students experience higher levels of anxiety when faced with public speaking than maybe first envisaged. Thus, it is essential that steps are taken to address student anxiety in order that students engage with presentations, are motivated and encouraged and do not avoid such assignments. The feedback from our students indicated a need to implement systematic desensitization programs where students learn to overcome their anxiety through a series of sessions that gradually increase their anxiety levels. Furthermore, these sessions should be run in parallel with skills sessions in order for students to be better prepared and allow self-reflection and self-analysis.This study highlights the paucity of these sessions on many degree schemes and suggests that they should form an integral part of a students’ early academic learning.

Keywords: student anxiety, communication anxiety, public speaking, higher education, desensitisation

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2220 Comparison of Effect of Group Counseling with Cognitive Therapy Approach and Interactive Lectures on Anxiety during Pregnancy in Primiparas: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Zohre Shahhosseini, Mehdi Pourasghar, AliReza Khalilian, Fariba Salehi

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Objective: The prevalence of anxiety during pregnancy, particularly in developing countries, and its adverse effects on mother and baby, can make pregnancy unpleasant for pregnant women. The effect of anxiety during pregnancy on birth outcomes and children can be a justification for screening of anxious pregnant women in periodic pregnancy care and helping them. In this study, researchers have investigated effects and comparison of group counseling (Cognitive therapy) and interactive lectures on anxiety during pregnancy of primiparas. Methods: The population studied in this semi-experimental trail was nulliparous pregnant women with backgrounds in health care centers in Sari city .They were studied during a period of 3 months from early March to end May 2016. Sample size in this study was 91 patients, who were randomly assigned to three groups: group counseling, interactive lecture, and control group. Demographic questionnaire and Speilberger State –Trait Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) was completed for all three groups after obtaining letter of consent and completing the initial checklist. Then interventions included 4 sessions for group counseling and 4 sessions for interactive lecture which were implemented in two sessions a week. 4 weeks after interventions, Speilberger State – Trait Anxiety Inventory (SPAI), completed by both group counseling and interactive lectures groups again. In control group, the second questionnaire was also completed 4 weeks after completing the initial questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using spss software version 18. At first, the Kalmogorov-Smiranov test was carried out and then chi square tests, Independent t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA test, and Dunnett's post hoc test were applied. Results: Findings show that group counseling and interactive lecture with reducing state and trait anxiety in significant level of P=0/000 contribute to reduction of anxiety in nulliparous pregnant mothers. However, in this study, group counseling was more effective than an interactive lecture in reducing participants' anxiety, but this difference was not significant (P≥0/05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it is suggested that by screening of psychological - mental problems of pregnant women in periodic care during pregnancy be considered by revised prenatal care plans and creation of counseling and training units at health centers. Besides owing to the fact that both interactive lecture and group counseling method were effective in reducing anxiety, these methods should be used proportionate to situations and facilities.

Keywords: anxiety, group counseling, cognitive therapy, interactive lecture, nulliparous

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2219 Mathematical Anxiety and Misconceptions in Algebra of Grade Vii Students in General Emilio Aguinaldo National High School

Authors: Nessa-Amie T. Peñaflor, Antonio Cinto

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This is a descriptive research on the level of math anxiety and mathematics misconceptions in algebra. This research is composed of four parts: (1) analysis of the level of anxiety of the respondents; (2) analysis of the common mathematical misconceptions in algebra; (3) relationship of socio-demographic profile in math anxiety and mathematical misconceptions and (4) analysis of the relationship of math anxiety and misconceptions in algebra. Through the demographic profile questionnaire it was found out that most of the respondents were female. Majority had ages that ranged from 13-15. Most of them had parents who finished secondary education. The biggest portion of Grade Seven students where from families with annual family income ranging from PhP 100, 000 to PhP 299, 999. Most of them came from public school. Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Secondary and Senior Secondary School Students (MAS) and set of 10 open-ended algebraic expressions and polynomials were also administered to determine the anxiety level and the common misconceptions in algebra. Data analysis revealed that respondents had high anxiety in mathematics. Likewise, the common mathematical misconceptions of the Grade Seven students were: combining unlike terms; multiplying the base and exponents; regarding the variable x as 0; squaring the first and second terms only in product of two binomials; wrong meaning attached to brackets; writing the terms next to each other but not simplifying in using the FOIL Method; writing the literal coefficient even if the numerical coefficient is 0; and dividing the denominator by the numerator when the numerical coefficient in the numerator is smaller than the numerical coefficient of the denominator. Results of the study show that the socio-demographic characteristics were not related to mathematics anxiety and misconceptions. Furthermore, students from higher section had high anxiety than those students on the lower section. Thus, belonging to higher or lower section may affect the mathematical misconceptions of the respondents.

