Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Mikhail S. Zaleshin

43 Toward a Methodology of Visual Rhetoric with Constant Reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s Concept of “Chronotope”: A Theoretical Proposal and Taiwan Case Study

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This paper aims to elaborate methodology of visual rhetoric with constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope”. First, it attempts to outline Ronald Barthes, the most representative scholar of visual rhetoric and structuralism, perspective on visual rhetoric and its time-space category by referring to the concurrent word-image, the symbolic systematicity, the outer dialogicity. Second, an alternative approach is explored for grasping the dynamics and functions of visual rhetoric by articulating Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope.” Furthermore, that visual rhetorical consciousness could be identified as “the meaning parabola which projects from word to image,” “the symbolic system which proceeds from sequence to disorder,” “the ideological environment which struggles from the local to the global.” Last but not least, primary vision of the 2014 Taipei LGBT parade would be analyzed preliminarily to evaluate the effectiveness and persuasiveness embodied by specific visual rhetorical strategies. How Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope” to explain the potential or possible ideological struggle deployed by visual rhetoric might be interpreted empirically and extensively.

Keywords: barthes, chronotope, Mikhail Bakhtin, Taipei LGBT parade, visual rhetoric

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42 Mikhail Bakhtin's Standpoint of Neo-Marxism and beyond: Bildungsroman as a Critique

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This paper aims to elaborate the standpoint of neo-Marxism of Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin by critical reading his concept of Bildungsroman; thereby, it aims to map the theoretical implication of spatial rhetoric and its time politics/emancipatory politics in late Bakhtin’s thought. First, it aims to outline the two revolving rings of spatiality in Bildungsroman, proceeding from 'recollecting the past' to 'foreseeing the future' on the basis of visuality and materialistic realism. Herein, Bakhtin has temporarily been leaving his previous research concern on polyphonic novel. Second, it aims to demonstrate that although Bakhtin has constantly emphasized the necessity of reconstructing opened future space, his insistence on 'emergence' has still generated a seemingly theoretical lacuna which needs to be filled. 'Doubled heterotopia,' as popularized by contemporary rhetorician Saindon, might be an adequate approach to articulate and present the rhetorical functions and dynamics of Bakhtin’s spatial rhetoric dialectically. Based on the research findings, this paper argues that Bakhtin indeed attempted to go beyond the deterministic model of Marxism and neo-Marxism strategically and reciprocally.

Keywords: Bildungsroman, double heterotopia, emergence, Mikhail Bakhtin, neo-Marxism, spatial rhetoric, time-politics, visuality

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41 EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatiana A. Golovko, Yulia V. Kovas


EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions. The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16-20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band were associated with differences between anterior and posterior cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual resources.

Keywords: EEG, brain activity, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, mathematical and trait anxiety

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40 Exploring the Visual Roots of Classical Rhetoric and Its Implication for Gender Politics: Reflection upon Roman Rhetoric from a Bakhtin's Perspective

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This study aims to explore the visual roots of classical rhetoric and its implication for gender politics by the constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of novelist time. First, it attempts to clarify the argument that “visuality always has been integral to rhetorical consciousness” by critically re-reading the rhetorical theories of roman rhetorician such as Cicero and Quintilian. Thereby, the vague clues of visuality would be realized from the so-called ‘five canons of rhetoric’ (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery), which originally deriving from verbal and spoken rhetorical tradition. Drawing on Mikhail Bakhtin’s elaboration of novelist time in contrast to epic time, it addresses the specific timeline inherent in the dynamics of visual rhetoric involves the refusing the ‘absolute past’, the focusing on unfinalized contemporary reality, and the expecting for open future. Taking the primary visions of Taipei LGBT parade over the past 13 years as research cases, it mentions that visuality could not only activate the rhetorical functions of classical rhetoric, but also inspire gender politics in the contemporary era.

