Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 280

Search results for: flysh deposits

280 On the Lithology of Paleocene-Lower Eocene Deposits of the Achara-Trialeti Fold Zone: The Lesser Caucasus

Authors: Nino Kobakhidze, Endi Varsimashvili, Davit Makadze


The Caucasus is a link of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belt and involves the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus fold systems and the Intermountain area. The study object is located within the northernmost part of the Lesser Caucasus orogen, in the eastern part of Achara-Trialeti fold -thrust belt. This area was rather well surveyed in 70th of the twentieth century in terms of oil-and-gas potential, but to our best knowledge, detailed sedimentological studies have not been conducted so far. In order to fill this gap, the authors of the present thesis started research in this direction. One of the objects selected for the research was the deposits of the Kavtura river valley situated on the northern slope of the Trialeti ridge. Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits known in scientific literature as ‘Borjomi Flysch’ (Turbidites) are exposed in the mentioned area. During the research, the following methodologies were applied: selection of key cross sections, a collection of rock samples, microscopic description of thin sections, mineralogical and petrological analysis of material and identification of trace fossils. The study of Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits starts with Kavtura river valley in the east, where they are well characterized by microfauna. The cross-section of the deposits starts with Danian variegated marlstone conformably overlain by the alternation of thick and thin-bedded sandstones (thickness 40-50 cm). They are continued with interbedded of thin-bedded sandstones and shales(thickness 4-5 m). On the sole surface of sandstones ichnogenera ‘Helmintopsis’ and ‘Scolicia’ are recorded and within the bed –‘Chondrites’ is found. Towards the Riverhead, there is a 1-2 m gap in sedimentation; then again the Paleocene-Lower Eocene sediments crop out. They starting with alternation of grey-green medium-grained sandstones and shales enclosing dark color plant detritus. They are overlain by the interbedded of calcareous sandstones and marls, where the thickness of sandstones is variable (20-70 cm). Ichnogenus – ‘Scolicia’ is found here. Upwards the above-mentioned deposits pass into Middle Eocenian volcanogenic-sedimentary suits. In the Kavtura river valley, the thickness of the Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits is 300-400 m. In the process of research, the following activities are conducted: the facial analysis of host rocks, correlation of the study section with other cross sections and interpretation of depositional environment of the area. In the area the authors have found and described ichnogenera; their preliminary determination have shown that they belong to pre-depositional (‘Helmintopsis’) and post-depositional (‘Chondrites’) forms. As known, during the Cretaceous-Paleogene time, the Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt extensional basin was the accumulation area with great thicknesses (from shallow to deep marine sediments). It is confirmed once more by the authors investigations preliminary results of paleoichnological studies inclusive.

Keywords: flysh deposits, lithology, The Lesser Caucasus, trace fossils

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279 Mineral Deposits in Spatial Planning Systems – Review of European Practices

Authors: Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska


Securing sustainable access to raw materials is vital for the growth of the European economy and for the goals laid down in Strategy Europe 2020. One of the most important sources of mineral raw materials are primary deposits. The efficient management of them, including extraction, will ensure competitiveness of the European economy. A critical element of this approach is mineral deposits safeguarding and the most important tool - spatial planning. The safeguarding of deposits should be understood as safeguarding of land access, and safeguarding of area against development, which may (potential) prevent the use of the deposit and the necessary mining activities. Many European Union countries successfully integrated their mineral policy and spatial policy, which has ensured the proper place of mineral deposits in their spatial planning systems. These, in turn, are widely recognized as the most important mineral deposit safeguarding tool, the essence of which is to ensure long-term access to its resources. The examples of Austria, Portugal, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, discussed in the paper, are often mentioned as examples of good practices in this area. Although none of these countries managed to avoid cases of social and environmental conflicts related to mining activities, the solutions they implement certainly deserve special attention. And for many countries, including Poland, they can be a potential source of solutions aimed at improving the protection of mineral deposits.

Keywords: mineral deposits, land use planning, mineral deposit safeguarding, European practices

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278 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices.  The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.