Keywords: algebra, grade 7 math, math anxiety, math misconceptions

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2218 A Study of Career Suitability Among Medical Students

Authors: Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Zarini Ismail, Shalinawati Ramli, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim, K. Omar

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Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions in our life. A right career leads a person to grow with that career and achieve success through the decision. Thus, career suitability assessment is important to help individuals to understand how a variety of personal attributes can impact their potential success and satisfaction with different career options and work environments. Some career needs specific personality trait that relates to attributes of job requirements and commitments. For medicine, being caring, approachable, inquisitive, able to listen and understand patients’ pain, anxiety and sorrow are important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the career suitability of pre-clinical students. This was a cross sectional study conducted among pre-clinical medical students in Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. 'Sidek Career Interest Inventory’ was used to assess the students’ suitability for the course. This instrument had been validated locally to suit the local social and cultural context. It assessed the students’ personality trait based on Holland’s theory and their interests. For students to pursue in the medical course, two main personality trait are believed to be essential namely investigative and social trait personalities. Some of the characteristics of investigative trait are analytical, rational, intellectual and curious, while the characteristics of social trait personality include empathy, friendly, understanding and accommodating. The score for each personality trait were categorized as low (0-3.99), moderate (4-6.99) and high (7-10). A total of 81 pre-clinical medical students were included in this study. About two third (93.8%) of them were female and all of them are from 20 to 21 of age. Approximately, half of the students (47.5%) scored high and another 46.3% scored moderate for investigative trait. For social trait, only 13.8% scored high while 31.3% scored moderate. Only 12.5% (10) students had high scores for both investigative and social traits. Most of the pre-clinical medical students scored high in the investigative sections, however their social values were inadequate (low scores). For them to become good medical doctors, they should be good in both investigative and social skills to enhance their suitability for this career. Therefore, there is a need to nurture these medical students with appropriate social values and soft skills.

Keywords: career suitability, career interest, medical students, personality trait

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2217 Mathematics Anxiety among Male and Female Students

Authors: Wern Lin Yeo, Choo Kim Tan, Sook Ling Lew

Abstract:

Mathematics anxiety refers to the feeling of anxious when one having difficulties in solving mathematical problem. Mathematics anxiety is the most common type of anxiety among other types of anxiety which occurs among the students. However, level of anxiety among males and females are different. There were few past study were conducted to determine the relationship of anxiety and gender but there were still did not have an exact results. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of anxiety level between male and female undergraduates at a private university in Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used in this study in which the students were selected based on the grouping assigned by the faculty. There were 214 undergraduates who registered the probability courses had participated in this study. Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was the instrument used in study which used to determine students’ anxiety level towards probability. Reliability and validity of instrument was done before the major study was conducted. In the major study, students were given briefing about the study conducted. Participation of this study were voluntary. Students were given consent form to determine whether they agree to participate in the study. Duration of two weeks were given for students to complete the given online questionnaire. The data collected will be analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the level of anxiety. There were three anxiety level, i.e., low, average and high. Students’ anxiety level were determined based on their scores obtained compared with the mean and standard deviation. If the scores obtained were below mean and standard deviation, the anxiety level was low. If the scores were at below and above the mean and between one standard deviation, the anxiety level was average. If the scores were above the mean and greater than one standard deviation, the anxiety level was high. Results showed that both of the gender were having average anxiety level. Males having high frequency of three anxiety level which were low, average and high anxiety level as compared to females. Hence, the mean values obtained for males (M = 3.62) was higher than females (M = 3.42). In order to be significant of anxiety level among the gender, the p-value should be less than .05. The p-value obtained in this study was .117. However, this value was greater than .05. Thus, there was no significant difference of anxiety level among the gender. In other words, there was no relationship of anxiety level with the gender.