Keywords: classical rhetoric, gender politics, Mikhail Bakhtin, visuality

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39 The Impact of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety on Oscillatory Brain Activity during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatyana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Yulia V. Kovas


The present study compared spectral-power indexes and cortical topography of brain activity in a sample characterized by different levels of trait and mathematical anxiety. 52 healthy Russian-speakers (age 17-32; 30 males) participated in the study. Participants solved an error recognition task under 3 conditions: A lexical condition (simple sentences in Russian), and two numerical conditions (simple arithmetic and complicated algebraic problems). Trait and mathematical anxiety were measured using self-repot questionnaires. EEG activity was recorded simultaneously during task execution. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) were used to analyze spectral-power changes in brain activity. Additionally, sLORETA was applied in order to localize the sources of brain activity. When exploring EEG activity recorded after tasks onset during lexical conditions, sLORETA revealed increased activation in frontal and left temporal cortical areas, mainly in the alpha/beta frequency ranges. When examining the EEG activity recorded after task onset during arithmetic and algebraic conditions, additional activation in delta/theta band in the right parietal cortex was observed. The ERSP plots reveled alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three (lexical, arithmetic and algebraic) conditions. The level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the amplitude of alpha/beta desynchronization. The level of mathematical anxiety was negatively correlated with the amplitude of theta synchronization and of alpha/beta desynchronization. Overall, trait anxiety was related with an increase in brain activation during task execution, whereas mathematical anxiety was associated with increased inhibitory-related activity. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the №11.G34.31.0043 grant from the Government of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: anxiety, EEG, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, alpha/beta desynchronization

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38 Energy Conservation and H-Theorem for the Enskog-Vlasov Equation

Authors: Eugene Benilov, Mikhail Benilov


The Enskog-Vlasov (EV) equation is a widely used semi-phenomenological model of gas/liquid phase transitions. We show that it does not generally conserve energy, although there exists a restriction on its coefficients for which it does. Furthermore, if an energy-preserving version of the EV equation satisfies an H-theorem as well, it can be used to rigorously derive the so-called Maxwell construction which determines the parameters of liquid-vapor equilibria. Finally, we show that the EV model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamics of noble fluids, and there exists a version simple enough for use in applications.

Keywords: Enskog collision integral, hard spheres, kinetic equation, phase transition

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37 Binocular Heterogeneity in Saccadic Suppression

Authors: Evgeny Kozubenko, Dmitry Shaposhnikov, Mikhail Petrushan


This work is focused on the study of the binocular characteristics of the phenomenon of perisaccadic suppression in humans when perceiving visual objects. This phenomenon manifests in a decrease in the subject's ability to perceive visual information during saccades, which play an important role in purpose-driven behavior and visual perception. It was shown that the impairment of perception of visual information in the post-saccadic time window is stronger (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral eye (the eye towards which the saccade occurs). In addition, the observed heterogeneity of post-saccadic suppression in the contralateral and ipsilateral eyes may relate to depth perception. Taking the studied phenomenon into account is important when developing ergonomic control panels in modern operator systems.

Keywords: eye movement, natural vision, saccadic suppression, visual perception

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36 New Kinetic Effects in Spatial Distribution of Electron Flux and Excitation Rates in Glow Discharge Plasmas in Middle and High Pressures

Authors: Kirill D. Kapustin, Mikhail B. Krasilnikov, Anatoly A. Kudryavtsev


Physical formation mechanisms of differential electron fluxes is high pressure positive column gas discharge are discussed. It is shown that the spatial differential fluxes of the electrons are directed both inward and outward depending on the energy relaxation law. In some cases the direction of energy differential flux at intermediate energies (5-10eV) in whole volume, except region near the wall, appeared to be down directed, so electron in this region dissipate more energy than gain from axial electric field. Paradoxical behaviour of electron flux in spatial-energy space is presented.