Keywords: anomaly, gravity, influence, mineral

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277 Comparative Analysis of the Computer Methods' Usage for Calculation of Hydrocarbon Reserves in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Pavel Shcherban, Vlad Golovanov


Nowadays, the depletion of hydrocarbon deposits on the land of the Kaliningrad region leads to active geological exploration and development of oil and natural gas reserves in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. LLC 'Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft' implements a comprehensive program for the development of the region's shelf in 2014-2023. Due to heterogeneity of reservoir rocks in various open fields, as well as with ambiguous conclusions on the contours of deposits, additional geological prospecting and refinement of the recoverable oil reserves are carried out. The key element is use of an effective technique of computer stock modeling at the first stage of processing of the received data. The following step uses information for the cluster analysis, which makes it possible to optimize the field development approaches. The article analyzes the effectiveness of various methods for reserves' calculation and computer modelling methods of the offshore hydrocarbon fields. Cluster analysis allows to measure influence of the obtained data on the development of a technical and economic model for mining deposits. The relationship between the accuracy of the calculation of recoverable reserves and the need of modernization of existing mining infrastructure, as well as the optimization of the scheme of opening and development of oil deposits, is observed.

Keywords: cluster analysis, computer modelling of deposits, correction of the feasibility study, offshore hydrocarbon fields

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276 Unsteady Simulation of Burning Off Carbon Deposition in a Coke Oven

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Keh-Chin Chang, Joo-Guan Hang, Chang-Hsien Tai


Carbon Deposits are often occurred inside the industrial coke oven during the coking process. Accumulation of carbon deposits may cause a big issue, which seriously influences the coking operation. The carbon is burning off by injecting fresh air through pipes into coke oven which is an efficient way practically operated in industries. The burning off carbon deposition in coke oven performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has provided an evaluation of the feasibility study. A three-dimensional, transient, turbulent reacting flow simulation has performed with three different injecting air flow rate and another kind of injecting configuration. The result shows that injection higher air flow rate would effectively reduce the carbon deposits. In the meantime, the opened charging holes would suck extra oxygen from the atmosphere to participate in reactions. In term of coke oven operating limits, the wall temperatures are monitored to prevent over-heating of the adiabatic walls during the burn-off process.

Keywords: coke oven, burning off, carbon deposits, carbon combustion, CFD

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275 Is There a Month Effect on the Deposits Interest Rates? Evidence from the Greek Banking Industry during the Period 2003-13

Authors: Konstantopoulos N., Samitas A., E. Vasileiou, Kinias I.


This article introduces a new view on the month effect study. Applying a Markov Switching Regime model on data from the Greek Time Deposits (TDs) market for the time span January 2003 to October 2013, we examine if there is a month effect on the Greek banking industry. The empirical findings provide convincing evidence for a new king of monthly anomaly. The explanation for the specific abnormality may be the upward deposits window dressing. Further research should be done in order to examine if the specific calendar effect exists in other countries or it is only a Greek phenomenon.

Keywords: calendar anomalies, banking crisis, month effect, Greek banking industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
274 Placer Gold Deposits in Madari Gold Mine, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: Orientation, Source and Distribution

Authors: Tarek Sedki


Madari gold mine is delineated by latitudes 22° 30' 29" and 22° 32' 33" N and longitudes 36° 24' 03" and 35°11' 44" E. Geologically, Madari rock units are classified into dismembered ophiolites, arc volcanic assemblage, syntectonic metagabbro-diorites and Mineralized quartz diorite and granodiorite. Deposition of gold in area occurred as a direct result of weathering of nearby gold-bearing veins. Main concentrations of gold are supposed to ensue close to the bed rock. Nevertheless, the several shallow channel-fill features covering lag deposits, arising throughout the alluvial fan sequence would definitely contain a percentage of the finer gold due to the limited washing and sorting capacity of the uncommon flood events. Gold deposits arise as disseminated and separate gold with limited pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite everywhere veins in the wall rocks and lode gold deposits in quartz veins. In places, the wall rocks, in near district of the quartz vein, are grieved strong silicification, chloritization and pyritization as a result of a metasomatic alteration due to purification of external hydrothermal fluids. Quartz veins are mostly steeply dipping and display banding features and frequently sheared and brecciated.

Keywords: Madari gold mine, placer deposits, southern eastern desert, gold mineralization, quartz veins

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273 Prospection of Technology Production in Physiotherapy in Brazil

Authors: C. M. Priesnitz, G. Zanandrea, J. P. Fabris, S. L. Russo, M. E. Camargo


This study aimed to the prospection the physiotherapy area technological production registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute (INPI) in Brazil, for understand the evolution of the technological production in the country over time and visualize the distribution this production request in Brazil. There was an evolution in the technology landscape, where the average annual deposits had an increase of 102%, from 3.14 before the year 2004 to 6,33 after this date. It was found differences in the distribution of the number the deposits requested to each Brazilian region, being that of the 132 request, 68,9% were from the southeast region. The international patent classification evaluated the request deposits, and the more found numbers were A61H and A63B. So even with an improved panorama of technology production, this should still have incentives since it is an important tool for the development of the country.

