Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7244

Search results for: shallow water

7244 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita


In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
7243 Dynamic Evaluation of Shallow Lake Habitat Quality Based on InVEST Model: A Case in Baiyangdian Lake

Authors: Shengjun Yan, Xuan Wang


Water level changes in a shallow lake always introduce dramatic land pattern changes. To achieve sustainable ecosystem service, it is necessary to evaluate habitat quality dynamic and its spatio-temporal variation resulted from water level changes, which can provide a scientific basis for protection of biodiversity and planning of wetland ecological system. Landsat data in the spring was chosen to obtain landscape data at different times based on the high, moderate and low water level of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake. We used the InVEST to evaluate the habitat quality, habitat degradation, and habitat scarcity. The result showed that: 1) the water level of shallow lake changes from high to low lead to an obvious landscape pattern changes and habitat degradation, 2) the most change area occurred in northwestward and southwest of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake, which there was a 21 percent of suitable habitat and 42 percent of moderately suitable habitat lost. Our findings show that the changes of water level in the shallow lake would have a strong relationship with the habitat quality.

Keywords: habitat quality, habitat degradation, water level changes, shallow lake

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
7242 Numerical Modeling of Wave Run-Up in Shallow Water Flows Using Moving Wet/Dry Interfaces

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Michael Herty, Mohammed Seaid


We present a new class of numerical techniques to solve shallow water flows over dry areas including run-up. Many recent investigations on wave run-up in coastal areas are based on the well-known shallow water equations. Numerical simulations have also performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of coastal areas. In all these simulations the shallow water equations are solved in entire domain including dry areas and special treatments are used for numerical solution of singularities at these dry regions. In the present study we propose a new method to deal with these difficulties by reformulating the shallow water equations into a new system to be solved only in the wetted domain. The system is obtained by a change in the coordinates leading to a set of equations in a moving domain for which the wet/dry interface is the reconstructed using the wave speed. To solve the new system we present a finite volume method of Lax-Friedrich type along with a modified method of characteristics. The method is well-balanced and accurately resolves dam-break problems over dry areas.

Keywords: dam-break problems, finite volume method, run-up waves, shallow water flows, wet/dry interfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7241 Thermal and Radon-222 Appraisal in Geothermal Aquifer System, Southeastern Tunisia

Authors: Agoubi Belgacem, Adel Kharroubi


Geothermal groundwater is the main water source to supply various sectors in El Hamma city, southeastern Tunisia. This region was long the destination of thousands of people from Tunisia and neighboring countries for care and bathing. The main objective of this study is to understand the groundwater mineralization origins and factors that control. The second goal is the appraisal of radon in geothermal groundwater in the study area. For this aim, geothermal groundwater was sampled and collected from different locations (thermal baths and deep wells). Physical parameters were measured and major ions were analyzed. Results reveal three water types. The water first type has Na-Mg-Ca-SO4-Cl facies and T>55°C. The second water type dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 facies with a temperature < 45 °C. However the third water type is dominated by Ca-SO4-Na-Cl-Mg. The three water types may be controlled by depth and geology. The first represent groundwater from deep aquifer (lower cretaceous), the second type was the shallow aquifer and the first is mixed water from deep and shallow water with a temperature ranging from 45 to 55°C. Measured Radon shows that shallow aquifer has a higher 222Rn concentration (677 to 2903 Bq.m-3) than deep water (203 to 1100 Bq.m-3). R-222 in El Hamma thermal aquifer was controlled by structures, porosity and permeability of aquifers. Geostatistical analyses of hydrogeological data and radon activities confirm the vertical flow and communication between deep and shallow aquifers through vertical faults system.

Keywords: Radon-222, geothermal, water, environment, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
7240 Numerical Solution of 1-D Shallow Water Equations at Junction for Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elshobaki, Alessandro Valiani, Valerio Caleffi


In this paper, we solve 1-D shallow water equation for sub-critical and super-critical water flow at junction. The water flow at junction has been studied for the last 50 years from the physical-hydraulic point of views and for numerical computations need more attention. For numerical simulation, we need to establish an inner boundary condition at the junction to avoid an oscillation which rise from the waves interactions at the junction. Indeed, we introduce a new boundary condition at the junction based on the mass conservation, total head, and the admissible wave relations between the flow parameters in the three branches to predict the water depths and discharges at the junction. These boundary conditions are valid for sub-critical flow and super-critical flow.