Keywords: plasma kinetics, electron distribution function, excitation and radiation rates, local and nonlocal EDF

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35 Fast Algorithm to Determine Initial Tsunami Wave Shape at Source

Authors: Alexander P. Vazhenin, Mikhail M. Lavrentiev, Alexey A. Romanenko, Pavel V. Tatarintsev


One of the problems obstructing effective tsunami modelling is the lack of information about initial wave shape at source. The existing methods; geological, sea radars, satellite images, contain an important part of uncertainty. Therefore, direct measurement of tsunami waves obtained at the deep water bottom peruse recorders is also used. In this paper we propose a new method to reconstruct the initial sea surface displacement at tsunami source by the measured signal (marigram) approximation with the help of linear combination of synthetic marigrams from the selected set of unit sources, calculated in advance. This method has demonstrated good precision and very high performance. The mathematical model and results of numerical tests are here described.

Keywords: numerical tests, orthogonal decomposition, Tsunami Initial Sea Surface Displacement

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34 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov


In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.

Keywords: cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope, signal processing

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33 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov


We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

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32 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao


Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

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31 The Influence of Carbamazepine on the Activity of CYP3A4 in Patients with Alcoholism

Authors: Mikhail S. Zastrozhin, Valery V. Smirnov, Dmitry A. Sychev, Ludmila M. Savchenko, Evgeny A. Bryun, Mark O. Nechaev


Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 takes part in the biotransformation of medical drugs. The activity of CYP isoenzymes depends on genetic (polymorphisms of genes which encoded it) and phenotypic factors (a kind of food, a concomitant drug therapy). The aim of the study was to evaluate a carbamazepine effect on the CYP3A4 activity in patients with alcohol addiction. The study included 25 men with alcohol dependence, who received haloperidol during the exacerbation of the addiction. CYP3A4 activity was assessed by urinary 6-beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratios measured by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The study modeled a graph and an equation of the logarithmic regression, that reflects the dependence of CYP3A4 activity on a dose of carbamazepine: y = 5,5 * 9,1 * 10-5 * x2. The study statistically significant demonstrates the effect of carbamazepine on CYP2D6 isozyme activity in patients with alcohol addiction.

Keywords: CYP3A4, biotransformation, carbamazepine, alcohol abuse

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30 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov, Mikhail Sverdlik


Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet

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29 Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program

Authors: Mikhail Bouniaev


The paper reviews design and implementation of a Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following a four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate a strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.

Keywords: active learning, assessment, calculus, cognitive demand, mathematics, stage-by-stage development of mental action theory

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28 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev


Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to the occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.

Keywords: current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise

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27 Numerical Study of the Influence of the Primary Stream Pressure on the Performance of the Ejector Refrigeration System Based on Heat Exchanger Modeling

Authors: Elhameh Narimani, Mikhail Sorin, Philippe Micheau, Hakim Nesreddine


Numerical models of the heat exchangers in ejector refrigeration system (ERS) were developed and validated with the experimental data. The models were based on the switched heat exchangers model using the moving boundary method, which were capable of estimating the zones’ lengths, the outlet temperatures of both sides and the heat loads at various experimental points. The developed models were utilized to investigate the influence of the primary flow pressure on the performance of an R245fa ERS based on its coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency. It was illustrated numerically and proved experimentally that increasing the primary flow pressure slightly reduces the COP while the exergy efficiency goes through a maximum before decreasing.

Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, COP, Ejector Refrigeration System, ERS, exergy efficiency (ηII), heat exchangers modeling, moving boundary method

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26 Assessment of Modern RANS Models for the C3X Vane Film Cooling Prediction

Authors: Mikhail Gritskevich, Sebastian Hohenstein


The paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of several modern Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for prediction of C3X vane film cooling at various injection regimes. Three models are considered, namely the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, the modification of the SST model accounting for the streamlines curvature (SST-CC), and the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM). It is shown that all the considered models face with a problem in prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness in the vicinity of the cooling holes; however, accounting for the Reynolds stress anisotropy within the EARSM model noticeably increases the solution accuracy. On the other hand, further downstream all the models provide a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the adiabatic effectiveness and among the considered models the most accurate results are obtained with the use EARMS.

