Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3631

Search results for: mass casualty event

3631 Major Incident Tier System in the Emergency Department: An Approach

Authors: Catherine Bernard, Paul Ransom

Abstract:

Recent events have prompted emergency planners to re-evaluate their emergency response to major incidents and mass casualties. At the Royal Sussex County Hospital, we have adopted a tiered system comprised of three levels, anticipating an increasing P1, P2 or P3 load. This will aid planning in the golden period between Major Incident ‘Standby,’ and ‘Declared’. Each tier offers step-by-step instructions on appropriate patient movement within and out of the department, as well as suggestions for overflow areas and additional staffing levels. This system can be adapted to individual hospitals and provides concise instructions to be followed in a potentially overwhelming situation.

Keywords: disaster planning, emergency preparedness, major incident planning, mass casualty event

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3630 Event Monitoring Based On Web Services for Heterogeneous Event Sources

Authors: Arne Koschel

Abstract:

This article discusses event monitoring options for heterogeneous event sources as they are given in nowadays heterogeneous distributed information systems. It follows the central assumption, that a fully generic event monitoring solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, event source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Following from this, the core result of the work presented here is the extension of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service for a variety of event sources. A service approach allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: event monitoring, ECA, CEP, SOA, web services

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3629 Civil Protection in Mass Methanol Poisoning in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková, Jiří Barta, Otakar J. Mika, Jan Hrdlička, Josef Kellner

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the method to solutions the crisis situation in the Czech Republic associated with the mass methanol poisoning. The emphasis is put on tasks of individual state bodies and of Integrated Rescue System during the handling of the crisis. The theoretical part describes poisonings, ways of intoxication, types of intoxicants and cases of mass poisoning by dangerous substances in the world. The practical part describes the development, causes and solutions of extraordinary event, mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic. The main emphasis was put on the crisis management of the Czech Republic in solving this situation.

Keywords: crisis management, poisoning, methanol, hazardous substances, extraordinary event

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
3628 The EAO2 in Essouabaa, Tebessa, Algeria: An Example of Facies to Organic Matter

Authors: Sihem Salmi Laouar, Khoudair Chabane, Rabah Laouar, Adrian J. Boyce et Anthony E. Fallick

Abstract:

The solid mass of Essouabaa belongs paléogéography to the field téthysian and belonged to the area of the Mounts of Mellègue. This area was not saved by the oceanic-2 event anoxic (EAO-2) which was announced, over one short period, around the limit cénomanian-turonian. In the solid mass of Essouabba, the dominant sediments, pertaining to this period, are generally fine, dark, laminated and sometimes rolled deposits. They contain a rather rich planktonic microfaune, pyrite, and grains of phosphate, thus translating an environment rather deep and reducing rather deep and reducing. For targeting well the passage Cénomanian-Turonian (C-T) in the solid mass of Essouabaa, of the studies lithological and biostratigraphic were combined with the data of the isotopic analyses carbon and oxygen like with the contents of CaCO3. The got results indicate that this passage is marked by a biological event translated by the appearance of the "filaments" like by a positive excursion of the δ13C and δ18O. The cénomanian-turonian passage in the solid mass of Essouabaa represents a good example where during the oceanic event anoxic a facies with organic matter with contents of COT which can reach 1.36%. C E massive presents biostratigraphic and isotopic similarities with those obtained as well in the areas bordering (ex: Tunisia and Morocco) that throughout the world.

Keywords: limit cénomanian-turonian (C-T), COT, filaments, event anoxic 2 (EAO-2), stable isotopes, mounts of Mellègue, Algeria

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3627 Capacity Building and Training of Health Personals for Disaster Preparedness in North East India

Authors: U. K. Tamuli

Abstract:

Introduction: North East India is graced with natural beauty and hazards. This area is prone to major earthquakes, floods, landslides, accidents, terrorist activities etc. Academy of Trauma (AOT), an NGO of Doctors, conducts training programs, mock drills, field trials amongst the doctors and paramedics in North East India. The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of such training in terms of sensitivity, awareness, and delivery systems of the products. Here the health care delivery system for disaster management is inadequate. Clear guideline of mass casualty management is unavailable. AOT has initiated steps to increase the awareness and handling of mass casualty management to improve the emergency health care delivery system. Method: AOT has conducted training programmes on emergency health management, mass casualty management and hospital preparedness amongst 800 doctors and 1200 paramedics in twenty-two districts of Assam in Northeast India. The training module consists of lectures, hands-on workshop using manikins, mock drills, distribution of manuals, emergency management exercises, periodic exchange of experience and debriefings. AOT evaluates the impact of these trainings by conducting pre and post tests of delegates, trainer’s evaluation, delegate’s satisfaction and confidence level and their suggestions. Results: The module, training, hands-on workshops, mock drills were highly appreciated. There is significant improvement in scores on the post-training tests. The confidence level of the participants has risen to deal with emergency medical situation Conclusion: These kinds of trainings increase the awareness of the medical members to handle mass casualties in different situations. One such training actually sensitises the delegates. Repetition of such training, TOT (Training-of-Trainers) programs, and individual efforts of delegates are extremely important for sustenance and success of health care delivery service during disasters in the developing countries. Further collaboration, assistance, networking, suggestions from established global agencies in this field will be highly appreciated.

Keywords: capacity building, North East India, non-governmental organization, trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3626 Comparing the SALT and START Triage System in Disaster and Mass Casualty Incidents: A Systematic Review

Authors: Hendri Purwadi, Christine McCloud

Abstract:

Triage is a complex decision-making process that aims to categorize a victim’s level of acuity and the need for medical assistance. Two common triage systems have been widely used in Mass Casualty Incidents (MCIs) and disaster situation are START (Simple triage algorithm and rapid treatment) and SALT (sort, asses, lifesaving, intervention, and treatment/transport). There is currently controversy regarding the effectiveness of SALT over START triage system. This systematic review aims to investigate and compare the effectiveness between SALT and START triage system in disaster and MCIs setting. Literatures were searched via systematic search strategy from 2009 until 2019 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Science direct, Medlib, ProQuest. This review included simulated-based and medical record -based studies investigating the accuracy and applicability of SALT and START triage systems of adult and children population during MCIs and disaster. All type of studies were included. Joana Briggs institute critical appraisal tools were used to assess the quality of reviewed studies. As a result, 1450 articles identified in the search, 10 articles were included. Four themes were identified by review, they were accuracy, under-triage, over-triage and time to triage per individual victim. The START triage system has a wide range and inconsistent level of accuracy compared to SALT triage system (44% to 94. 2% of START compared to 70% to 83% of SALT). The under-triage error of START triage system ranged from 2.73% to 20%, slightly lower than SALT triage system (7.6 to 23.3%). The over-triage error of START triage system was slightly greater than SALT triage system (START ranged from 2% to 53% compared to 2% to 22% of SALT). The time for applying START triage system was faster than SALT triage system (START was 70-72.18 seconds compared to 78 second of SALT). Consequently; The START triage system has lower level of under-triage error and faster than SALT triage system in classifying victims of MCIs and disaster whereas SALT triage system is known slightly more accurate and lower level of over-triage. However, the magnitude of these differences is relatively small, and therefore the effect on the patient outcomes is not significance. Hence, regardless of the triage error, either START or SALT triage system is equally effective to triage victims of disaster and MCIs.

Keywords: disaster, effectiveness, mass casualty incidents, START triage system, SALT triage system

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3625 Predicting Mass-School-Shootings: Relevance of the FBI’s ‘Threat Assessment Perspective’ Two Decades Later

Authors: Frazer G. Thompson

Abstract:

The 1990s in America ended with a mass-school-shooting (at least four killed by gunfire excluding the perpetrator(s)) at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. Post-event, many demanded that government and civilian experts develop a ‘profile’ of the potential school shooter in order to identify and preempt likely future acts of violence. This grounded theory research study seeks to explore the validity of the original hypotheses proposed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 2000, as it relates to the commonality of disclosure by perpetrators of mass-school-shootings, by evaluating fourteen mass-school-shooting events between 2000 and 2019 at locations around the United States. Methods: The strategy of inquiry seeks to investigate case files, public records, witness accounts, and available psychological profiles of the shooter. The research methodology is inclusive of one-on-one interviews with members of the FBI’s Critical Incident Response Group seeking perspective on commonalities between individuals; specifically, disclosure of intent pre-event. Results: The research determined that school shooters do not ‘unfailingly’ notify others of their plans. However, in nine of the fourteen mass-school-shooting events analyzed, the perpetrator did inform the third party of their intent pre-event in some form of written, oral, or electronic communication. In the remaining five instances, the so-called ‘red-flag’ indicators of the potential for an event to occur were profound, and unto themselves, might be interpreted as notification to others of an imminent deadly threat. Conclusion: Data indicates that conclusions drawn in the FBI’s threat assessment perspective published in 2000 are relevant and current. There is evidence that despite potential ‘red-flag’ indicators which may or may not include a variety of other characteristics, perpetrators of mass-school-shooting events are likely to share their intentions with others through some form of direct or indirect communication. More significantly, implications of this research might suggest that society is often informed of potential danger pre-event but lacks any equitable means by which to disseminate, prevent, intervene, or otherwise act in a meaningful way considering said revelation.

Keywords: columbine, FBI profiling, guns, mass shooting, mental health, school violence

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3624 Complex Event Processing System Based on the Extended ECA Rule

Authors: Kwan Hee Han, Jun Woo Lee, Sung Moon Bae, Twae Kyung Park

Abstract:

ECA (Event-Condition-Action) languages are largely adopted for event processing since they are an intuitive and powerful paradigm for programming reactive systems. However, there are some limitations about ECA rules for processing of complex events such as coupling of event producer and consumer. The objective of this paper is to propose an ECA rule pattern to improve the current limitations of ECA rule, and to develop a prototype system. In this paper, conventional ECA rule is separated into 3 parts and each part is extended to meet the requirements of CEP. Finally, event processing logic is established by combining the relevant elements of 3 parts. The usability of proposed extended ECA rule is validated by a test scenario in this study.

Keywords: complex event processing, ECA rule, Event processing system, event-driven architecture, internet of things

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
3623 Event Extraction, Analysis, and Event Linking

Authors: Anam Alam, Rahim Jamaluddin Kanji

Abstract:

With the rapid growth of event in everywhere, event extraction has now become an important matter to retrieve the information from the unstructured data. One of the challenging problems is to extract the event from it. An event is an observable occurrence of interaction among entities. The paper investigates the effectiveness of event extraction capabilities of three software tools that are Wandora, Nitro and SPSS. We performed standard text mining techniques of these tools on the data sets of (i) Afghan War Diaries (AWD collection), (ii) MUC4 and (iii) WebKB. Information retrieval measures such as precision and recall which are computed under extensive set of experiments for Event Extraction. The experimental study analyzes the difference between events extracted by the software and human. This approach helps to construct an algorithm that will be applied for different machine learning methods.

Keywords: event extraction, Wandora, nitro, SPSS, event analysis, extraction method, AFG, Afghan War Diaries, MUC4, 4 universities, dataset, algorithm, precision, recall, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
3622 Investigating the Impacts on Cyclist Casualty Severity at Roundabouts: A UK Case Study

Authors: Nurten Akgun, Dilum Dissanayake, Neil Thorpe, Margaret C. Bell

Abstract:

Cycling has gained a great attention with comparable speeds, low cost, health benefits and reducing the impact on the environment. The main challenge associated with cycling is the provision of safety for the people choosing to cycle as their main means of transport. From the road safety point of view, cyclists are considered as vulnerable road users because they are at higher risk of serious casualty in the urban network but more specifically at roundabouts. This research addresses the development of an enhanced mathematical model by including a broad spectrum of casualty related variables. These variables were geometric design measures (approach number of lanes and entry path radius), speed limit, meteorological condition variables (light, weather, road surface) and socio-demographic characteristics (age and gender), as well as contributory factors. Contributory factors included driver’s behavior related variables such as failed to look properly, sudden braking, a vehicle passing too close to a cyclist, junction overshot, failed to judge other person’s path, restart moving off at the junction, poor turn or manoeuvre and disobeyed give-way. Tyne and Wear in the UK were selected as a case study area. The cyclist casualty data was obtained from UK STATS19 National dataset. The reference categories for the regression model were set to slight and serious cyclist casualties. Therefore, binary logistic regression was applied. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that approach number of lanes was statistically significant at the 95% level of confidence. A higher number of approach lanes increased the probability of severity of cyclist casualty occurrence. In addition, sudden braking statistically significantly increased the cyclist casualty severity at the 95% level of confidence. The result concluded that cyclist casualty severity was highly related to approach a number of lanes and sudden braking. Further research should be carried out an in-depth analysis to explore connectivity of sudden braking and approach number of lanes in order to investigate the driver’s behavior at approach locations. The output of this research will inform investment in measure to improve the safety of cyclists at roundabouts.