Keywords: numerical simulation, junction flow, sub-critical flow, super-critical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
7239 Hydrogeological Study of Shallow and Deep Aquifers in Balaju-Boratar Area, Kathmandu, Central Nepal

Authors: Hitendra Raj Joshi, Bipin Lamichhane


Groundwater is the main source of water for the industries of Balaju Industrial District (BID) and the denizens of Balaju-Boratar area. The quantity of groundwater is in a fatal condition in the area than earlier days. Water levels in shallow wells have highly lowered and deep wells are not providing an adequate amount of water as before because of higher extraction rate than the recharge rate. The main recharge zone of the shallow aquifer lies at the foot of Nagarjuna mountain, where recent colluvial debris are accumulated. Urbanization in the area is the main reason for decreasing water table. Recharge source for the deep aquifer in the region is aquiclude leakage. Sand layer above the Kalimati clay is the shallow aquifer zone, which is limited only in Balaju and eastern part of the Boratar, while the layer below the Kalimati clay spreading around Gongabu, Machhapohari, and Balaju area is considered as a potential area of deep aquifer. Over extraction of groundwater without considering water balance in the aquifers may dry out the source and can initiate the land subsidence problem. Hence, all the responsible of the industries in BID area and the denizens of Balaju-Boratar area should be encouraged to practice artificial groundwater recharge.

Keywords: aquiclude leakage, Kalimati clay, groundwater recharge

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
7238 Remote Sensing Reversion of Water Depths and Water Management for Waterbird Habitats: A Case Study on the Stopover Site of Siberian Cranes at Momoge, China

Authors: Chunyue Liu, Hongxing Jiang


Traditional water depth survey of wetland habitats used by waterbirds needs intensive labor, time and money. The optical remote sensing image relies on passive multispectral scanner data has been widely employed to study estimate water depth. This paper presents an innovative method for developing the water depth model based on the characteristics of visible and thermal infrared spectra of Landsat ETM+ image, combing with 441 field water depth data at Etoupao shallow wetland. The wetland is located at Momoge National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, where the largest stopover habitat along the eastern flyway of globally, critically-endangered Siberian Cranes are. The cranes mainly feed on the tubers of emergent aquatic plants such as Scirpus planiculmis and S. nipponicus. The effective water control is a critical step for maintaining the production of tubers and food availability for this crane. The model employing multi-band approach can effectively simulate water depth for this shallow wetland. The model parameters of NDVI and GREEN indicated the vegetation growth and coverage affecting the reflectance from water column change are uneven. Combining with the field-observed water level at the same date of image acquisition, the digital elevation model (DEM) for the underwater terrain was generated. The wetland area and water volume of different water levels were then calculated from the DEM using the function of Area and Volume Statistics under the 3D Analyst of ArcGIS 10.0. The findings provide good references to effectively monitor changes in water level and water demand, develop practical plan for water level regulation and water management, and to create best foraging habitats for the cranes. The methods here can be adopted for the bottom topography simulation and water management in waterbirds’ habitats, especially in the shallow wetlands.

Keywords: remote sensing, water depth reversion, shallow wetland habitat management, siberian crane

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
7237 Variation in Water Utilization of Typical Desert Shrubs in a Desert-Oasis Ecotone

Authors: Hai Zhou, Wenzhi Zhao


Water is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development in desert ecosystems. In order to understand how desert shrubs cope with variation in water sources over time, it is important to understand plant–water relations in desert-oasis ecotone. We selected the typical desert shrubs: Nitraria sibirica, Calligonum mongolicum and Haloxylon ammodendron of 5-, 10-, 20- and 40-year old as the research species, to study the seasonal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation in the desert-oasis ecotone of Linze, Northwestern China. We examined stable isotopic ratios of oxygen (δ18O) in stem water of desert shrubs as well as in precipitation, groundwater, and soil water in different soil layers and seasons to determine water sources for the shrubs. We found that the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year old showed significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ18O value of stem water and water sources. However, the C. mongolicum and 20- and 40-year H. ammodendron main water sources were from deep soil water and groundwater, and less response to precipitation pulse. After 22.4 mm precipitation, the contribution of shallow soil water (0-50cm) to the use of N. sibirica increased from 6.7% to 36.5%; the C. mongolicum rarely use precipitation that were about 58.29% and 23.51%, absorbed from the deep soil water and groundwater; the contribution of precipitation to use of H. ammodendron had significantly differences among the four ages. The H. ammodendron of 5- and 10-year old about 86.3% and 42.5% water sources absorbed from the shallow soil water after precipitation. However, the contribution to 20- and 40-year old plant was less than 15%. So, the precipitation was one of the main water sources for desert shrubs, but the species showed different water utilization. We conclude that the main water source of the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year was soil water recharged by precipitation, but the deeply rooted H. ammodendron of 20‐ and 40‐year‐old and the C. mongolicum have the ability to exploit a deep and reliable water source.