Keywords: distribution, evolution, patent, physiotherapy, technological prospecting

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272 The Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) on Homogeneous Change Compression Ignition (HCCI)

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablus, Osama Ab. M. Shafah


The goal of this work is to understand how the thermal influence of combustion chamber deposits can be utilized to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion. In order to do this, two main objectives must first be met; tracking deposit formation trends in an HCCI engine and determining the sensitivity of HCCI combustion to CCD. This requires testing that demonstrates the differences in combustion between a clean engine and one with deposits coating the chamber. This will involve a long-term test that tracks the effects of CCD on combustion. The test will start with a clean engine. One baseline HCCI operating point is maintained for the duration of the test during which gradual combustion chamber deposit formation will occur. Combustion parameters, including heat release rates and emissions will be tracked for the duration and compared to the case of a clean engine. This work will begin by detailing the specifics of the test procedure and measurements taken throughout the test. Then a review of the effects of the gradual formation of deposits in the engine will be given.

Keywords: fuels, fuel atomization, pattern factor, alternate fuels combustion, efficiency gas turbine combustion, lean blow out, exhaust and liner wall temperature

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271 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

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270 Foraminiferal Description and Biostratigraphy of Eocene Deposits in Zagros Basin (Izeh and Interior Fars Sub-Basins) in South-West of Iran

Authors: Ronak Gravand


Eocene deposits in Zagros basin in tow zones of interior Fars and Izeh include limestone and marly limestone succession along with abundant fossils. The significance of this area is due to its hydro carbonic resources. In Dashte Kuh section, limestone and marly limestone deposits with medium to thick creamy layers containing benthic foraminifera could be seen. Bio-zones identified in such deposits include Opertorbitolites Subzone, Somalina Subzone, Alveolina Nummulites Assemblage Subzone and Nummulites fabianii Silvestriella tetraedra Assembelage Zone. In Nil Kuh section, marly limestone of the succession contain abundant plagic foraminifera. The zones identified in this succession include Morozovella aragonesis Range Zone, Hantkenina nuttalli Range Zone, Hantkenina nuttalli Turborotalia cerro-azulensis Interval Zone, Turborotalia cerro-azulensis Range Zone and Morozovella aragonesis Range Zone.

Keywords: zagros basin, foraminifera , biozone, Iran

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269 Facies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Lidam Formation, South East Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Miloud M. Abugares


This study concentrates on the facies analysis, cyclicity and depositional environment of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) carbonate ramp deposits of the Lidam Formation. Core description, petrographic analysis data from five wells in Hamid and 3V areas in the SE Sirt Basin, Libya were studied in detail. The Lidam Formation is one of the main oil producing carbonate reservoirs in Southeast Sirt Basin and this study represents one of the key detailed studies of this Formation. In this study, ten main facies have been identified. These facies are; Chicken-Wire Anhydrite Facies, Fine Replacive Dolomite Facies, Bioclastic Sandstone Facies, Laminated Shale Facies, Stromatolitic Laminated Mudstone Facies, Ostracod Bioturbated Wackestone Facies, Bioturbated Mollusc Packstone Facies, Foraminifera Bioclastic Packstone/Grainstone Facies Peloidal Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone Facies and Squamariacean/Coralline Algae Bindstone Facies. These deposits are inferred to have formed in supratidal sabkha, intertidal, semi-open restricted shallow lagoon and higher energy shallow shoal environments. The overall depositional setting is interpreted as have been deposited in inner carbonate ramp deposits. The best reservoir quality is encountered in Peloidal- Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone facies, these facies represents storm - dominated shoal to back shoal deposits and constitute the inner part of carbonate ramp deposits. The succession shows a conspicuous hierarchical cyclicity. Porous shoal and backshoal deposits form during maximum transgression system and early regression hemi-cycle of the Lidam Fm. However; oil producing from shoal and backshoal deposits which only occur in the upper intervals 15 - 20 feet, which forms the large scale transgressive cycle of the Upper Lidam Formation.