Keywords: binary logistic regression, casualty severity, cyclist safety, roundabout

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
3621 Investigating the Role of Emergency Nurses and Disaster Preparedness during Mass Gathering in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Alzahrani, Yiannis Kyratsis

Abstract:

Although emergency nurses, being the frontline workers in mass-gatherings, are essential for providing an effective public health response, little is known about the skills that emergency nurses have, or require, in order to respond effectively to a disaster event. This paper is designed to address this gap in the literature by conducting an empirical study on emergency nurses’ preparedness at the mass-gathering event of Hajj in Mecca city. To achieve this aim, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey among 106 emergency department nurses in all the public hospitals in Mecca in 2014. The results revealed that although emergency nurses’ role understanding is high; they have limited knowledge and awareness of how to respond appropriately to mass-gathering disaster events. To address this knowledge gap, the top three most beneficial types of education and training courses suggested are: hospital education sessions, the Emergency Management Saudi Course and workshop; and short courses in disaster management. Finally, recommendations and constructive strategies are developed to provide the best practice in enhancing disaster preparedness. This paper adds to the body of knowledge regarding emergency nurses and mass gathering disasters. This paper measures the level of disaster knowledge, previous disaster response experience and disaster education and training amongst emergency nurses in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is anticipated that this study will provide a foundation for future studies aimed at better preparing emergency nurses for disaster response. This paper employs new strategies to improve the emergency nurses’ response during mass gatherings for the Hajj. Increasing the emergency nurses’ knowledge will develop their effective responses in mass-gathering disasters.

Keywords: emergency nurses, mass-gatherings, hajj, disaster preparedness, disaster knowledge, perceived role, disaster training, previous disaster response experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3620 Purity Monitor Studies in Medium Liquid Argon TPC

Authors: I. Badhrees

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to describe some of the results that had been found through a journey of study in the field of particle physics. This study consists of two parts, one about the measurement of the cross section of the decay of the Z particle in two electrons, and the other deals with the measurement of the cross section of the multi-photon absorption process using a beam of laser in the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. The first part of the paper concerns the results based on the analysis of a data sample containing 8120 ee candidates to reconstruct the mass of the Z particle for each event where each event has an ee pair with PT(e) > 20GeV, and η(e) < 2.5. Monte Carlo templates of the reconstructed Z particle were produced as a function of the Z mass scale. The distribution of the reconstructed Z mass in the data was compared to the Monte Carlo templates, where the total cross section is calculated to be equal to 1432 pb. The second part concerns the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber, LAr TPC, the results of the interaction of the UV Laser, Nd-YAG with λ= 266mm, with LAr and through the study of the multi-photon ionization process as a part of the R&D at Bern University. The main result of this study was the cross section of the process of the multi-photon ionization process of the LAr, σe = 1.24±0.10stat±0.30sys.10 -56cm4.

Keywords: ATLAS, CERN, KACST, LArTPC, particle physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3619 On Energy Condition Violation for Shifting Negative Mass Black Holes

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce the study of a new solution to gravitational singularities by violating the energy conditions of the Penrose Hawking singularity theorems. We consider that a shift to negative energies, and thus, to negative masses, takes place at the event horizon of a black hole, justified by the original, singular and exact Schwarzschild solution. These negative energies are supported by relativistic particle physics considering the negative energy solutions of the Dirac equation, which states that a time transformation shifts to a negative energy particle. In either general relativity or full Newtonian mechanics, these negative masses are predicted to be repulsive. It is demonstrated that the model fits actual observations, and could possibly clarify the size of observed and unexplained supermassive black holes, when considering the inflation that would take place inside the event horizon where massive particles interact antigravitationally. An approximated solution of the model proposed could be simulated in order to compare it with these observations.

