Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2665

Search results for: mixed emotions

2665 Sequential and Simultaneous Mixed Emotion Experiences for Self or Another Person in Adolescence

Authors: Burkitt E., Watling D., Cocks F.

Abstract:

There is growing evidence to suggest that young children and adults experience opposite valence mixed emotions in various simultaneous ways which vary in intensity for two emotions over an experience. Models of mixed emotion do not specify types of simultaneous experiences across adolescent populations. This study examined types of simultaneous mixed emotion experiences for the first time in adolescence. It also examined the impacts of high and low-intensity emotion pairs on types of mixed emotion experiences using an Analogue Emotion Scale (AES) which permits the graphical mapping of opposite valence emotions across an event duration. 163 participants were randomly allocated to two age groups (12 years, 5 months-16 years, 9 months vs. 16 years, 10 months-18 years, 8 months) across two conditions considering their own (n=83) or another adolescent’s (n= 80) experience divided equally for high (n=80) or low (n= 83) intensity mixed emotion experiences. Findings showed that children experienced mixed emotions both sequentially and simultaneously. In particular older adolescents recorded that others experience emotions in a more sequential manner, while they themselves would experience emotions in a highly simultaneous way. Emotion experience was different depending on the intensity of the emotion pair and age group. Findings are discussed in relation to an evaluative space model of mixed emotion and extended developmental models of emotion processing. Applications of the AES with adolescent populations are considered.

Keywords: adolescence, mixed emotions, graphing, AES

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2664 When Bad News Are Good News: Ambivalent Feelings Towards Firms Adversity

Authors: Jacob Hornik, Matti Rachamim, Ori Grossman

Abstract:

Schadenfreude, a bittersweet phenomenon, is considered atypical and complicated state that might reflect ambivalent types of sentiments -a mixed of both positive and negative reactions towards others misfortunes. This brief note reports a study that examined the association between trait ambivalence, using the Trait Mixed Emotions Scale (TMES), and four different consumer schadenfreude affairs. Results propose that trait ambivalence offers a novel explanation for schadenfreude responses. Showing that trait ambivalence enhances schadenfreude, when consumers encounter misfortune type of information about a disliked or rival marketplace entity.

Keywords: schadenfreude, consumer behavior, mixed emotions, sentiments, ambivalence

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2663 Study on the Role of Positive Emotions in Developmental Psychology

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

Abstract:

This paper examines the role of positive emotions in human psychology. By understanding Fredrickson and Lyubomirsky et al.’s on positive emotions, one can better understand people’s intuitive understanding, mental health and well-being. Fredrickson asserts that positive emotions create positive affects and personal resources, and Lyubomirsky et al. relate such positive resources to the creation of happiness and personal development. This paper finds that positive emotions play a significant role in the learning process, and they are instrumental in creating a long-lasting repertoire of personal resources and play an essential role in the development of the intuitive understanding of life variables, resilience in coping with life challenges, and ability to build more successful lives.

Keywords: Positive emotions, positive affects, personal resources, negative emotions, development

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2662 Can Illusions of Control Make Us Happy?

Authors: Martina Kaufmann, Thomas Goetz, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Reinhard Pekrun

Abstract:

Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory. The current research investigated the impact of illusions of control on positive emotions. There is empirical evidence showing that people are more emotionally attentive to losses than to gains. Hence, we expected that, compared to gains, losses in illusory control would have a stronger impact on positive emotions. The results of two experimental studies support this assumption: Participants who experienced gains in illusory control showed no substantial change in positive emotions. However, positive emotions decreased when they perceived a loss in illusory control. These results suggest that a loss of illusory control (but not a gain thereof) mediates the impact of the situation on individuals’ positive emotions. Implications for emotion theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: cognitive appraisal, control, illusions, optimism, positive emotions

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2661 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr

Abstract:

Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the function that called carrier content: on the latter it arises that emotions give the material reasoning that later transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. In this paper I argue that science education should start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if it is to form citizens with scientific or cultural future scientists.