Keywords: Lidam Fm. Sirt Basin, Wackestone Facies, petrographic, intertidal

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268 Study of Electroless Co-P Deposits on Steel

Authors: K. Chouchane, R. Mehdaoui, A. Atmani, A. Merati


A Co-P layer was coated onto steel substrate using electroless plating method in alkaline media. Three temperatures were tested 70, 80 and 90 °C. Sodium hypophosphite was used as a reducer. The influence of addition of boric acid in the bath on deposits properties was studied. Different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and hardness measures were employed to characterize the morphology, composition and the structural properties of the resulting films. The corrosion properties of the prepared coatings were tested in 3% NaCl media, by means of current-potential curves, potential transients. The results showed that the thickness increase with increasing of bath temperature. The addition of boric acid don’t affect the thickness but has an influence on hardness. In fact, the hardness increases from 500 to 700Hv for the temperature of 90°C. The corrosion resistance is improved for all prepared layers.

Keywords: cobalt deposits, corrosion, electroless deposition, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
267 Energy in the Nexus of Defense and Border Security: Securing Energy Deposits in the Natuna Islands of Indonesia

Authors: Debby Rizqie Amelia Gustin, Purnomo Yusgiantoro


Hydrocarbon energy is still pivotal to today’s economy, but its existence is continually declining. Thus, preserving future energy supply has become the national interest of many countries, which they cater in various way, from importing to expansion and occupation. Underwater of Natuna islands in Indonesia deposits great amount of natural gas reserved, numbered to 46 TCF (trillion cubic feet), which is highly potential to meet Indonesia future energy demand. On the other hand, there could be a possibility that others also seek this natural resources. Natuna is located in the borderline of Indonesia, directly adjacent to the South China Sea, an area which is prolonged to conflict. It is a challenge for Indonesia government to preserve their energy deposit in Natuna islands and to response accordingly if the tension in South China Sea rises. This paper examines that nowadays defense and border security is not only a matter of guarding a country from foreign invasion, but also securing its resources accumulated on the borderline. Countries with great amount of energy deposits on their borderline need to build up their defense capacity continually, to ensure their territory along with their energy deposits is free from any interferences.

Keywords: border security, defense, energy, national interest, threat

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266 Use of the Gas Chromatography Method for Hydrocarbons' Quality Evaluation in the Offshore Fields of the Baltic Sea

Authors: Pavel Shcherban, Vlad Golovanov


Currently, there is an active geological exploration and development of the subsoil shelf of the Kaliningrad region. To carry out a comprehensive and accurate assessment of the volumes and degree of extraction of hydrocarbons from open deposits, it is necessary to establish not only a number of geological and lithological characteristics of the structures under study, but also to determine the oil quality, its viscosity, density, fractional composition as accurately as possible. In terms of considered works, gas chromatography is one of the most capacious methods that allow the rapid formation of a significant amount of initial data. The aspects of the application of the gas chromatography method for determining the chemical characteristics of the hydrocarbons of the Kaliningrad shelf fields are observed in the article, as well as the correlation-regression analysis of these parameters in comparison with the previously obtained chemical characteristics of hydrocarbon deposits located on the land of the region. In the process of research, a number of methods of mathematical statistics and computer processing of large data sets have been applied, which makes it possible to evaluate the identity of the deposits, to specify the amount of reserves and to make a number of assumptions about the genesis of the hydrocarbons under analysis.

Keywords: computer processing of large databases, correlation-regression analysis, hydrocarbon deposits, method of gas chromatography

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265 Structural and Morphological Characterization of Inorganic Deposits in Spinal Ligaments

Authors: Sylwia Orzechowska, Andrzej Wróbel, Eugeniusz Rokita


The mineralization is a curious problem of connective tissues. Factors which may play a decisive role in the regulation of the yellow ligaments (YL) mineralization are still open questions. The aim of the studies was a detailed description of the chemical composition and morphology of mineral deposits in the human yellow ligaments. Investigations of the structural features of deposits were used to explain the impact of various factors on mineralization process. The studies were carried out on 24 YL samples, surgically removed from patients suffer from spinal canal stenosis and the patients who sustained a trauma. The micro-computed tomography was used to describe the morphology of mineral deposits. The X-ray fluorescence method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to determine the chemical composition of the samples. In order to eliminate the effect of blur in microtomographic images, the correction method of partial volume effect was used. The mineral deposits appear in 60% of YL samples, both in patients with a stenosis and following injury. The mineral deposits have a heterogeneous structure and they are a mixture of the tissue and mineral grains. The volume of mineral grains amounts to (1.9 ± 3.4)*10-3 mm3 while the density distribution of grains occurs in two distinct ranges (1.75 - 2.15 and 2.15-2.5) g/cm3. Application of the partial volume effect correction allows accurate calculations by eliminating the averaging effect of gray levels in tomographic images. The B-type carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite constitutes the mineral phase of majority YLs. The main phase of two samples was calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The elemental composition of minerals in all samples is almost identical. This pathology may be independent on the spine diseases and it does not evoke canal stenosis. The two ranges of grains density indicate two stages of grains growth and the degree of maturity. The presence of CPPD crystals may coexist with other pathologies.