Keywords: water use pattern, water resource, stable isotope, seasonal change, precipitation pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
7236 Microgravity, Hydrological and Metrological Monitoring of Shallow Ground Water Aquifer in Al-Ain, UAE

Authors: Serin Darwish, Hakim Saibi, Amir Gabr


The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is situated within an arid zone where the climate is arid and the recharge of the groundwater is very low. Groundwater is the primary source of water in the United Arab Emirates. However, rapid expansion, population growth, agriculture, and industrial activities have negatively affected these limited water resources. The shortage of water resources has become a serious concern due to the over-pumping of groundwater to meet demand. In addition to the deficit of groundwater, the UAE has one of the highest per capita water consumption rates in the world. In this study, a combination of time-lapse measurements of microgravity and depth to groundwater level in selected wells in Al Ain city was used to estimate the variations in groundwater storage. Al-Ain is the second largest city in Abu Dhabi Emirates and the third largest city in the UAE. The groundwater in this region has been overexploited. Relative gravity measurements were acquired using the Scintrex CG-6 Autograv. This latest generation gravimeter from Scintrex Ltd provides fast, precise gravity measurements and automated corrections for temperature, tide, instrument tilt and rejection of data noise. The CG-6 gravimeter has a resolution of 0.1μGal. The purpose of this study is to measure the groundwater storage changes in the shallow aquifers based on the application of microgravity method. The gravity method is a nondestructive technique that allows collection of data at almost any location over the aquifer. Preliminary results indicate a possible relationship between microgravity and water levels, but more work needs to be done to confirm this. The results will help to develop the relationship between monthly microgravity changes with hydrological and hydrogeological changes of shallow phreatic. The study will be useful in water management considerations and additional future investigations.

Keywords: Al-Ain, arid region, groundwater, microgravity

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
7235 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri


A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: hyperion, hyperspectral, Kolkata, water depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
7234 A Boundary-Fitted Nested Grid Model for Modeling Tsunami Propagation of 2004 Indonesian Tsunami along Southern Thailand

Authors: Fazlul Karim, Esa Al-Islam


Many problems in oceanography and environmental sciences require the solution of shallow water equations on physical domains having curvilinear coastlines and abrupt changes of ocean depth near the shore. Finite-difference technique for the shallow water equations representing the boundary as stair step may give inaccurate results near the coastline where results are of greatest interest for various applications. This suggests the use of methods which are capable of incorporating the irregular boundary in coastal belts. At the same time, large velocity gradient is expected near the beach and islands as water depth vary abruptly near the coast. A nested numerical scheme with fine resolution is the best resort to enhance the numerical accuracy with the least grid numbers for the region of interests where the velocity changes rapidly and which is unnecessary for the away of the region. This paper describes the development of a boundary fitted nested grid (BFNG) model to compute tsunami propagation of 2004 Indonesian tsunami in Southern Thailand coastal waters. In this paper, we develop a numerical model employing the shallow water nested model and an orthogonal boundary fitted grid to investigate the tsunami impact on the Southern Thailand due to the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. Comparisons of water surface elevation obtained from numerical simulations and field measurements are made.

Keywords: Indonesian tsunami of 2004, Boundary-fitted nested grid model, Southern Thailand, finite difference method

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
7233 Comparison of Finite Difference Schemes for Numerical Study of Ripa Model