Keywords: discrete holes film cooling, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), Reynolds stress tensor anisotropy, turbulent heat transfer

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25 Syllogistic Reasoning with 108 Inference Rules While Case Quantities Change

Authors: Mikhail Zarechnev, Bora I. Kumova


A syllogism is a deductive inference scheme used to derive a conclusion from a set of premises. In a categorical syllogisms, there are only two premises and every premise and conclusion is given in form of a quantified relationship between two objects. The different order of objects in premises give classification known as figures. We have shown that the ordered combinations of 3 generalized quantifiers with certain figure provide in total of 108 syllogistic moods which can be considered as different inference rules. The classical syllogistic system allows to model human thought and reasoning with syllogistic structures always attracted the attention of cognitive scientists. Since automated reasoning is considered as part of learning subsystem of AI agents, syllogistic system can be applied for this approach. Another application of syllogistic system is related to inference mechanisms on the Semantic Web applications. In this paper we proposed the mathematical model and algorithm for syllogistic reasoning. Also the model of iterative syllogistic reasoning in case of continuous flows of incoming data based on case–based reasoning and possible applications of proposed system were discussed.

Keywords: categorical syllogism, case-based reasoning, cognitive architecture, inference on the semantic web, syllogistic reasoning

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24 Synthesis of Telechelic Polymers for Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Paula C Arroyo, Norma A Sánchez, Mikhail Tlenkopatchev


The continuous growth in population has resulted in an increment in road construction. The road construction requires more lasting and resistant pavements. Among the different applications of polymers, the reinforcement of pavements throw the modification of asphalt has demonstrated to be an area of special interest for new polymers. The modified asphalt should exhibit a considerable good performance, good elastic properties and an increment in the performance grade (PG). Some of the current polymers used in asphalt are styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-(glycidyl methacrylate) and ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA. The goal of this study was to synthesize low molecular weight (2,000 – 150,000 D) telechelic polymers to be applied at low concentrations in asphalt in order to modify its rheological properties and make it more resistant and durable. The telechelic polymers were obtained from different molar relationships between tensioned and functionalized olefins by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and cross metathesis (CR). The synthesis was carried out under inert conditions with Grubbs second generation catalyst. The reaction efficiency was superior to 96% and telechelic polymers were characterized. The telechelic polymers were used to modify asphalt and the rheological properties of the modified asphalt were evaluated finding that at low concentrations (1%) the PG increased in one or two degrees.

Keywords: asphalt polymers, metathesis polymers, telechelic polymers, modified asphalt

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23 Tungsten-Based Powders Produced in Plasma Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Samokhin, Nikolay V. Alekseev, Mikhail A. Sinaiskii


The report presents the results of R&D of plasma-chemical production of W, W-Cu, W-Ni-Fe nanopowders as well as spherical micropowders of these compounds for their use in modern 3D printing technologies. Plasma-chemical synthesis of nanopowdersis based on the reduction of tungsten oxide compounds powders in a stream of hydrogen-containing low-temperature thermal plasma generated in an electric arc plasma torch. The synthesis of W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe nanocompositesiscarried out using the reduction of a mixture of the metal oxides. Using the synthesized tungsten-based nanocomposites powders, spherical composite micropowders with a submicron structure canbe manufactured by spray dryinggranulation of nanopowder suspension and subsequent densification and spheroidization of granules by melting in a low-temperature thermal plasma flow. The DC arc plasma systems are usedfor the synthesis of nanopowdersas well as for the spheroidization of microgranuls. Plasma systems have a capacity of up to 1 kg/h for nanopowder and up to 5 kg/h for spheroidized powder. All synthesized nanopowders consist of aggregated particles with sizes less than 100 nm, and nanoparticles of W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe composites have core (W) –shell (Cu or Ni-Fe) structures. The resulting dense spherical microparticles with a size of 20-60 microns have a submicron structure with a uniform distribution of metals over the particle volume. The produced tungsten-based nano- and spherical micropowderscan be used to develop new materials and manufacture products using advanced modern technologies.