Keywords: FTIR, micro-tomography, mineralization, spinal ligaments

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264 Amyloid Deposition in Granuloma of Tuberculosis Patients: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shreya Ghosh, Akansha Garg, Chayanika Kala, Ashwani Kumar Thakur


Background: Granuloma formation is one of the characteristic features of tuberculosis. Besides, chronic inflammation underlying tuberculosis is often indicated by an increase in the concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein. The connection between tuberculosis and SAA-driven secondary amyloidosis is well documented. However, SAA-derived amyloid deposition start sites are not well understood in tuberculosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions. It was hypothesized that granuloma could be a potential site for an amyloid deposition because both SAA protein and proteases that cleave SAA into aggregation-prone fragments are reported to be present in the granuloma. Here the authors have shown the presence of SAA-derived amyloid deposits in the granuloma of tuberculosis patients. Methodology: Over a period of two years, tuberculosis patients were screened, and biopsies were collected from the affected organs of the patients. The gold standard, Congo red dye staining, was used to identify amyloid deposits in the tissue sections of tuberculosis patients containing granulomatous structure. Results: 11 out of 150 FFPE biopsy specimens of tuberculosis patients showed eosinophilic hyaline-rich deposits surrounding granuloma. Upon Congo red staining, these deposits exhibited characteristic apple-green birefringence under polarized light, confirming amyloid deposits. Further, upon immunohistochemical staining with anti-SAA, the amyloid enriched areas showed positive immunoreactivity. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we have shown that granuloma can be a potential site for serum amyloid A-derived amyloid formation in tuberculosis patients. Moreover, the presence of amyloid gave significant cues that granuloma might be a probable amyloid deposition start in tuberculosis patients. This study will set a stage to expand the clinical and fundamental research in the understanding of amyloid formation in granuloma underlying tuberculosis and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: amyloid, granuloma, periphery, serum amyloid A, tuberculosis

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263 Influence of Geologic and Geotechnical Dataset Resolution on Regional Liquefaction Assessment of the Lower Wairau Plains

Authors: Omer Altaf, Liam Wotherspoon, Rolando Orense


The Wairau Plains are located in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand, with alluvial deposits of fine-grained silts and sands combined with low-lying topography suggesting the presence of liquefiable deposits over significant portions of the region. Liquefaction manifestations were observed in past earthquakes, including the 1848 Marlborough and 1855 Wairarapa earthquakes, and more recently during the 2013 Lake Grassmere and 2016 Kaikōura earthquakes. Therefore, a good understanding of the deposits that may be susceptible to liquefaction is important for land use planning in the region and to allow developers and asset owners to appropriately address their risk. For this purpose, multiple approaches have been employed to develop regional-scale maps showing the liquefaction vulnerability categories for the region. After applying semi-qualitative criteria linked to geologic age and deposit type, the higher resolution surface mapping of geomorphologic characteristics encompassing the Wairau River and the Opaoa River was used for screening. A detailed basin geologic model developed for groundwater modelling was analysed to provide a higher level of resolution than the surface-geology based classification. This is used to identify the thickness of near-surface gravel deposits, providing an improved understanding of the presence or lack of potentially non-liquefiable crust deposits. This paper describes the methodology adopted for this project and focuses on the influence of geomorphic characteristics and analysis of the detailed geologic basin model on the liquefaction classification of the Lower Wairau Plains.