Authors: Sidrah Ahmed


The river and lakes flows are modeled mathematically by shallow water equations that are depth-averaged Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations under Boussinesq approximation. The temperature stratification dynamics influence the water quality and mixing characteristics. It is mainly due to the atmospheric conditions including air temperature, wind velocity, and radiative forcing. The experimental observations are commonly taken along vertical scales and are not sufficient to estimate small turbulence effects of temperature variations induced characteristics of shallow flows. Wind shear stress over the water surface influence flow patterns, heat fluxes and thermodynamics of water bodies as well. Hence it is crucial to couple temperature gradients with shallow water model to estimate the atmospheric effects on flow patterns. The Ripa system has been introduced to study ocean currents as a variant of shallow water equations with addition of temperature variations within the flow. Ripa model is a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations because all the eigenvalues of the system’s Jacobian matrix are real and distinct. The time steps of a numerical scheme are estimated with the eigenvalues of the system. The solution to Riemann problem of the Ripa model is composed of shocks, contact and rarefaction waves. Solving Ripa model with Riemann initial data with the central schemes is difficult due to the eigen structure of the system.This works presents the comparison of four different finite difference schemes for the numerical solution of Riemann problem for Ripa model. These schemes include Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, MacCormack scheme and a higher order finite difference scheme with WENO method. The numerical flux functions in both dimensions are approximated according to these methods. The temporal accuracy is achieved by employing TVD Runge Kutta method. The numerical tests are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. It is revealed that Lax-Freidrichs scheme produces results with oscillations while Lax-Wendroff and higher order difference scheme produce quite better results.

Keywords: finite difference schemes, Riemann problem, shallow water equations, temperature gradients

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
7232 A Simple and Empirical Refraction Correction Method for UAV-Based Shallow-Water Photogrammetry

Authors: I GD Yudha Partama, A. Kanno, Y. Akamatsu, R. Inui, M. Goto, M. Sekine


The aerial photogrammetry of shallow water bottoms has the potential to be an efficient high-resolution survey technique for shallow water topography, thanks to the advent of convenient UAV and automatic image processing techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS)). However, it suffers from the systematic overestimation of the bottom elevation, due to the light refraction at the air-water interface. In this study, we present an empirical method to correct for the effect of refraction after the usual SfM-MVS processing, using common software. The presented method utilizes the empirical relation between the measured true depth and the estimated apparent depth to generate an empirical correction factor. Furthermore, this correction factor was utilized to convert the apparent water depth into a refraction-corrected (real-scale) water depth. To examine its effectiveness, we applied the method to two river sites, and compared the RMS errors in the corrected bottom elevations with those obtained by three existing methods. The result shows that the presented method is more effective than the two existing methods: The method without applying correction factor and the method utilizes the refractive index of water (1.34) as correction factor. In comparison with the remaining existing method, which used the additive terms (offset) after calculating correction factor, the presented method performs well in Site 2 and worse in Site 1. However, we found this linear regression method to be unstable when the training data used for calibration are limited. It also suffers from a large negative bias in the correction factor when the apparent water depth estimated is affected by noise, according to our numerical experiment. Overall, the good accuracy of refraction correction method depends on various factors such as the locations, image acquisition, and GPS measurement conditions. The most effective method can be selected by using statistical selection (e.g. leave-one-out cross validation).

Keywords: bottom elevation, MVS, river, SfM

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
7231 Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of the Different Aquiferous Layers in Oban Basement Complex Area (SE Nigeria)

Authors: Azubuike Ekwere


The shallow and deep aquiferous horizons of the fractured and weathered crystalline basement Oban Massif of south-eastern Nigeria were studied during the dry and wet seasons. The criteria were ascertaining hydrochemistry relative to seasonal and spatial variations across the study area. Results indicate that concentrations of major cations and anions exhibit the order of abundance; Ca>Na>Mg>K and HCO3>SO4>Cl respectively, with minor variations across sampling seasons. Major elements Ca, Mg, Na and K were higher for the shallow aquifers than the deep aquifers across seasons. The major anions Cl, SO4, HCO3, and NO3 were higher for the deep aquifers compared to the shallow ones. Two water types were identified for both aquifer types: Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Na-Cl-SO4. Most of the parameters considered were within the international limits for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes. Assessment by use of sodium absorption ratio (SAR), percent sodium (%Na) and the wilcox diagram reveals that the waters are suitable for irrigation purposes.

Keywords: shallow aquifer, deep aquifer, seasonal variation, hydrochemistry, Oban massif, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7230 Impact of Data and Model Choices to Urban Flood Risk Assessments

Authors: Abhishek Saha, Serene Tay, Gerard Pijcke


The availability of high-resolution topography and rainfall information in urban areas has made it necessary to revise modeling approaches used for simulating flood risk assessments. Lidar derived elevation models that have 1m or lower resolutions are becoming widely accessible. The classical approaches of 1D-2D flow models where channel flow is simulated and coupled with a coarse resolution 2D overland flow models may not fully utilize the information provided by high-resolution data. In this context, a study was undertaken to compare three different modeling approaches to simulate flooding in an urban area. The first model used is the base model used is Sobek, which uses 1D model formulation together with hydrologic boundary conditions and couples with an overland flow model in 2D. The second model uses a full 2D model for the entire area with shallow water equations at the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM). These models are compared against another shallow water equation solver in 2D, which uses a subgrid method for grid refinement. These models are simulated for different horizontal resolutions of DEM varying between 1m to 5m. The results show a significant difference in inundation extents and water levels for different DEMs. They are also sensitive to the different numerical models with the same physical parameters, such as friction. The study shows the importance of having reliable field observations of inundation extents and levels before a choice of model and data can be made for spatial flood risk assessments.