Keywords: black holes, CPT symmetry, negative mass, time transformation

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3618 Hands on Tools to Improve Knowlege, Confidence and Skill of Clinical Disaster Providers

Authors: Lancer Scott

Abstract:

Purpose: High quality clinical disaster medicine requires providers working collaboratively to care for multiple patients in chaotic environments; however, many providers lack adequate training. To address this deficit, we created a competency-based, 5-hour Emergency Preparedness Training (EPT) curriculum using didactics, small-group discussion, and kinetic learning. The goal was to evaluate the effect of a short course on improving provider knowledge, confidence and skills in disaster scenarios. Methods: Diverse groups of medical university students, health care professionals, and community members were enrolled between 2011 and 2014. The course consisted of didactic lectures, small group exercises, and two live, multi-patient mass casualty incident (MCI) scenarios. The outcome measures were based on core competencies and performance objectives developed by a curriculum task force and assessed via trained facilitator observation, pre- and post-testing, and a course evaluation. Results: 708 participants completed were trained between November 2011 and August 2014, including 49.9% physicians, 31.9% medical students, 7.2% nurses, and 11% various other healthcare professions. 100% of participants completed the pre-test and 71.9% completed the post-test, with average correct answers increasing from 39% to 60%. Following didactics, trainees met 73% and 96% of performance objectives for the two small group exercises and 68.5% and 61.1% of performance objectives for the two MCI scenarios. Average trainee self-assessment of both overall knowledge and skill with clinical disasters improved from 33/100 to 74/100 (overall knowledge) and 33/100 to 77/100 (overall skill). The course assessment was completed by 34.3% participants, of whom 91.5% highly recommended the course. Conclusion: A relatively short, intensive EPT course can improve the ability of a diverse group of disaster care providers to respond effectively to mass casualty scenarios.

Keywords: clinical disaster medicine, training, hospital preparedness, surge capacity, education, curriculum, research, performance, training, student, physicians, nurses, health care providers, health care

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
3617 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

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This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: event-B, wireless transaction protocol, proof obligation, refinement, Rodin, ProB

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3616 An Incremental Refinement Approach to a Development of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental development of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Event-B. DHCP is widely used communication protocol, which provides a standard mechanism to obtain configuration parameters. The specification is performed in a stepwise manner and verified through a series of refinements. The Event-B formal method uses the Rodin platform to modeling and verifying some properties of the protocol such as safety, liveness and deadlock freedom. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps.

Keywords: DHCP protocol, Event-B, refinement, proof obligation, Rodin

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
3615 A Refinement Strategy Coupling Event-B and Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) for Planning Problems

Authors: Sabrine Ammar, Mohamed Tahar Bhiri

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Automatic planning has a de facto standard language called Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) for describing planning problems. It aims to formalize the planning problems described by the concept of state space. PDDL-related dynamic analysis tools, namely planners and validators, are insufficient for verifying and validating PDDL descriptions. Indeed, these tools made it possible to detect errors a posteriori by means of test activity. In this paper, we recommend a formal approach coupling the two languages Event-B and PDDL, for automatic planning. Event-B is used for formal modeling by stepwise refinement with mathematical proofs of planning problems. Thus, this paper proposes a refinement strategy allowing to obtain reliable PDDL descriptions from an ultimate Event-B model correct by construction. The ultimate Event-B model, correct by construction which is supposed to be translatable into PDDL, is automatically translated into PDDL using our MDE Event-B2PDDL tool.

Keywords: code generation, event-b, PDDL, refinement strategy, translation rules

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3614 Schrödinger Equation with Position-Dependent Mass: Staggered Mass Distributions

Authors: J. J. Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo, L. Arcos-Díaz

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The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.