Keywords: liquefaction, earthquake, cone penetration test, mapping, liquefaction-induced damage

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262 The Combined Effect of the Magnetic Field and Ammonium Chlorides on Deposits Zn-Ni Obtained in Different Conditions

Authors: N.Benachour, S. Chouchane, J. P. Chopart


The zinc-nickel deposition on stainless steel substrate was obtained in a chloride bath composed of ZnCl2 (1.8M), NiCl2.6H2O (1.1M), boric acid H3BO3 (1M) and NH4Cl (4M). One configuration was studied the amplitude or field B (0.5 et1T) is parallel to the surface of the working electrodes .the other share the study of various layer was carried out by XRD. The study of the effect of ammonium chloride in combination with the magnetohydrodynamic effect gave several deposits supposedly good physical properties.

Keywords: ammonium chloride, magnetic field, nickel-zinc alloys, co-deposition

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261 Palynology of the Cretaceous Deposits of the Southeast Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Khaled Mahmud Gaddah


Cretaceous deposits in the southeast of the Sirt Basin of Libya occur in several grabens that formed during a major phase of rifting related to the opening of the Tethys. They include continental deposits of Early Cretaceous age that belong to the Nubian Formation and marginal to fully marine deposits of Late Cretaceous age that belong to the Lidam Formation and transitional beds. The sequence was extensively sampled from twenty-two boreholes and palynologically analysed. Much of the sequence is barren. However, subordinate shales in all formations yield diverse assemblages of poorly to well preserved and thermally middle to post mature palynomorphs. Most of the assemblages contain non-marine palynomorphs (spores, pollen, and freshwater algae), although some contain rare marine elements (dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs). The palynofloras enabled the recognition of six assemblage zones of the late Barremian-Turonian age based on the dominant and base/top occurrences of stratigraphically useful palynomorphs: AI (Afropollisspp.-Aequitriraditesspinulosus) of late Barremian age; AIIa (Scenedesmusbifidus-S. sp.) of late Barremian?-early Aptian age; AIIb (Afropollisoperculatus-A. zonatus) of Aptian age; AIII (Crybelosporitespannuceus-Afropollisjardinus) of early Albian age; AIV (Subtilisphaera sp.-Lophosphaeridiumspp.) of Cenomanian-?Turonian age; AIV (Pediastrumbifidites-Leiosphaeridiaspp.) of Cenomanian?-Turonian age. These assemblages are comparable to others from Northern Gondwana (particularly from Libya and Egypt) and correspond to established Cretaceous palynofloral provinces. Palynofacies analysis is used to interpret the depositional environments, and five palynofacies types are recognised that reflect increasing marine influence up section.

Keywords: palynology, palynomorphs, palynofacies, tethys, sirt basin

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260 Experimental Study of Particle Deposition on Leading Edge of Turbine Blade

Authors: Yang Xiao-Jun, Yu Tian-Hao, Hu Ying-Qi


Breathing in foreign objects during the operation of the aircraft engine, impurities in the aircraft fuel and products of incomplete combustion can produce deposits on the surface of the turbine blades. These deposits reduce not only the turbine's operating efficiency but also the life of the turbine blades. Based on the small open wind tunnel, the simulation of deposits on the leading edge of the turbine has been carried out in this work. The effect of film cooling on particulate deposition was investigated. Based on the analysis, the adhesive mechanism for the molten pollutants’ reaching to the turbine surface was simulated by matching the Stokes number, TSP (a dimensionless number characterizing particle phase transition) and Biot number of the test facility and that of the real engine. The thickness distribution and growth trend of the deposits have been observed by high power microscope and infrared camera under different temperature of the main flow, the solidification temperature of the particulate objects, and the blowing ratio. The experimental results from the leading edge particulate deposition demonstrate that the thickness of the deposition increases with time until a quasi-stable thickness is reached, showing a striking effect of the blowing ratio on the deposition. Under different blowing ratios, there exists a large difference in the thickness distribution of the deposition, and the deposition is minimal at the specific blow ratio. In addition, the temperature of main flow and the solidification temperature of the particulate have a great influence on the deposition.