Keywords: anxiety level, gender, mathematics anxiety, probability and statistics

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2216 A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume

Authors: Takashi Kaburagi, Masashi Takenaka, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Matsumoto

Abstract:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.

Keywords: frontal lobe, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, state-trait anxiety inventory score, stress

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2215 The Effect of Inhalation of Ylang-ylang Aroma on the Levels of Anxiety of Parents with Hospitalized Toddlers Diagnosed with Pneumonia

Authors: Crisostomo Hart A., Cruz Anna Cecilia R., Cruz Bianca Isabelle A., Cruz John Edward Ligzurc M., Cruz Mikaela Denise P.

Abstract:

Aim/purpose: The researchers aimed to determine the effect of Ylang-ylang aroma in decreasing the anxiety levels of parents with hospitalized toddlers diagnosed with pneumonia. Method: Quantitative Quasi-experimental one-group pre-test post-test design was utilized in the study. The study includes a pretest, an intervention, and a posttest on the same experimental group. Participants are parents aged 20 – 35 years old with a hospitalized toddler who is diagnosed with pneumonia. Anxiety levels were measured before the intervention using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger. Those who scored 41-120 proceeded to receive the intervention. The intervention was a 3-day course of aromatherapy where the participants inhaled the Ylang-ylang flower at a distance of 10 – 15 cm away from the face for 10 minutes. The post-test using the same instrument measured the levels of anxiety after the 3-day aromatherapy. Paired T-test of SPSS 21.0 was used to analyze the pre-test and post-test scores. Results: Study yielded a p value of 0.047 which shows significant difference between the levels of anxiety before and after the intervention. Conclusions: Based on the data analysis, the researchers concluded that inhalation of Ylang-ylang aroma is effective in reducing the anxiety level of the parents of hospitalized toddlers diagnosed with Pneumonia.

Keywords: Ylang-ylang, Pneumonia, Toddlers, Aromatherapy

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2214 Emotional Processing Difficulties in Recovered Anorexia Nervosa Patients: State or Trait

Authors: Telma Fontao de Castro, Kylee Miller, Maria Xavier Araújo, Isabel Brandao, Sandra Torres

Abstract:

Objective: There is a dearth of research investigating the long-term emotional functioning of individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). This 15-year longitudinal study aimed to examine whether difficulties in cognitive processing of emotions persisted after long-term AN recovery and its link to anxiety and depression. Method: Twenty-four females, who were tested longitudinally during their acute and recovered AN phases, and 24 healthy control (HC) women, were screened for anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and emotion regulation difficulties (ER; only assessed in recovery phase). Results: Anxiety, depression, and alexithymia levels decreased significantly with AN recovery. However, scores on anxiety and difficulty in identifying feelings (alexithymia factor) remained high when compared to the HC group. Scores on emotion regulation difficulties were also lower in HC group. The abovementioned differences between AN recovered group and HC group in difficulties in identifying and accepting feelings and lack of emotional clarity were no longer present when the effect of anxiety and depression was controlled. Conclusions: Findings suggest that emotional dysfunction tends to decrease in AN recovered phase. However, using an HC group as a reference, we conclude that several emotional difficulties are still increased after long-term AN recovery, in particular, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and difficulty controlling impulses and engaging in goal-directed behavior, thus suggesting to be a trait vulnerability. In turn, competencies related to emotional clarity and acceptance of emotional responses seem to be state-dependent phenomena linked to anxiety and depression. In sum, managing emotions remains a challenge for individuals recovered from AN. Under this circumstance, maladaptive eating behavior can serve as an affect regulatory function, increasing the risk of relapse. Emotional education and stabilization of depressive and anxious symptomatology after recovery emerge as an important avenue to protect from long-term AN relapse.

Keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, emotion recognition, emotion regulation

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2213 The Role of Gender in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety

Authors: Fadil Elmenfi, Ahmed Gaibani

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of gender in influencing public speaking anxiety. Questionnaire survey was administered to the samples of the study. Technique of correlation and descriptive analysis will be further applied to the data collected to determine the relationship between gender and public speaking anxiety. This study could serve as a guide to identify the effects of gender differences on public speaking anxiety and provide necessary advice on how to design a way of coping with or overcoming public speaking anxiety.