Keywords: plasma, powders, production, tungsten-based

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22 Automated Multisensory Data Collection System for Continuous Monitoring of Refrigerating Appliances Recycling Plants

Authors: Georgii Emelianov, Mikhail Polikarpov, Fabian Hübner, Jochen Deuse, Jochen Schiemann


Recycling refrigerating appliances plays a major role in protecting the Earth's atmosphere from ozone depletion and emissions of greenhouse gases. The performance of refrigerator recycling plants in terms of material retention is the subject of strict environmental certifications and is reviewed periodically through specialized audits. The continuous collection of Refrigerator data required for the input-output analysis is still mostly manual, error-prone, and not digitalized. In this paper, we propose an automated data collection system for recycling plants in order to deduce expected material contents in individual end-of-life refrigerating appliances. The system utilizes laser scanner measurements and optical data to extract attributes of individual refrigerators by applying transfer learning with pre-trained vision models and optical character recognition. Based on Recognized features, the system automatically provides material categories and target values of contained material masses, especially foaming and cooling agents. The presented data collection system paves the way for continuous performance monitoring and efficient control of refrigerator recycling plants.

Keywords: automation, data collection, performance monitoring, recycling, refrigerators

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21 A Rhetorical History of Legalization of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Taiwan: 'Transing-Nationalism' and Its Discursive Formation as the Case

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This essay aims to examine how the discursive formation of the 'transing-nationalism' (which is extended and slightly modified from 'homonationalism') had been constructed in the Taiwanese news media before the legalization of 'sex reassignment surgery (SRS)' in 1988. Samples for rhetorical analysis were selected from two mainstream newspapers, including China Times, and United Daily. The time frame for sample selection is from August 1953 (when the first transgender case was reported) to 1988, while the SRS was legalized in Taiwan. To enhance understanding of media representation as contextualized-based, the author refers to the representative of spatial rhetoric Mikhail Bakhtin for his late study on 'emergence' and 'visualization of time' in Bildungsroman; thereby categorizing the media discourse of transgender into two critical period: (1) transgender as 'misrecognized' and 'included' into the rhetoric of modern medical space; (2) transgender as 'institutionalized' into discourse of protection and salvation by the reified sympathy of nation-state. These two periods and relevant spatial rhetoric were of no immediate concern on the vital interest of transgender individuals; therefore constructed the imagery of transgender for the service of nationalism rather than gender consciousness or human right rhetoric. Based on the research findings, this essay concludes that 'queer multiplicity' should be regarded as not only the guideline for the amendment of the gendered policies and laws but the rhetorical resources for the mobilization of transgender movement in Taiwan from now on.

Keywords: Bakhtin, legalization, rhetoric, sex reassignment surgery, transgender, transing-nationalism

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20 Effect of Assumptions of Normal Shock Location on the Design of Supersonic Ejectors for Refrigeration

Authors: Payam Haghparast, Mikhail V. Sorin, Hakim Nesreddine


The complex oblique shock phenomenon can be simply assumed as a normal shock at the constant area section to simulate a sharp pressure increase and velocity decrease in 1-D thermodynamic models. The assumed normal shock location is one of the greatest sources of error in ejector thermodynamic models. Most researchers consider an arbitrary location without justifying it. Our study compares the effect of normal shock place on ejector dimensions in 1-D models. To this aim, two different ejector experimental test benches, a constant area-mixing ejector (CAM) and a constant pressure-mixing (CPM) are considered, with different known geometries, operating conditions and working fluids (R245fa, R141b). In the first step, in order to evaluate the real value of the efficiencies in the different ejector parts and critical back pressure, a CFD model was built and validated by experimental data for two types of ejectors. These reference data are then used as input to the 1D model to calculate the lengths and the diameters of the ejectors. Afterwards, the design output geometry calculated by the 1D model is compared directly with the corresponding experimental geometry. It was found that there is a good agreement between the ejector dimensions obtained by the 1D model, for both CAM and CPM, with experimental ejector data. Furthermore, it is shown that normal shock place affects only the constant area length as it is proven that the inlet normal shock assumption results in more accurate length. Taking into account previous 1D models, the results suggest the use of the assumed normal shock location at the inlet of the constant area duct to design the supersonic ejectors.