Keywords: deposition, experiment, film cooling, leading edge, paraffin particles

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259 Factors of Non-Conformity Behavior and the Emergence of a Ponzi Game in the Riba-Free (Interest-Free) Banking System of Iran

Authors: Amir Hossein Ghaffari Nejad, Forouhar Ferdowsi, Reza Mashhadi


In the interest-free banking system of Iran, the savings of society are in the form of bank deposits, and banks using the Islamic contracts, allocate the resources to applicants for obtaining facilities and credit. In the meantime, the central bank, with the aim of introducing monetary policy, determines the maximum interest rate on bank deposits in terms of macroeconomic requirements. But in recent years, the country's economic constraints with the stagflation and the consequence of the institutional weaknesses of the financial market of Iran have resulted in massive disturbances in the balance sheet of the banking system, resulting in a period of mismatch maturity in the banks' assets and liabilities and the implementation of a Ponzi game. This issue caused determination of the interest rate in long-term bank deposit contracts to be associated with non-observance of the maximum rate set by the central bank. The result of this condition was in the allocation of new sources of equipment to meet past commitments towards the old depositors and, as a result, a significant part of the supply of equipment was leaked out of the facilitating cycle and credit crunch emerged. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important factors affecting the occurrence of non-confirmatory financial banking behavior using data from 19 public and private banks of Iran. For this purpose, the causes of this non-confirmatory behavior of banks have been investigated using the panel vector autoregression method (PVAR) for the period of 2007-2015. Granger's causality test results suggest that the return of parallel markets for bank deposits, non-performing loans and the high share of the ratio of facilities to banks' deposits are all a cause of the formation of non-confirmatory behavior. Also, according to the results of impulse response functions and variance decomposition, NPL and the ratio of facilities to deposits have the highest long-term effect and also have a high contribution to explaining the changes in banks' non-confirmatory behavior in determining the interest rate on deposits.

Keywords: non-conformity behavior, Ponzi Game, panel vector autoregression, nonperforming loans

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258 Geometallurgy of Niobium Deposits: An Integrated Multi-Disciplined Approach

Authors: Mohamed Nasraoui


Spatial ore distribution, ore heterogeneity and their links with geological processes involved in Niobium concentration are all factors for consideration when bridging field observations to extraction scheme. Indeed, mineralogy changes of Nb-hosting phases, their textural relationships with hydrothermal or secondary minerals, play a key control over mineral processing. This study based both on filed work and ore characterization presents data from several Nb-deposits related to carbonatite complexes. The results obtained by a wide range of analytical techniques, including, XRD, XRF, ICP-MS, SEM, Microprobe, Spectro-CL, FTIR-DTA and Mössbauer spectroscopy, demonstrate how geometallurgical assessment, at all stage of mine development, can greatly assist in the design of a suitable extraction flowsheet and data reconciliation.

Keywords: carbonatites, Nb-geometallurgy, Nb-mineralogy, mineral processing.

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257 Crustal Scale Seismic Surveys in Search for Gawler Craton Iron Oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) under Very Deep Cover

Authors: E. O. Okan, A. Kepic, P. Williams


Iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits constitute important sources of copper and gold in Australia especially since the discovery of the supergiant Olympic Dam deposits in 1975. They are considered to be metasomatic expressions of large crustal-scale alteration events occasioned by intrusive actions and are associated with felsic igneous rocks in most cases, commonly potassic igneous magmatism, with the deposits ranging from ~2.2 –1.5 Ga in age. For the past two decades, geological, geochemical and potential methods have been used to identify the structures hosting these deposits follow up by drilling. Though these methods have largely been successful for shallow targets, at deeper depth due to low resolution they are limited to mapping only very large to gigantic deposits with sufficient contrast. As the search for ore-bodies under regolith cover continues due to depletion of the near surface deposits, there is a compelling need to develop new exploration technology to explore these deep seated ore-bodies within 1-4km which is the current mining depth range. Seismic reflection method represents this new technology as it offers a distinct advantage over all other geophysical techniques because of its great depth of penetration and superior spatial resolution maintained with depth. Further, in many different geological scenarios, it offers a greater ‘3D mapability’ of units within the stratigraphic boundary. Despite these superior attributes, no arguments for crustal scale seismic surveys have been proposed because there has not been a compelling argument of economic benefit to proceed with such work. For the seismic reflection method to be used at these scales (100’s to 1000’s of square km covered) the technical risks or the survey costs have to be reduced. In addition, as most IOCG deposits have large footprint due to its association with intrusions and large fault zones; we hypothesized that these deposits can be found by mainly looking for the seismic signatures of intrusions along prospective structures. In this study, we present two of such cases: - Olympic Dam and Vulcan iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits all located in the Gawler craton, South Australia. Results from our 2D modelling experiments revealed that seismic reflection surveys using 20m geophones and 40m shot spacing as an exploration tool for locating IOCG deposit is possible even when hosted in very complex structures. The migrated sections were not only able to identify and trace various layers plus the complex structures but also show reflections around the edges of intrusive packages. The presences of such intrusions were clearly detected from 100m to 1000m depth range without losing its resolution. The modelled seismic images match the available real seismic data and have the hypothesized characteristics; thus, the seismic method seems to be a valid exploration tool to find IOCG deposits. We therefore propose that 2D seismic survey is viable for IOCG exploration as it can detect mineralised intrusive structures along known favourable corridors. This would help in reducing the exploration risk associated with locating undiscovered resources as well as conducting a life-of-mine study which will enable better development decisions at the very beginning.