Keywords: epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists., philosophy of emotions

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2660 Discursive Psychology of Emotions in Mediation

Authors: Katarzyna Oberda

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to conceptual emotions in the process of mediation. Although human emotions have been approached from various disciplines and perspectives, e.g. philosophy, linguistics, psychology and neurology, this complex phenomenon still needs further investigation into its discursive character with the an open mind and heart. To attain this aim, the theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account both to contextualize the discursive psychology of emotions in mediation and show how cognitive and linguistic activity expressed in language may lead to the emotional turn in the process of mediation. The double directions of this research into the discursive psychology of emotions have been partially inspired by the evaluative components of mediation forms. In the conducted research, we apply the methodology of discursive psychology with the discourse analysis as a tool. The practical data come from the recorded mediations online. The major findings of the conducted research result in the reconstruction of the emotional transformation model in mediation.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive psychology, emotions, mediation

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2659 An Assessment of Electrical Activities of Students' Brains toward Teacher’s Specific Emotions

Authors: Hakan Aydogan, Fatih Bozkurt, Huseyin Coskun

Abstract:

In this study, the signal of brain electrical activities of the sixteen students selected from the Department of Electrical and Energy at Usak University have been recorded during a lecturer performed happiness emotions for the first group and anger emotions for the second group in different time while the groups were in the classroom separately. The attention and meditation data extracted from the recorded signals have been analyzed and evaluated toward the teacher’s specific emotion states simultaneously. Attention levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer have a positive trend and attention levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer have a negative trend. The meditation or mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer are 34.3% higher comparing with the mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer.

Keywords: brainwave, attention, meditation, education

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2658 The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.

Keywords: emotion, consumer behaviour, feelings, decision making

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2657 Being Second Parents: A Qualitative Research on Perceptions, Emotions, and Experiences of Adolescents towards Their Siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Christi Conde, Claudia Macias, Bianca Sornillo

Abstract:

The effects of having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) extends to the family specifically, to the typically developing siblings. Provided that Filipino values involve close family-ties and family-centeredness, this study is interested in exploring the experiences of Filipino adolescents as a sibling of those diagnosed with ASD. A total of eleven (11) Filipino individuals, 3 males and 8 females, ages 11-24 years old, participated in the study – 6 of them were interviewed while the rest partook in a ginabayang talakayan (a variation of a focus group discussion). The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed 5 major themes: (1) the individual has mixed emotions and perceptions towards sibling, (2) the individual experiences differential treatment from parents, (3) the individual has responsibilities towards sibling, (4) the individual experiences personal growth, and (5) the individual is adjusting to the unfavorable effects of having sibling with ASD. Another emerging theme is an interplay between acceptance of one’s sibling, and one’s emotions and perceptions. It was also observed that there were more positive changes than negative within the individual. Having a lifetime responsibility towards sibling was also evident. Differences across ages involve the depth of awareness of the sibling’s condition and its implications. Acknowledgement of future responsibilities was evident regardless of age.

Keywords: adolescents, emotions, experiences, perceptions, qualitative research, siblings with ASD

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2656 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam

Abstract:

Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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2655 Support of Syrian Refugees: The Roles of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, Perception of Threat, and Negative Emotions

Authors: Senay Yitmen

Abstract:

This research investigated individual’s support and helping intentions towards Syrian refugees in Turkey. This is examined in relation to perceived threat and negative emotions, and also to the perceptions of whether one’s intimate social network (family and friends) considers Syrians a threat (descriptive network norm) and whether this network morally supports Syrian refugees (injunctive norms). A questionnaire study was conducted among Turkish participants (n= 565) and the results showed that perception of threat was associated with negative emotions which, in turn, were related to less support of Syrian refugees. Additionally, descriptive norms moderated the relationship between perceived threat and negative emotions towards Syrian refugees. Furthermore, injunctive norms moderated the relationship between negative emotions and support to Syrian refugees. Specifically, the findings indicate that perceived threat is associated with less support of Syrian refugees through negative emotions when descriptive norms are weak and injunctive norms are strong. Injunctive norms appear to trigger a dilemma over the decision to conform or not to conform: when one has negative emotions as a result of perceived threat, it becomes more difficult to conform to the moral obligation of injunctive norms which is associated with less support of Syrian refugees. Hence, these findings demonstrate that both descriptive and injunctive norms are important and play different roles in individual’s support of Syrian refugees.