Keywords: 1D model, constant area-mixing, constant pressure-mixing, normal shock location, ejector dimensions

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19 Optimization for Guide RNA and CRISPR/Cas9 System Nanoparticle Mediated Delivery into Plant Cell for Genome Editing

Authors: Andrey V. Khromov, Antonida V. Makhotenko, Ekaterina A. Snigir, Svetlana S. Makarova, Natalia O. Kalinina, Valentin V. Makarov, Mikhail E. Taliansky


Due to its simplicity, CRISPR/Cas9 has become widely used and capable of inducing mutations in the genes of organisms of various kingdoms. The aim of this work was to develop applications for the efficient modification of DNA coding sequences of phytoene desaturase (PDS), coilin and vacuolar invertase (Solanum tuberosum) genes, and to develop a new nanoparticles carrier efficient technology to deliver the CRISPR/Cas9 system for editing the plant genome. For each of the genes - coilin, PDS and vacuolar invertase, five single RNA guide (sgRNAs) were synthesized. To determine the most suitable nanoplatform, two types of NP platforms were used: magnetic NPs (MNPS) and gold NPs (AuNPs). To test the penetration efficiency, they were functionalized with fluorescent agents - BSA * FITS and GFP, as well as labeled Cy3 small-sized RNA. To measure the efficiency, a fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used. It was shown that the best of these options were AuNP - both in the case of proteins and in the case of RNA. The next step was to check the possibility of delivering components of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to plant cells for editing target genes. AuNPs were functionalized with a ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of Cas9 and corresponding to target genes sgRNAs, and they were biolistically bombarded to axillary buds and apical meristems of potato plants. After the treatment by the best NP carrier, potato meristems were grown to adult plants. DNA isolated from this plants was sent to a preliminary fragment of the analysis to screen out the non-transformed samples, and then to the NGS. The present work was carried out with the financial support from the Russian Science Foundation (grant No. 16-16-04019).

Keywords: biobombardment, coilin, CRISPR/Cas9, nanoparticles, NPs, PDS, sgRNA, vacuolar invertase

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18 Angiogenic and Immunomodulatory Properties and Phenotype of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Be Regulated by Cytokine Treatment

Authors: Ekaterina Zubkova, Irina Beloglazova, Iurii Stafeev, Konsyantin Dergilev, Yelena Parfyonova, Mikhail Menshikov


Mesenchymal stromal cells from adipose tissue (MSC) currently are widely used in regenerative medicine to restore the function of damaged tissues, but that is significantly hampered by their heterogeneity. One of the modern approaches to overcoming this obstacle is the polarization of cell subpopulations into a specific phenotype under the influence of cytokines and other factors that activate receptors and signal transmission to cells. We polarized MSC with factors affecting the inflammatory signaling and functional properties of cells, followed by verification of their expression profile and ability to affect the polarization of macrophages. RT-PCR evaluation showed that cells treated with LPS, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), primarily express pro-inflammatory factors and cytokines, and after treatment with polyninosin polycytidic acid and interleukin-4 (IL4) anti-inflammatory factors and some proinflammatory factors. MSC polarized with pro-inflammatory cytokines showed a more robust pro-angiogenic effect in fibrin gel bead 3D angiogenesis assay. Further, we evaluated the possibility of paracrine effects of MSCs on the polarization of intact macrophages. Polarization efficiency was assesed by expression of M1/M2 phenotype markers CD80 and CD206. We showed that conditioned media from MSC preincubated in the presence of IL-4 cause an increase in CD206 expression similar to that observed in M2 macrophages. Conditioned media from MSC polarized in the presence of LPS or TNF-α increased the expression of CD80 antigen in macrophages, similar to that observed in M1 macrophages. In other cases, a pronounced paracrine effect of MSC on the polarization of macrophages was not detected. Thus, our study showed that the polarization of MSC along the pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory pathway allows us to obtain cell subpopulations that have a multidirectional modulating effect on the polarization of macrophages. (RFBR grants 20-015-00405 and 18-015-00398.)