Keywords: flooding, DEM, shallow water equations, subgrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
7229 Effect of Adjacent Footings on Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundations

Authors: Mustafa Aytekin


In this study, impact of adjacent footings is considered on the estimation of elastic settlement of shallow foundations. In the estimation of elastic settlement, the Schmertmann’s method that is a very popular method in the elastic settlement estimation of shallow foundations is employed. In order to consider affect of neighboring footings on elastic settlement of main footing in different configurations, a MATLAB script has been generated. Elastic settlements of the various configurations are estimated by the script and several conclusions have been reached.

Keywords: elastic (immediate) settlement, Schmertman Method, adjacent footings, shallow foundations

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
7228 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
7227 Improvement of Water Quality of Al Asfar Lake Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Jamal Radaideh


Al-Asfar Lake is located about 14 km east of Al-Ahsa and is one of the most important wetland lakes in the Al Ahsa/Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ahsa is may be the largest oasis in the world, having an area of 20,000 hectares, in addition, it is of the largest and oldest agricultural centers in the region. The surplus farm irrigation water beside additional water supplied by treated wastewater from Al-Hofuf sewage station is collected by a drainage network and discharged into Al-Asfar Lake. The lake has good wetlands, sand dunes as well as large expanses of open and shallow water. Salt tolerant vegetation is present in some of the shallow areas around the lake, and huge stands of Phragmites reeds occur around the lake. The lake presents an important habitat for wildlife and birds, something not expected to find in a large desert. Although high evaporation rates in the range of 3250 mm are common, the water remains in the evaporation lakes during all seasons of the year is used to supply cattle with drinking water and for aquifer recharge. Investigations showed that high concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity discharge to Al Asfar Lake from the D2 drain exist. It is expected that the majority of BOD, COD and N originates from wastewater discharge and leachate from surplus irrigation water which also contribute to the majority of P and salinity. The significant content of nutrients and biological oxygen demand reduces available oxygen in the water. The present project aimed to improve the water quality of the lake using constructed wetland trains which will be built around the lake. Phragmites reeds, which already occur around the lake, will be used.

Keywords: Al Asfar lake, constructed wetland, water quality, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
7226 RANS Simulation of the LNG Ship Squat in Shallow Water

Authors: Mehdi Nakisa, Adi Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, Fatemeh Behrouzi


Squat is the reduction in under-keel clearance between a vessel at-rest and underway due to the increased flow of water past the moving body. The forward motion of the ship induces a relative velocity between the ship and the surrounding water that causes a water level depression in which the ship sinks. The problem of ship squat is one among the crucial factors affecting the navigation of ships in restricted waters. This article investigates the LNG ship squat, its effects on flow streamlines around the ship hull and ship behavior and motion using computational fluid dynamics which is applied by Ansys-Fluent.

Keywords: ship squat, CFD, confined, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
7225 Ergonomics Sallow Recharge Well for Sustainable Ground Water Resources

Authors: Lilik Sudiajeng, Wiraga Wayan, Lanang Parwita I Gusti


This is the ongoing research started in 2013 with the final aim is to design the recharge wells both for housing and industry for ground water conservation in Bali - Indonesia. The research started in Denpasar Regency, one of the strategic areas in Bali. The research showed that there is some critical area of ground water resources, especially in north and west part of Denpasar Regency. It driven by the rapid increase of the tourism industry which is followed by the high rate of population, change of land use that leads to the decreasing of rain water catchment areas, and less awareness on preserve natural resources, including ground water. Focus Group Discussion concluded that in order to solve the problem of groundwater crisis, requires the contribution of all parties, started from making simple recharge well for housing. Because of the availability of land is limited and expensive, it is necessary to present an ergonomic shallow recharge well in accordance with the ability of the family or community. The ergonomics shallow recharge well is designed based on the data of hydrology and the characteristics of soil. The design is very flexible depending on the availability of land, environmentally friendly, energy efficient, culture-based, and affordable. To meet the recommended standard of ground water quality, then it equipped with a filtration and sedimentation ponds. Before design recharge wells is disseminated to the public, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of the wells to harvest and absorb rainwater into the ground.