Keywords: across culture, communication, English language competence, gender, postgraduate students, speaking anxiety

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2212 The Influence of Teachers Anxiety-Reducing Strategies on Learners Foreign Language Anxiety

Authors: Fakieh Alrabai

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects on learner anxiety of anxiety-reducing strategies utilized by English as foreign language teachers in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, sources of foreign language anxiety for Saudi learners of English (N = 596) were identified using The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). In the second stage, 465 learners who were divided almost equally into two groups (experimental vs. control) and 12 teachers were recruited. Anxiety-reducing strategies were implemented exclusively in the treatment group for approximately eight weeks. FLCAS was used to assess learners’ FL anxiety levels before and after treatment. Statistical analyses (e.g. ANOVA and ANCOVA) were used to evaluate the study findings. These findings revealed that the intervention led to significantly decreased levels of FL anxiety for learners in the experimental group compared with increased levels of anxiety for those in the control group.

Keywords: communication apprehension, EFL teaching/learning, fear of negative evaluation, foreign language anxiety

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2211 Probiotics in Anxiety and Depression

Authors: Pilar Giffenig, Avanna Kotlarz, Taylor Dehring

Abstract:

Anxiety and depression are common mental illnesses in the U.S today. While there are various treatments for these mental health disorders, many of the medications come with a large variety of side effects that decrease medication compliance. Recent studies have looked at the impact of probiotics on anxiety and depression. Our goal was to determine whether probiotics could help relieve symptoms of anxiety and or depression. We conducted a literature search of three databases focusing on systematic reviews and RTC and found 25 articles, 8 of which were used for our analysis. Seven out of the eight articles showed that probiotics have the potential to significantly reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, larger study sample sizes, type of probiotic, and correct dosage are required in future research to determine the role of probiotics in the treatment of anxiety and depression.

Keywords: probiotics, anxiety, depression, treatment, psychology, nutrition

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2210 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

Abstract:

The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, Uganda

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2209 Preoperative Parental Anxiety is not Associated with Postoperative Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and/or Tonsillectomy

Authors: S. Öcal, A. Erakgün, E. Yüksel, M. N. Deniz, E. Erhan, A. Çertuğ

Abstract:

Background: Emergence agitation (EA) is defined as a dissociated state of consciousness during the early post-anesthesia period in which the child is inconsolable, irritable, uncompromising or uncooperative, typically thrashing, crying, moaning, or incoherent, and not recognizing or identifying familiar and known objects or people. Some studies found preoperative parental anxiety to be a predictor of EA. Methods: Seventy-four children, between the ages of 3-12 undergoing adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy at Ege University Hospital, were studied. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using 2% sevoflurane in 50% oxygen and 50% air following a premedicative dose of 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam. After the children were taken into the operating theater, the mothers were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. To evaluate EA, Post Anesthetic Emergence Delirium (PAED) score of the children were noted every 10min during the first 30min of the postoperative period. EA was defined with a highest PAED score of ≥ 10, and non-EA with a highest PAED score of ≤ 9. Results: In this study, the incidence of postoperative EA was 31% (34% under the age of 6 and 19% over). Mothers of children with EA were found not to be significantly more anxious on STAI compared to mothers of non-EA children. Conclusions: Contrary to some earlier studies, we were unable to find an association between preoperative parental anxiety and postoperative EA.

Keywords: parental anxiety, emergence agittion, Post Anesthetic Emergence Delirium, anesthesia

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2208 Levels of Anxiety during the 1st Stage of Labour, Respectively Cervical Effacement