Keywords: angiogenesis, cytokines, mesenchymal, polarization, inflammation

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17 Synthesis and Gas Transport Properties of Polynorbornene Dicarboximides Bearing Trifluoromethyl Isomer Moieties

Authors: Jorge A. Cruz-Morales, Joel Vargas, Arlette A. Santiago, Mikhail A. Tlenkopatchev


In industrial processes such as oil extraction and refining, products are handled or generated in the gas phase, which represents a challenge in terms of treatment and purification. During the past three decades, new scientific findings and technological advances in separation based on the use of membranes have led to simpler and more efficient gas separation processes, optimizing the use of energy and generating less pollution. This work reports the synthesis and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of new structural isomers based on norbornene dicarboximides bearing trifluoromethyl moieties, specifically N-2-trifluoromethylphenyl-exo,endo-norbornene-5,6-dicarboximide (2a) and N-3-trifluoromethylphenyl-exo,endo-norbornene-5,6-dicarboximide (2b), using tricyclohexylphosphine [1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene][benzylidene] ruthenium dichloride (I), bis(tricyclohexylphosphine) benzylidene ruthenium (IV) dichloride (II), and bis(tricyclohexylphosphine) p-fluorophenylvinylidene ruthenium (II) dichloride (III). It was observed that the -CF3 moiety attached at the ortho position of the aromatic ring increases thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, whereas meta substitution has the opposite effect. A comparative study of gas transportation in membranes, based on these fluorinated polynorbornenes, showed that -CF3 ortho substitution increases permeability of the polymer membrane as a consequence of the increase in both gas solubility and gas diffusion. In contrast, gas permeability coefficients of the meta-substituted polymer membrane are rather similar to those of that which is non-fluorinated; this can be attributed to a lower fractional free volume. The meta-substituted polymer membrane, besides showing the largest permselectivity coefficients of all the isomers studied here, was also found to have one of the largest permselectivity coefficients for separating H2/C3H6 into glassy polynorbornene dicarboximides.

Keywords: gas transport membranes, polynorbornene dicarboximide, ROMP, structural isomers

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16 Intrastromal Donor Limbal Segments Implantation as a Surgical Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus: Clinical and Functional Results

Authors: Mikhail Panes, Sergei Pozniak, Nikolai Pozniak


Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intrastromal donor limbal segments implantation for treatment of progressive keratoconus considering on main characteristics of corneal endothelial cells. Setting: Outpatient ophthalmic clinic. Methods: Twenty patients (20 eyes) with progressive keratoconus II-III of Amsler classification were recruited. The worst eye was treated with the transplantation of donor limbal segments in the recipient corneal stroma, while the fellow eye was left untreated as a control of functional and morphological changes. Furthermore, twenty patients (20 eyes) without progressive keratoconus was used as a control of corneal endothelial cells changes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination including uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), slit lamp examination fundus examination, corneal topography and pachymetry, auto-keratometry, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Corneal Endothelial Specular Microscopy. Results: After two years, statistically significant improvement in the UDVA and CDVA (on the average on two lines for UDVA and three-four lines for CDVA) were noted. Besides corneal astigmatism decreased from 5.82 ± 2.64 to 1.92 ± 1.4 D. Moreover there were no statistically significant differences in the changes of mean spherical equivalent, keratometry and pachymetry indicators. It should be noted that after two years there were no significant differences in the changes of the number and form of corneal endothelial cells. It can be regarded as a process stabilization. In untreated control eyes, there was a general trend towards worsening of UDVA, CDVA and corneal thickness, while corneal astigmatism was increased. Conclusion: Intrastromal donor segments implantation is a safe technique for keratoconus treatment. Intrastromal donor segments implantation is an efficient procedure to stabilize and improve progressive keratoconus.