Keywords: ergonomics, ground water resources, recharge well, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
7224 Modelling Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslides in the Northern New South Wales

Authors: S. Ravindran, Y.Liu, I. Gratchev, D.Jeng


Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are more common in the northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. From 2009 to 2017, around 105 rainfall-induced landslides occurred along the road corridors and caused temporary road closures in the northern NSW. Rainfall causing shallow landslides has different distributions of rainfall varying from uniform, normal, decreasing to increasing rainfall intensity. The duration of rainfall varied from one day to 18 days according to historical data. The objective of this research is to analyse slope instability of some of the sites in the northern NSW by varying cumulative rainfall using SLOPE/W and SEEP/W and compare with field data of rainfall causing shallow landslides. The rainfall data and topographical data from public authorities and soil data obtained from laboratory tests will be used for this modelling. There is a likelihood of shallow landslides if the cumulative rainfall is between 100 mm to 400 mm in accordance with field data.

Keywords: landslides, modelling, rainfall, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
7223 Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids

Authors: Rabih Ghostine, Craig Kapfer, Viswanathan Kannan, Ibrahim Hoteit


Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Theoretical test case and three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) wetting and drying in a parabolic basin (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; (iii) wave propagation on the Reyran river valley in consequence of the Malpasset dam-break in 1959 (France); and (iv) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.

Keywords: dam-break, discontinuous Galerkin scheme, flood modeling, shallow water equations

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7222 Soil Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation and Consolidation Settlement at Around the Prospective Area of Sei Gong Dam Batam

Authors: Andri Hidayat, Zufialdi Zakaria, Raden Irvan Sophian


Batam city within next five years are expected to experience water crisis. Sei Gong dam which is located in the Sijantung village, Galang District, Batam City, Riau Islands Province is one of 13 dams that will be built to solve the problems of raw water crisis in the Batam city. The purpose of this study are to determine the condition of engineering geology around Sei Gong Dam area, knowing the value of the soil bearing capacity and recommended pile foundation, and knowing the characteristics of the soil consolidation as one of the factors that affect the incidence of soil subsidence. Based on calculations for shallow foundation in general - soil shear condition and local - soil condition indicates that the highest value in ultimate soil bearing capacity (qu) for each depth was in the square foundations at two meters depth. The zonations of shallow foundation of the research area are divided into five zones, they are bearing capacity zone <10 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 10-15 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 15-20 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 20-25 ton/m2, and bearing capacity zone >25 ton/m2. Based on the parameters of soil engineering analysis, Sei Gong Dam areas at the middle part has a higher value for land subsidence.

Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, type of foundation, consolidation, land subsidence, Batam

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
7221 The Use of Fractional Brownian Motion in the Generation of Bed Topography for Bodies of Water Coupled with the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Elysia G. Barker


Collecting data to determine the topography of a riverbed has many flaws, a few being observer bias, erosion over time, and inaccuracies due to debris. To overcome these issues, Fractional Brownian Motion (FBM), a generalization of Brownian Motion, is used to generate a fractal-like structure to model the bed topography in a randomized, nonlinear way. This allows us to overcome the issues arising when needing to take measurements of the bed topography by estimating the bed in a realistic manner. The main benefits being this would present a more efficient method as physical measurements would no longer be needed, the method changes each time it is run, due to its fractal-like nature, which represents the changing bed topography due to erosion and other external factors surrounding the changing of riverbeds, and simulations may still be run for areas we currently have no topographical measurements of. To test this method, simulations of shallow water are run over the FBM generated bed topography and the traditional method of modelling bed topography using data points. The Lattice Boltzmann Method is used to solve the shallow water equations in this case. The results of these simulations are compared side by side to establish accuracy and similarity between the two methods, whether the FBM generated bed topography is any more reliable than the traditional method, and to test the efficiency of the methods. Different flow cases will be tested such as stationary flow, non-stationary steady flow, and more complex flows to thoroughly test the method. Pure water is used in the simulations but eventually, the collection and transportation of dirt and debris will be considered as this may affect the overall movement of the water. MATLAB is used to write a program which generates a bed topography using FBM and compares this against the original bed data collected in the traditional method. The generated bed must be less than five percent different than the traditional bed for it to be acceptable to use. FBM considers the action and movement of the previous data point which allows for constraints to be placed on the generation of the bed topography, such as the average height above sea level, the starting and ending bed elevation and the amount of data points required. In turn, this allows for the generation of accurate, fractal-like bed topography which produces results without requiring physical measurements of the bed topography prior to simulation.