Keywords: free particle, point canonical transformation method, position-dependent mass, staggered mass distribution

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3613 Chinese Event Detection with Joint Learning of Semantic and Syntactic Representation

Authors: Yao Bai, Dan Liu, Youming Guo, Meiwen Li

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Event detection (ED), the basis of event extraction, is a very challenging problem, especially in Chinese scenes. The syntactic structure of event sentences is helpful for semantic understanding. This paper proposed a novel ED model called BERT+D-T-LSTM+D-Attention (BDD), which aims to learn semantic and syntactic representation of sentences jointly to enhance event-sentence understanding ability. We use the word vector based on BERT as the information source, the Long-Short Term Memory model based on the dependency tree (DT-LSTM) to integrate the learning of syntactic structure and sentence semantics, an attention mechanism based on the dependency vector to strengthen the distinction of different syntactic structure at the aim of ED. The experiment results on the CEC corpus demonstrate that BDD performs rather well, especially outperforming the SOTA models on recall rate and F value.

Keywords: BERT, D-Attention, dependency vector, D-T-LSTM, event detection

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3612 Opportunities of Diversification Strategy Investment among the Top Ten Cryptocurrencies in Crypto Industry

Authors: Surayyo Shaamirova, Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman

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This study investigates the co-integration association between the top 10 cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, EOS, Cardano, Litecoin, Stellar, IOTA, and NEO. The study applies Johansen Juselius co-integration test to examine the long-run co-integration and utilize the Engle and Granger casualty test to examine the short-run relationship. The findings of the study show that there is a strong co-integration relationship among the cryptocurrencies; however, in the short run, there is no causal relationship among the crypto currencies. These results, therefore, suggest that there are portfolio diversification opportunities in the cryptocurrencies industry when it comes to long run investment decisions, on the other hand, the cryptocurrencies industry shows the characteristics of efficiency in the short-run. This is an indication of a non-speculation investment in the cryptocurrencies industry in the short term investment.

Keywords: cryptocurrencies, Johansen-Juselius co-integration test, Engle and Granger casualty test, portfolio diversification

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3611 Event-Led Strategy for Cultural Tourism Development: The Case of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture

Authors: Yi-De Liu

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Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets and the cultures are increasingly being used to promote cities and to increase their competitiveness and attractiveness. One of the major forms of cultural tourism development undertaken throughout Europe has been the staging of a growing number of cultural events. The event of European Capitals of Culture (ECOC) is probably the best example of the new trends of cultural tourism in Europe, which is therefore used in this article to demonstrate some of the key issues surrounding the event-led strategy for cultural tourism development. Based on the experience of the 2008 ECOC Liverpool, UK, the study’s findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constitutes a boost for the development of cultural tourism in terms of realising experience economy, enhancing city image, facilitating urban regeneration, promoting cultural production and consumption, as well as establishing partnerships. This study is concluded by drawing some critical factors that event and tourism organisers should consider.

Keywords: cultural tourism, event tourism, cultural event, European capital of culture, Liverpool

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3610 The Impact of Reshuffle in Indonesian Working Cabinet Volume II to Abnormal Return and Abnormal Trading Activity of Companies Listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Dewi Nuraini, Nisful Laila, Muhammad Madyan

Abstract:

A big political event such as Cabinet reshuffle mostly can affect the stock price positively or negatively, depend on the perception of each investor and potential investor. This study aims to analyze the movement of the market and trading activities which respect to an event using event study method. This method is used to measure the movement of the stock exchange in which abnormal return can be obtained by investor related to the event. This study examines the differences of reaction on abnormal return and trading volume activity from the companies listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII), before and after the announcement of the Cabinet Work Volume II on 27 July 2016. The study was conducted in observation of 21 days in total which consists of 10 days before the event and 10 days after the event. The method used in this study is event study with market adjusted model method that observes market reaction to the information of an announcement or publicity events. The Results from the study showed that there is no significant negative nor positive reaction at the abnormal return and abnormal trading before and after the announcement of the cabinet reshuffle. It is indicated by the results of statistical tests whose value not exceeds the level of significance. Stock exchange of the JII just reflects from the previous stock prices without reflecting the information regarding to the Cabinet reshuffle event. It can be concluded that the capital market is efficient with a weak form.