Authors: Shpresa Agani, Nysret Agani

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Studies have found that women, during the 1st stage of labour, respectively cervical effacement, experience anxiety. This study aims to measure the degree of anxiety during cervical effacement, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for measuring anxiety symptoms (HSCL-25). A randomized prospective study with 300 women during the 1st stage of labour was conducted where cervical effacement percentage in parallel with the symptoms of anxiety was examined. Anxiety degree levels were examined by HSCL-25. Results showed that 81% were primiparous, while 19% were multiparous. All participants experienced anxiety symptoms, and the degree of anxiety depended on the stage of the birth process. Groups-based modeling according to HSCL- 2 identified three distinct groups of anxiety symptoms: group 1 (low degree, 32 cases or 11%), group 2 (mild degree, 186 cases or 62%), and group 3 (high degree, 82 cases or 27%). Depending on the percentage of cervical effacement, the anxiety degree increased. In a cervical effacement of 0-60-%, 125 cases or 41.6% had symptoms of anxiety, while in a cervical effacement of 60-100%, 174 cases or 58.4% had symptoms of anxiety (Chi-Square X2 (4,N=300)=10.755, p=0.02). This study showed a correlation between cervical effacement and the degree of anxiety. Further, it was found that the majority of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety during the cervical effacement process. The degree of anxiety increased in direct proportion to the degree of the cervical effacement process. The higher the percentage of cervical effacement, the higher the degree of anxiety. A continuing assessment of the psychological well-being of women throughout the birth process.

Keywords: anxiety, cervical effacement, pregnancy, HSCL-25

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2207 Math Anxiety Effects on Complex Addition: An ERP Study

Authors: María Isabel Núñez-Peña, Macarena Suárez Pellicioni

Abstract:

In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) to address the question of whether high (HMA) and low math-anxious (LMA) individuals differ on a complex addition verification task, which involved both carrying and non-carrying additions. ERPs were recorded while seventeen HMA and seventeen LMA individuals performed the verification task. Groups did not differ in trait anxiety or gender distribution. Participants were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to decide whether the proposed solution was correct or incorrect. Behavioral data showed a significant Carrying x Proposed solution x Group interaction for accuracy, showing that carrying additions were more error prone than non-carrying ones for both groups, although the difference non-carrying minus carrying was larger for the HMA group. As for ERPs, a P2 component larger in HMA individuals than in their LMA peers was found both for carrying and non-carrying additions. The P2 was followed by a sustained negative slow wave at parietal positions. Because the negative slow waves are thought to reflect the updating of working memory, these results give support to the relationship among working memory, math performance and math anxiety.

Keywords: math anxiety, carrying, working memory, P2

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2206 When Bad News Are Good News: Ambivalent Feelings Towards Firms Adversity

Authors: Jacob Hornik, Matti Rachamim, Ori Grossman

Abstract:

Schadenfreude, a bittersweet phenomenon, is considered atypical and complicated state that might reflect ambivalent types of sentiments -a mixed of both positive and negative reactions towards others misfortunes. This brief note reports a study that examined the association between trait ambivalence, using the Trait Mixed Emotions Scale (TMES), and four different consumer schadenfreude affairs. Results propose that trait ambivalence offers a novel explanation for schadenfreude responses. Showing that trait ambivalence enhances schadenfreude, when consumers encounter misfortune type of information about a disliked or rival marketplace entity.

Keywords: schadenfreude, consumer behavior, mixed emotions, sentiments, ambivalence

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2205 Mathematics Anxiety among Secondary Level Students in Nepal: Classroom Environment Perspective

Authors: Krishna Chandra Paudel

Abstract:

This paper explores the association between the perceived classroom environment and mathematics learning and test anxiety among secondary level students in Nepal. Categorizing the students in three dominant variables- gender, ethnicity and previous schooling, and selecting sample students with respect to higher mathematics anxiety from five heterogeneous classes, the research explores disparities in student's mathematics cognition and reveals nexus between classroom environment and mathematics learning and test anxiety. This research incorporates social learning theory and social development theory as interpretive tool for analyzing themes through qualitative data. Focussing on the interviews with highly mathematics learning anxious students, the study sheds light on how mathematics anxiety among the targeted students is interlinked with multiple factors. The research basically exposes the students’ lack of mathematical passion, their association with other students and participation in classroom learning, asymmetrical content and their lack of preparedness for the tests as caustic factors behind such anxieties. The study further reveals that students’ lack of foundational knowledge and complexity of mathematical content have jointly contributed to mathematics anxiety. Admitting learning as a reciprocal experience, the study points out that the students’ gender, ethnicity and disparities in previous schooling in the context of Nepal has very insignificant impact on students’ mathematics anxiety. It finally recommends that the students who get trapped into the vicious cycle of mathematics anxiety require positive and supportive classroom environment along with inspiring comments/compliments and symmetrical course contents.

Keywords: anxiety, asymmetry, cognition, habitus, pedagogy, preparedness

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