Keywords: descriptive norms, emotions, injunctive norms, the perception of threat

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2654 Analyzing the Perceptions of Emotions in Aesthetic Music

Authors: Abigail Wiafe, Charles Nutrokpor, Adelaide Oduro-Asante

Abstract:

The advancement of technology is rapidly making people more receptive to music as computer-generated music requires minimal human interventions. Though algorithms are applied to generate music, the human experience of emotions is still explored. Thus, this study investigates the emotions humans experience listening to computer-generated music that possesses aesthetic qualities. Forty-two subjects participated in the survey. The selection process was purely arbitrary since it was based on convenience. Subjects listened and evaluated the emotions experienced from the computer-generated music through an online questionnaire. The Likert scale was used to rate the emotional levels after the music listening experience. The findings suggest that computer-generated music possesses aesthetic qualities that do not affect subjects' emotions as long as they are pleased with the music. Furthermore, computer-generated music has unique creativity, and expressioneven though the music produced is meaningless, the computational models developed are unable to present emotional contents in music as humans do.

Keywords: aesthetic, algorithms, emotions, computer-generated music

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2653 The Effect of Emotion Self-Confidence and Perceived Social Support on Hong Kong Higher-Education Students' Suicide-Related Emotional Experiences

Authors: K. C. Ching

Abstract:

There is growing public concern over the increasing prevalence of student suicide in Hong Kong. Some identify the problem with insufficient social support, while some attribute it to the vast fluctuations in emotional experience and the hindrances to emotion-regulation, both typical of adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study is thus designed to explore the respective effect of perceived social support and emotion self-confidence, on positive emotions and negative emotions. Fifty-seven Hong Kong higher-education students (17 males, 40 females) aged between 18 and 25 (M = 21.78) responded to an online questionnaire consisted of self-reported measures of perceived social support, emotional self-confidence, positive emotions, and negative emotions. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that emotional self-confidence positively associated with positive emotions and negatively with negative emotions, while perceived social support positively associated with positive emotions but was not related to negative emotions. Perceived social support and emotional self-confidence both predicted positive emotions, but did not interact to predict any emotional outcome. It is concluded that students’ positive and negative emotional experiences are closely related to their emotion-regulation process. But for social support, its effect is merely protective, meaning that although perceived social support generally promotes positive emotions, it alone does not suffice to alleviate students’ negative emotions. These conclusions carry profound implications to suicide prevention practices, including that most existing suicide prevention campaigns should advance from merely fostering mutual support to directly promoting adaptive coping of emotional negativity.

Keywords: emerging adulthood, emotional self-confidence, hong kong, perceived social support, suicide prevention

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2652 The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has "always" used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.

Keywords: emotions, decision making, consumer behaviour, emotional behaviour

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2651 Emotion Motives Predict the Mood States of Depression and Happiness

Authors: Paul E. Jose

Abstract:

A new self-report measure named the General Emotion Regulation Measure (GERM) assesses four key goals for experiencing broad valenced groups of emotions: 1) trying to experience positive emotions (e.g., joy, pride, liking a person); 2) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions; 3) trying to experience negative emotions (e.g., anger, anxiety, contempt); and 4) trying to avoid experiencing negative emotions. Although individual differences in GERM motives have been identified, evidence of validity with common mood outcomes is lacking. In the present study, whether GERM motives predict self-reported subjective happiness and depressive symptoms (CES-D) was tested with a community sample of 833 young adults. It was predicted that the GERM motive of trying to experience positive emotions would positively predict subjective happiness, and analogously trying to experience negative emotions would predict depressive symptoms. An initial path model was constructed in which the four GERM motives predicted both subjective happiness and depressive symptoms. The fully saturated model included three non-significant paths, which were subsequently pruned, and a good fitting model was obtained (CFI = 1.00; RMR = .007). Two GERM motives significantly predicted subjective happiness: 1) trying to experience positive emotions ( = .38, p < .001) and 2) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions ( = -.48, p <.001). Thus, individuals who reported high levels of trying to experience positive emotions reported high levels of happiness, and individuals who reported low levels of trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions also reported high levels of happiness. Three GERM motives significantly predicted depressive symptoms: 1) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions ( = .20, p <.001); 2) trying to experience negative emotions ( = .15, p <.001); and 3) trying to experience positive emotions (= -.07, p <.001). In agreement with predictions, trying to experience positive emotions was positively associated with subjective happiness and trying to experience negative emotions was positively associated with depressive symptoms. In essence, these two valenced mood states seem to be sustained by trying to experience similarly valenced emotions. However, the three other significant paths in the model indicated that emotional motives play a complicated role in supporting both positive and negative mood states. For subjective happiness, the GERM motive of not trying to avoid positive emotions, i.e., not avoiding happiness, was also a strong predictor of happiness. Thus, people who report being the happiest are those individuals who not only strive to experience positive emotions but also are not ambivalent about them. The pattern for depressive symptoms was more nuanced. Individuals who reported higher depressive symptoms also reported higher levels of avoiding positive emotions and trying to experience negative emotions. The strongest predictor for depressed mood was avoiding positive emotions, which would suggest that happiness aversion or fear of happiness is an important motive for dysphoric people. Future work should determine whether these patterns of association are similar among clinically depressed people, and longitudinal data are needed to determine temporal relationships between motives and mood states.

Keywords: emotions motives, depression, subjective happiness, path model

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2650 Emotions Evoked by Robots - Comparison of Older Adults and Students

Authors: Stephanie Lehmann, Esther Ruf, Sabina Misoch

Abstract:

Background: Due to demographic change and shortage of skilled nursing staff, assistive robots are built to support older adults at home and nursing staff in care institutions. When assistive robots facilitate tasks that are usually performed by humans, user acceptance is essential. Even though they are an important aspect of acceptance, emotions towards different assistive robots and different situations of robot-use have so far not been examined in detail. The appearance of assistive robots can trigger emotions that affect their acceptance. Acceptance of robots is assumed to be greater when they look more human-like; however, too much human similarity can be counterproductive. Regarding different groups, it is assumed that older adults have a more negative attitude towards robots than younger adults. Within the framework of a simulated robot study, the aim was to investigate emotions of older adults compared to students towards robots with different appearances and in different situations and so contribute to a deeper view of the emotions influencing acceptance. Methods: In a questionnaire study, vignettes were used to assess emotions toward robots in different situations and of different appearance. The vignettes were composed of two situations (service and care) shown by video and four pictures of robots varying in human similarity (machine-like to android). The combination of the vignettes was randomly distributed to the participants. One hundred forty-two older adults and 35 bachelor students of nursing participated. They filled out a questionnaire that surveyed 30 positive and 30 negative emotions. For each group, older adults and students, a sum score of “positive emotions” and a sum score of “negative emotions” was calculated. Mean value, standard deviation, or n for sample size and % for frequencies, according to the scale level, were calculated. For differences in the scores of positive and negative emotions for different situations, t-tests were calculated. Results: Overall, older adults reported significantly more positive emotions than students towards robots in general. Students reported significantly more negative emotions than older adults. Regarding the two different situations, the results were similar for the care situation, with older adults reporting more positive emotions than students and less negative emotions than students. In the service situation, older adults reported significantly more positive emotions; negative emotions did not differ significantly from the students. Regarding the appearance of the robot, there were no significant differences in emotions reported towards the machine-like, the mechanical-human-like and the human-like appearance. Regarding the android robot, students reported significantly more negative emotions than older adults. Conclusion: There were differences in the emotions reported by older adults compared to students. Older adults reported more positive emotions, and students reported more negative emotions towards robots in different situations and with different appearances. It can be assumed that older adults have a different attitude towards the use of robots than younger people, especially young adults in the health sector. Therefore, the use of robots in the service or care sector should not be rejected rashly based on the attitudes of younger persons, without considering the attitudes of older adults equally.