Keywords: corneal endothelial cells, intrastromal donor limbal segments, progressive keratoconus, surgical treatment of keratoconus

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15 Modeling of Void Formation in 3D Woven Fabric During Resin Transfer Moulding

Authors: Debabrata Adhikari, Mikhail Matveev, Louise Brown, Jan Kočí, Andy Long


Resin transfer molding (RTM) is increasingly used for manufacturing high-quality composite structures due to its additional advantages over prepregs of low-cost out-of-autoclave processing. However, to retain the advantages, it is critical to reduce the void content during the injection. Reinforcements commonly used in RTM, such as woven fabrics, have dual-scale porosity with mesoscale pores between the yarns and the micro-scale pores within the yarns. Due to the fabric geometry and the nature of the dual-scale flow, the flow front during injection creates a complicated fingering formation which leads to void formation. Analytical modeling of void formation for woven fabrics has been widely studied elsewhere. However, there is scope for improvement to the reduction in void formation in 3D fabrics wherein the in-plane yarn layers are confined by additional through-thickness binder yarns. In the present study, the structural morphology of the tortuous pore spaces in the 3D fabric has been studied and implemented using open-source software TexGen. An analytical model for the void and the fingering formation has been implemented based on an idealized unit cell model of the 3D fabric. Since the pore spaces between the yarns are free domains, the region is treated as flow-through connected channels, whereas intra-yarn flow has been modeled using Darcy’s law with an additional term to account for capillary pressure. Later the void fraction has been characterised using the criterion of void formation by comparing the fill time for inter and intra yarn flow. Moreover, the dual-scale two-phase flow of resin with air has been simulated in the commercial CFD solver OpenFOAM/ANSYS to predict the probable location of voids and validate the analytical model. The use of an idealised unit cell model will give the insight to optimise the mesoscale geometry of the reinforcement and injection parameters to minimise the void content during the LCM process.

Keywords: 3D fiber, void formation, RTM, process modelling

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14 Modification of Polyolefin Membrane Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Vadim V. Zefirov, Victor E. Sizov, Marina A. Pigaleva, Igor V. Elmanovich, Mikhail S. Kondratenko, Marat O. Gallyamov


This work presents a novel method for treating porous hydrophobic polyolefin membranes using supercritical carbon dioxide that allows usage of the modified membrane in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte. Polyolefin membranes are well known and widely used, however, they cannot be used as separators in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte since they have insufficient wettability, and therefore do not provide sufficient proton conductivity. The main aim of the presented work was the development of hydrophilic composites based on cheap membranes and precursors. Supercritical fluid was used as a medium for the deposition of the hydrophilic phase on the hydrophobic surface of the membrane. Due to the absence of negative capillary effects in a supercritical medium, a homogeneous composite is obtained as a result of synthesis. The in-situ synthesized silicon oxide nanoparticles and the chitosan polymer layer act as the hydrophilic phase and not only increase the affinity of the membrane towards the electrolyte, but also reduce the pore size of the polymer matrix, which positively affects the ion selectivity of the membrane. The composite material obtained as a result of synthesis has enhanced hydrophilic properties and is capable of providing proton conductivity in redox flow batteries. The morphology of the obtained composites was characterized by electron microscopy. To analyze the phase composition, infrared spectroscopy was used. The hydrophilic properties were studied by water contact angle measurements. In addition, the proton conductivity and ion selectivity of the obtained samples were studied, and tests in real redox flow batteries were performed. As a result, modified membrane was characterised in detail and moreover it was shown that modified cheap polyolefin membranes have pronounced proton conductivity and high ion selectivity, so their performance in a real redox flow battery approaches expensive commercial analogues, reaching 70% of energy efficiency.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, chitosan, polymer membrane, redox flow batteries, silica nanoparticles, supercritical fluid

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