Keywords: abnormal return, abnormal trading volume activity, event study, political event

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3609 Single Event Transient Tolerance Analysis in 8051 Microprocessor Using Scan Chain

Authors: Jun Sung Go, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

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As semi-conductor manufacturing technology evolves; the single event transient problem becomes more significant issue. Single event transient has a critical impact on both combinational and sequential logic circuits, so it is important to evaluate the soft error tolerance of the circuits at the design stage. In this paper, we present a soft error detecting simulation using scan chain. The simulation model generates a single event transient randomly in the circuit, and detects the soft error during the execution of the test patterns. We verified this model by inserting a scan chain in an 8051 microprocessor using 65 nm CMOS technology. While the test patterns generated by ATPG program are passing through the scan chain, we insert a single event transient and detect the number of soft errors per sub-module. The experiments show that the soft error rates per cell area of the SFR module is 277% larger than other modules.

Keywords: scan chain, single event transient, soft error, 8051 processor

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3608 The Explanation for Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Richard Lewis

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The following assumptions of the Big Bang theory are challenged and found to be false: the cosmological principle, the assumption that all matter formed at the same time and the assumption regarding the cause of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The evolution of the universe is described based on the conclusion that the universe is finite with a space boundary. This conclusion is reached by ruling out the possibility of an infinite universe or a universe which is finite with no boundary. In a finite universe, the centre of the universe can be located with reference to our home galaxy (The Milky Way) using the speed relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame and Hubble's law. This places our home galaxy at a distance of approximately 26 million light years from the centre of the universe. Because we are making observations from a point relatively close to the centre of the universe, the universe appears to be isotropic and homogeneous but this is not the case. The CMB is coming from a source located within the event horizon of the universe. There is sufficient mass in the universe to create an event horizon at the Schwarzschild radius. Galaxies form over time due to the energy released by the expansion of space. Conservation of energy must consider total energy which is mass (+ve) plus energy (+ve) plus spacetime curvature (-ve) so that the total energy of the universe is always zero. The predominant position of galaxy formation moves over time from the centre of the universe towards the boundary so that today the majority of new galaxy formation is taking place beyond our horizon of observation at 14 billion light years.

Keywords: cosmology, dark energy, dark matter, evolution of the universe

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3607 Calculation of the Added Mass of a Submerged Object with Variable Sizes at Different Distances from the Wall via Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

Authors: Nastaran Ahmadpour Samani, Shahram Talebi

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Added mass is an important quantity in analysis of the motion of a submerged object ,which can be calculated by solving the equation of potential flow around the object . Here, we consider systems in which a square object is submerged in a channel of fluid and moves parallel to the wall. The corresponding added mass at a given distance from the wall d and for the object size s (which is the side of square object) is calculated via lattice Blotzmann simulation . By changing d and s separately, their effect on the added mass is studied systematically. The simulation results reveal that for the systems in which d > 4s, the distance does not influence the added mass any more. The added mass increases when the object approaches the wall and reaches its maximum value as it moves on the wall (d -- > 0). In this case, the added mass is about 73% larger than which of the case d=4s. In addition, it is observed that the added mass increases by increasing of the object size s and vice versa.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann simulation , added mass, square, variable size

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3606 Cross-Layer Design of Event-Triggered Adaptive OFDMA Resource Allocation Protocols with Application to Vehicle Clusters

Authors: Shaban Guma, Naim Bajcinca

Abstract:

We propose an event-triggered algorithm for the solution of a distributed optimization problem by means of the projected subgradient method. Thereby, we invoke an OFDMA resource allocation scheme by applying an event-triggered sensitivity analysis at the access point. The optimal resource assignment of the subcarriers to the involved wireless nodes is carried out by considering the sensitivity analysis of the overall objective function as defined by the control of vehicle clusters with respect to the information exchange between the nodes.

Keywords: consensus, cross-layer, distributed, event-triggered, multi-vehicle, protocol, resource, OFDMA, wireless

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3605 Electromagnetic Tuned Mass Damper Approach for Regenerative Suspension

Authors: S. Kopylov, C. Z. Bo

Abstract:

This study is aimed at exploring the possibility of energy recovery through the suppression of vibrations. The article describes design of electromagnetic dynamic damper. The magnetic part of the device performs the function of a tuned mass damper, thereby providing both energy regeneration and damping properties to the protected mass. According to the theory of tuned mass damper, equations of mathematical models were obtained. Then, under given properties of current system, amplitude frequency response was investigated. Therefore, main ideas and methods for further research were defined.