Keywords: bed topography, fractional brownian motion, lattice boltzmann method, shallow water, simulations

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7220 Derivation of Bathymetry Data Using Worldview-2 Multispectral Images in Shallow, Turbid and Saline Lake Acıgöl

Authors: Muhittin Karaman, Murat Budakoglu


In this study, derivation of lake bathymetry was evaluated using the high resolution Worldview-2 multispectral images in the very shallow hypersaline Lake Acıgöl which does not have a stable water table due to the wet-dry season changes and industrial usage. Every year, a great part of the lake water budget has been consumed for the industrial salt production in the evaporation ponds, which are generally located on the south and north shores of Lake Acıgöl. Therefore, determination of the water level changes from a perspective of remote sensing-based lake water by bathymetry studies has a great importance in the sustainability-control of the lake. While the water table interval is around 1 meter between dry and wet season, dissolved ion concentration, salinity and turbidity also show clear differences during these two distinct seasonal periods. At the same time, with the satellite data acquisition (June 9, 2013), a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values, Secchi disk depths and turbidity levels. Max depth, Secchi disk depth and salinity were determined as 1,7 m, 0,9 m and 43,11 ppt, respectively. Eight-band Worldview-2 image was corrected for atmospheric effects by ATCOR technique. For each sampling point in the image, mean reflectance values in 1*1, 3*3, 5*5, 7*7, 9*9, 11*11, 13*13, 15*15, 17*17, 19*19, 21*21, 51*51 pixel reflectance neighborhoods were calculated separately. A unique image has been derivated for each matrix resolution. Spectral values and depth relation were evaluated for these distinct resolution images. Correlation coefficients were determined for the 1x1 matrix: 0,98, 0,96, 0,95 and 0,90 for the 724 nm, 831 nm, 908 nm and 659 nm, respectively. While 15x5 matrix characteristics with 0,98, 0,97 and 0,97 correlation values for the 724 nm, 908 nm and 831 nm, respectively; 51x51 matrix shows 0,98, 0,97 and 0,96 correlation values for the 724 nm, 831 nm and 659 nm, respectively. Comparison of all matrix resolutions indicates that RedEdge band (724 nm) of the Worldview-2 satellite image has the best correlation with the saline shallow lake of Acıgöl in-situ depth.

Keywords: bathymetry, Worldview-2 satellite image, ATCOR technique, Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey

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7219 Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality Characterization of Some Selected Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: Olu Ale, Olugbenga Aribisala, Sanmi Awopetu


Groundwater (Wells) is obtained from several well-defined and different water-bearing geological layers or strata. The physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the water contributed from each of these water-bearing formations and resultant effects of indiscriminate wastes disposal will be dependent on the dissolution of material within the formation. Therefore, water withdrawn from any ground water source will be a composite of these individual aquifers. The water quality was determined by actual sampling and analysis of the completed wells. This study attempted to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality of twenty five selected wells comprising twenty boreholes (deep wells) and five hand dug wells (shallow wells). The twenty five wells cut across the entire Ado Ekiti Metropolitan area. The water samples collected using standard method was promptly taken to water laboratory at the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti for analysis, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out. Quality characteristics tested were found to meet WHO’s standard and generally acceptable, making it potable for drinking in most situations, thus encouraging the use of groundwater. Possible improvement strategies to groundwater exploitation were highlighted while remedies to poor quality water were suggested.

Keywords: bacteriological, physicochemical, quality, wells, Ado Ekiti

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7218 Mooring Analysis of Duct-Type Tidal Current Power System in Shallow Water

Authors: Chul H. Jo, Do Y. Kim, Bong K. Cho, Myeong J. Kim


The exhaustion of oil and the environmental pollution from the use of fossil fuel are increasing. Tidal current power (TCP) has been proposed as an alternative energy source because of its predictability and reliability. By applying a duct and single point mooring (SPM) system, a TCP device can amplify the generating power and keep its position properly. Because the generating power is proportional to cube of the current stream velocity, amplifying the current speed by applying a duct to a TCP system is an effective way to improve the efficiency of the power device. An SPM system can be applied at any water depth and is highly cost effective. Simple installation and maintenance procedures are also merits of an SPM system. In this study, we designed an SPM system for a duct-type TCP device for use in shallow water. Motions of the duct are investigated to obtain the response amplitude operator (RAO) as the magnitude of the transfer function. Parameters affecting the stability of the SPM system such as the fairlead departure angle, current velocity, and the number of clamp weights are analyzed and/or optimized. Wadam and OrcaFlex commercial software is used to design the mooring line.