Keywords: emotions, robots, seniors, young adults

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2649 An Exploratory Survey Questionnaire to Understand What Emotions Are Important and Difficult to Communicate for People with Dysarthria and Their Methodology of Communicating

Authors: Lubna Alhinti, Heidi Christensen, Stuart Cunningham

Abstract:

People with speech disorders may rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies to help them communicate. However, the limitations of the current AAC technologies act as barriers to the optimal use of these technologies in daily communication settings. The ability to communicate effectively relies on a number of factors that are not limited to the intelligibility of the spoken words. In fact, non-verbal cues play a critical role in the correct comprehension of messages and having to rely on verbal communication only, as is the case with current AAC technology, may contribute to problems in communication. This is especially true for people’s ability to express their feelings and emotions, which are communicated to a large part through non-verbal cues. This paper focuses on understanding more about the non-verbal communication ability of people with dysarthria, with the overarching aim of this research being to improve AAC technology by allowing people with dysarthria to better communicate emotions. Preliminary survey results are presented that gives an understanding of how people with dysarthria convey emotions, what emotions that are important for them to get across, what emotions that are difficult for them to convey, and whether there is a difference in communicating emotions when speaking to familiar versus unfamiliar people.

Keywords: alternative and augmentative communication technology, dysarthria, speech emotion recognition, VIVOCA

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2648 Reliability Prediction of Tires Using Linear Mixed-Effects Model

Authors: Myung Hwan Na, Ho- Chun Song, EunHee Hong

Abstract:

We widely use normal linear mixed-effects model to analysis data in repeated measurement. In case of detecting heteroscedasticity and the non-normality of the population distribution at the same time, normal linear mixed-effects model can give improper result of analysis. To achieve more robust estimation, we use heavy tailed linear mixed-effects model which gives more exact and reliable analysis conclusion than standard normal linear mixed-effects model.

Keywords: reliability, tires, field data, linear mixed-effects model

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2647 Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) Wt%Cr Alloys at 700-800 °C in N₂-H₂O-H₂S Mixed Gas

Authors: Min Jung Kim

Abstract:

Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N₂, 1 atm of N₂/3.2%H₂O-mixed gas, and 1 atm of N₂/3.1%H₂O/2.42%H₂S-mixed gas. The corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy increased with the addition of H₂O and increased further with the addition of H₂S in N₂/H₂O gas. Fe-9Cr alloy was non-protective in all gas types. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were protective in N₂ and N₂/H₂O-mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr₂O₃ layer. They were, however, non-protective in N₂/H₂O/H₂S-mixed gas because sulfidation dominated, forming the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr₂S₃ layer containing some FeCr₂S₄.

Keywords: Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys, corrosion, sulfidation, FeS

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2646 Emotions in Health Tweets: Analysis of American Government Official Accounts

Authors: García López

Abstract:

The Government Departments of Health have the task of informing and educating citizens about public health issues. For this, they use channels like Twitter, key in the search for health information and the propagation of content. The tweets, important in the virality of the content, may contain emotions that influence the contagion and exchange of knowledge. The goal of this study is to perform an analysis of the emotional projection of health information shared on Twitter by official American accounts: the disease control account CDCgov, National Institutes of Health, NIH, the government agency HHSGov, and the professional organization PublicHealth. For this, we used Tone Analyzer, an International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) tool specialized in emotion detection in text, corresponding to the categorical model of emotion representation. For 15 days, all tweets from these accounts were analyzed with the emotional analysis tool in text. The results showed that their tweets contain an important emotional load, a determining factor in the success of their communications. This exposes that official accounts also use subjective language and contain emotions. The predominance of emotion joy over sadness and the strong presence of emotions in their tweets stimulate the virality of content, a key in the work of informing that government health departments have.