Keywords: electromagnetic damper, oscillations with two degrees of freedom, regeneration systems, tuned mass damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3604 Cinema and the Documentation of Mass Killings in Third World Countries: A Study of Selected African Films

Authors: Chijindu D. Mgbemere

Abstract:

Mass killing also known as genocide is the systematic killing of people from national, ethnic, or religious group, or an attempt to do so. The act has been there before 1948, when it was officially recognized for what it is. From then, the world has continued to witness genocide in diverse forms- negating different measures by the United Nations and its agencies to curb it. So far, all the studies and documentations on this subject are biased in favor of radio and the print. This paper therefore extended the interrogation of genocide, drumming its devastating effects, using the film medium; and in doing so devised innovative and pragmatic approach to genocide scholarship. It further centered attention on the factors and impacts of genocide, with a view to determine how effective film can be in such a study. The study is anchored on Bateson’s Framing Theory. Four films- Hotel Rwanda, Half of a Yellow Sun, Attack on Darfur, and sarafina, were analyzed, based on background, factors/causes, impacts, and development of genocide, via Content Analysis. The study discovered that: as other continents strive towards peace, acts of genocide are on the increase in African. Bloodletting stereotypes give Africa negative image in the global society. Difficult political frameworks, the trauma of postcolonial state, aggravated by ethnic and religious intolerance, and limited access to resources are responsible for high cases of genocide in Africa. The media, international communities, and peace agencies often abet other than prevent genocide or mass killings in Africa. High human casualty and displacement, children soldering, looting, hunger, rape, sex-slavery and abuse, mental and psychosomatic stress disorders are some of the impacts of genocide. Genocidaires are either condemned or killed. Grievances can be vented using civil resistance, negotiation, adjudication, arbitration, and mediation. The cinema is an effective means of studying and documenting genocide. Africans must factor the image laundering of their continent into consideration. Punishment of genocidaires without an attempt to de-radicalize them is counterproductive.

Keywords: African film, genocide, framing theory, mass murder

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3603 A Study of Effective Event Development and the Sustainability of Tourism Industry in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke Elizabeth Olawale-Olakunle

Abstract:

This research examined effective event development on the sustainability of tourism in Lagos State. The objectives were to ascertain the implication of effective event development on cost, environmental innovations, opportunity for participants, job creation and working conditions. Also, there was a focus on employee participation and the sustainability of the tourism industry. However, the primary data were obtained via the use of structured questionnaire administered to the selected respondents. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents, using the Yaro Yame formula. The formulated hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Non-parametric chi-square. From the tests conducted, the results showed that effective event development has helped to reduce costs, bring about environmental innovations, offer unique opportunity among event participants, create jobs and promote better working conditions, and the influence it has on employee participation affects the sustainability of the tourism industry. Based on these results, it was concluded that effective event development helps to achieve sustainability in the tourism industry by reducing costs, ensuring efficient use of tourism resources and offers a unique opportunity among event participants. It was, therefore, recommended that events should be developed in such a way that it can help to reduce cost and help leverage the financial burdens of participants and stakeholders, thereby, achieving sustainability in the tourism industry.

Keywords: tourism, hospitality, industry, development

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3602 Unmanned Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Abdullah Beyazkurk, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

The evolution of warfare has been affected from technological developments to a large extent. Another important factor that affected the evolution of warfare is the space. Technological developments became cornerstones for the organization of the forces on the field, while space of the battlefield gained importance with the introduction of urban areas as 'battlefields'. The use of urban areas as battlefields increased the casualty, while technological developments began to play a remedial role. Thus, the unmanned systems drew attention as the remedy. Today's widely used unmanned aerial vehicles have great effects on the operations. On the other hand, with the increasing urbanization, and the wide use of urban areas as battlefields make it a necessity to benefit from unmanned systems on the ground as well. This study focuses on the use of unmanned aerial systems as well as unmanned ground systems in urban warfare, with regards to their performance and cost affectivity. The study defends that the use of unmanned vehicles will be remedial for increasing casualty rates, while their precision and superhuman capacity will manifest the performance advantage. The findings of this study will help modern armies focus on unmanned systems, especially for the urban, anti-terror, or counter insurgency operations.

Keywords: technology, warfare, urban warfare, unmanned systems, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 244