Keywords: mooring design, parametric analysis, RAO (Response Amplitude Operator), SPM (Single Point Mooring)

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7217 3D Numerical Study of Tsunami Loading and Inundation in a Model Urban Area

Authors: A. Bahmanpour, I. Eames, C. Klettner, A. Dimakopoulos


We develop a new set of diagnostic tools to analyze inundation into a model district using three-dimensional CFD simulations, with a view to generating a database against which to test simpler models. A three-dimensional model of Oregon city with different-sized groups of building next to the coastline is used to run calculations of the movement of a long period wave on the shore. The initial and boundary conditions of the off-shore water are set using a nonlinear inverse method based on Eulerian spatial information matching experimental Eulerian time series measurements of water height. The water movement is followed in time, and this enables the pressure distribution on every surface of each building to be followed in a temporal manner. The three-dimensional numerical data set is validated against published experimental work. In the first instance, we use the dataset as a basis to understand the success of reduced models - including 2D shallow water model and reduced 1D models - to predict water heights, flow velocity and forces. This is because models based on the shallow water equations are known to underestimate drag forces after the initial surge of water. The second component is to identify critical flow features, such as hydraulic jumps and choked states, which are flow regions where dissipation occurs and drag forces are large. Finally, we describe how future tsunami inundation models should be modified to account for the complex effects of buildings through drag and blocking.Financial support from UCL and HR Wallingford is greatly appreciated. The authors would like to thank Professor Daniel Cox and Dr. Hyoungsu Park for providing the data on the Seaside Oregon experiment.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, extreme events, loading, tsunami

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7216 A Finite Element/Finite Volume Method for Dam-Break Flows over Deformable Beds

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Ashraf Osman, Mohammed Seaid


A coupled two-layer finite volume/finite element method was proposed for solving dam-break flow problem over deformable beds. The governing equations consist of the well-balanced two-layer shallow water equations for the water flow and a linear elastic model for the bed deformations. Deformations in the topography can be caused by a brutal localized force or simply by a class of sliding displacements on the bathymetry. This deformation in the bed is a source of perturbations, on the water surface generating water waves which propagate with different amplitudes and frequencies. Coupling conditions at the interface are also investigated in the current study and two mesh procedure is proposed for the transfer of information through the interface. In the present work a new procedure is implemented at the soil-water interface using the finite element and two-layer finite volume meshes with a conservative distribution of the forces at their intersections. The finite element method employs quadratic elements in an unstructured triangular mesh and the finite volume method uses the Rusanove to reconstruct the numerical fluxes. The numerical coupled method is highly efficient, accurate, well balanced, and it can handle complex geometries as well as rapidly varying flows. Numerical results are presented for several test examples of dam-break flows over deformable beds. Mesh convergence study is performed for both methods, the overall model provides new insight into the problems at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: dam-break flows, deformable beds, finite element method, finite volume method, hybrid techniques, linear elasticity, shallow water equations

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7215 Seismic Response and Sensitivity Analysis of Circular Shallow Tunnels

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Mohammed Ahmad Syed


Underground tunnels are one of the most popular public facilities for various applications such as transportation, water transfer, network utilities and etc. Experience from the past earthquake reveals that the underground tunnels also become vulnerable components and may damage at certain percentage depending on the level of ground shaking and induced phenomena. In this paper a numerical analysis is conducted in evaluating the sensitivity of two types of circular shallow tunnel lining models to wide ranging changes in the geotechnical design parameter. Critical analysis has been presented about the current methods of analysis, structural typology, ground motion characteristics, effect of soil conditions and associated uncertainties on the tunnel integrity. The response of the tunnel is evaluated through 2D non-linear finite element analysis, which critically assesses the impact of increasing levels of seismic loads. The finding from this study offer significant information on improving methods to assess the vulnerability of underground structures.

Keywords: geotechnical design parameter, seismic response, sensitivity analysis, shallow tunnel

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