Keywords: emotions in tweets, emotion detection in the text, health information on Twitter, American health official accounts, emotions on Twitter, emotions and content

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2645 Generating Music with More Refined Emotions

Authors: Shao-Di Feng, Von-Wun Soo

Abstract:

To generate symbolic music with specific emotions is a challenging task due to symbolic music datasets that have emotion labels are scarce and incomplete. This research aims to generate more refined emotions based on the training datasets that are only labeled with four quadrants in Russel’s 2D emotion model. We focus on the theory of Music Fadernet and map arousal and valence to the low-level attributes, and build a symbolic music generation model by combining transformer and GM-VAE. We adopt an in-attention mechanism for the model and improve it by allowing modulation by conditional information. And we show the music generation model could control the generation of music according to the emotions specified by users in terms of high-level linguistic expression and by manipulating their corresponding low-level musical attributes. Finally, we evaluate the model performance using a pre-trained emotion classifier against a pop piano midi dataset called EMOPIA, and by subjective listening evaluation, we demonstrate that the model could generate music with more refined emotions correctly.

Keywords: music generation, music emotion controlling, deep learning, semi-supervised learning

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2644 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

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2643 Swahili Codification of Emotions: A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis

Authors: Rosanna Tramutoli

Abstract:

Studies on several languages have demonstrated how different emotions are categorized in various linguistic constructions. It exists in several writings on the codification of emotions in Western African languages. A recent study on the semantic description of Swahili body terminology has demonstrated that body part terms, such as moyo (heart), uso (face) and jicho (eye) are involved in several metaphorical expressions describing emotions. However, so far hardly anything has been written on the linguistic description of emotions in Swahili. Thus, this study describes how emotional concepts, such as ‘love’ and ‘anger’ are codified in Swahili, in order to highlight common semantic and syntactic patterns, etymological sources and metaphorical expressions. The research seeks to answer a number of questions, such as which are the Swahili terms for ‘emotions’? Is there a distinction between ‘emotions’ and ‘feelings’? Which emotional lexical items have Bantu origin and which come from Arabic? Which metaphorical expressions/cognitive schemas are used to codify emotions? (e.g. kumpanda mtu kichwani, lit. ‘to climb on somebody’s head’, to make somebody feel angry, kushuka moyo, lit. ‘to be down the heart’, to feel discouraged, kumpa mtu moyo lit. ‘to give someone heart’, to encourage someone). Which body terms are involved as ‘containers/locus of emotions’? For instance, it has been shown that moyo (‘heart’) occurs as container of ‘love’ (e.g. kumtia mtu moyoni, lit. ‘to put somebody in the heart’, to love somebody very much) and ‘kindness’ (moyo wake ulijaa hisani, ‘his heart was filled with kindness’). The study also takes into account the syntactic patterns used to code emotions. For instance, when does the experiencer occur in subject position? (e.g. nina furaha, nimefurahi, ‘I am happy’) and when in object position (e.g. Huruma iliniingia moyoni, lit. ‘Pity entered me inside my heart’, ‘I felt pity’)? Data have been collected mostly through the analysis of Swahili digital corpora, containing different kinds of Swahili texts (e.g. novels, drama, political essays).

Keywords: emotions, cognitive linguistics, metaphors, Swahili

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2642 Impact of Expressive Writing on Creativity

Authors: Małgorzata Osowiecka

Abstract:

Negative emotions are rather seen as creativity inhibitor. On the other hand, it is worth noting that negative emotions may be good for our functioning. Negative emotions enhance cognitive resources and improve evaluative processes. Moreover maintaining a negative emotional state allow for cognitive reinterpretation of the emotional stimuli, what is good for our creativity, especially cognitive flexibility. Writing a diary or writing about difficult emotional experiences in general can be the way to not only improve psychical health, but also – enhance creative behaviors. Thanks to translating difficult emotions to the verbal level and giving them ‘a name’ or ‘a label’, we can get easier access to both emotional content of an experience and to the semantic content, without the need of speaking out loud. Expressive writing improves academic results and the efficiency of working memory. The classical method of writing about emotions consists in a long-term process of describing negative experiences. Present research demonstrate the efficiency of this process over a shorter period of time - one writing session, on school children sample. Participants performed writing task. Writing task had two different topics: emotions connected with their negative emotions (expressive writing) and content not connected with negative emotional state (writing about one’s typical day). Creativity was measured by Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. Results have shown that writing about negative emotions results in the higher level of divergent thinking in all three parameters: fluency, flexibility and originality. After the writing task mood of expressive writing participants remained negative more than the mood of the controls. Taking an expressive action after a difficult emotional experience can support functioning, which can be observed in enhancement of divergent thinking. Writing about emotions connected with negative experience makes one more creative, than writing about something unrelated with difficult emotional moments. Research has shown that young people should not demonize negative emotions. Sometimes, properly applied, negative emotions can be the basis of creation. Preparation was supported by a The Young Scientist University grant titled ‘Dynamics of emotions in the creative process’ from The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: creativity, divergent thinking, emotions, expressive writing

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2641 Psychological Contract Breach and Violation Relationships with Stress and Wellbeing

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Negative emotions resulting from the breach of perceived obligations by an employer is called the psychological contract violation. Employees perceiving breach and feelings of negative emotions result in adverse outcomes for both the employee and employer. This paper aims to identify the relationships between contract breach, violation, stress and wellbeing and investigate whether fairness and self-efficacy mediate the relationships. A mixed method approach was used to analyze the online-surveys and semi-structured interviews with the police officers. It was identified that the psychological contract violation predicts stress and job-related well-being. Fairness and self-efficacy were identified as significant mediators to understand the underlying mechanisms of association. Whilst, in the interviews social support was identified as a popular mediator. Practical implications for employers are discussed.

Keywords: psychological contract violation and breach, stressors, depression, anxiety

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2640 The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.

Keywords: decision making, emotions, fMRI, consumer behaviour

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2639 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater bio-treatment , bio-sorption heavy metals, biological desalination, immobilized bacteria, free cell bacteria

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2638 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar

Abstract:

The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number

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2637 News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks

Authors: Gemma Garcia Lopez

Abstract:

The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool.

Keywords: emotional analysis of newspapers hooks, emotions on Facebook, newspaper hooks on Facebook, news publication on Facebook

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2636 The Influence of Emotion on Numerical Estimation: A Drone Operators’ Context

Authors: Ludovic Fabre, Paola Melani, Patrick Lemaire

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to test whether and how emotions influence drone operators in estimation skills. The empirical study was run in the context of numerical estimation. Participants saw a two-digit number together with a collection of cars. They had to indicate whether the stimuli collection was larger or smaller than the number. The two-digit numbers ranged from 12 to 27, and collections included 3-36 cars. The presentation of the collections was dynamic (each car moved 30 deg. per second on the right). Half the collections were smaller collections (including fewer than 20 cars), and the other collections were larger collections (i.e., more than 20 cars). Splits between the number of cars in a collection and the two-digit number were either small (± 1 or 2 units; e.g., the collection included 17 cars and the two-digit number was 19) or larger (± 8 or 9 units; e.g., 17 cars and '9'). Half the collections included more items (and half fewer items) than the number indicated by the two-digit number. Before and after each trial, participants saw an image inducing negative emotions (e.g., mutilations) or neutral emotions (e.g., candle) selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). At the end of each trial, participants had to say if the second picture was the same as or different from the first. Results showed different effects of emotions on RTs and percent errors. Participants’ performance was modulated by emotions. They were slower on negative trials compared to the neutral trials, especially on the most difficult items. They errored more on small-split than on large-split problems. Moreover, participants highly overestimated the number of cars when in a negative emotional state. These findings suggest that emotions influence numerical estimation, that effects of emotion in estimation interact with stimuli characteristics. They have important implications for understanding the role of emotions on estimation skills, and more generally, on how emotions influence cognition.

Keywords: drone operators, emotion, numerical estimation, arithmetic

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