Keywords: crustal scale, exploration, IOCG deposit, modelling, seismic surveys

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256 Electrochemical Synthesis and Morphostructural Study of the Cuprite Thin Film

Authors: M. El Hajji, A. Hallaoui, L. Bazzi, A. Benlhachemi, Lh. Bazzi, M. Hilali, O. Jbara, A. Tara, B. Bakiz


The cathodic electro deposition of the cuprite Cu2O by chrono potentiometry is performed on two types of electrodes "titanium and stainless steel", in a basic medium containing the precursor of copper. The plot produced vs SCE, shows the formation of a brown layer on the electrode surface. The chrono potentiometric recording made between - 0.2 and - 1 mA/cm2, has allowed us to have a deposit having different morphologies and structural orientation obtained as a function of the variation of many parameters. The morphology, the size of crystals, and the phase of the deposits produced were studied by conventional techniques of analysis of the solid, particularly the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) and quantitative chemical analysis (EDS). The results will be presented and discussed, they show that the majority of deposits are pure and uniform.

Keywords: cathodic electrodeposition, cuprite Cu2O, XRD, SEM, EDS analysis

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255 Prospectivity Mapping of Orogenic Lode Gold Deposits Using Fuzzy Models: A Case Study of Saqqez Area, Northwestern Iran

Authors: Fanous Mohammadi, Majid H. Tangestani, Mohammad H. Tayebi


This research aims to evaluate and compare Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-based fuzzy models for producing orogenic gold prospectivity maps in the Saqqez area, NW of Iran. Gold occurrences are hosted in sericite schist and mafic to felsic meta-volcanic rocks in this area and are associated with hydrothermal alterations that extend over ductile to brittle shear zones. The predictor maps, which represent the Pre-(Source/Trigger/Pathway), syn-(deposition/physical/chemical traps) and post-mineralization (preservation/distribution of indicator minerals) subsystems for gold mineralization, were generated using empirical understandings of the specifications of known orogenic gold deposits and gold mineral systems and were then pre-processed and integrated to produce mineral prospectivity maps. Five fuzzy logic operators, including AND, OR, Fuzzy Algebraic Product (FAP), Fuzzy Algebraic Sum (FAS), and GAMMA, were applied to the predictor maps in order to find the most efficient prediction model. Prediction-Area (P-A) plots and field observations were used to assess and evaluate the accuracy of prediction models. Mineral prospectivity maps generated by AND, OR, FAP, and FAS operators were inaccurate and, therefore, unable to pinpoint the exact location of discovered gold occurrences. The GAMMA operator, on the other hand, produced acceptable results and identified potentially economic target sites. The P-A plot revealed that 68 percent of known orogenic gold deposits are found in high and very high potential regions. The GAMMA operator was shown to be useful in predicting and defining cost-effective target sites for orogenic gold deposits, as well as optimizing mineral deposit exploitation.

Keywords: mineral prospectivity mapping, fuzzy logic, GIS, orogenic gold deposit, Saqqez, Iran

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254 Evaluation of Marwit Rod El Leqah Quartz Deposits As A Strategic Source of High Purity Quartz

Authors: Suzan Sami Ibrahim, Mohamed Gad Shahien, Ali Quarny Seliem, Mostafa Ragab Abukhadra


Pegmatite quartz deposits of Marwit Rod El Leqah area classify as medium purity quartz with 99.575 % average SiO2 content and therefore do not match the requirements of high technical applications (99.8 % SiO2 for solar cells, 99.8% SiO2 for electronics). Petrographic field and petrographic investigations reveal that, the reduction of the silica content attributed mainly to impurities of iron oxide, muscovite, rutile, orthoclase, granitic rafts and fluid inclusions. Such impurities resulted in raising Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O and Na2O relative to the silica content. Structural impurities are the main source of trace elements in the quartz samples.

Keywords: High purity quartz, High-tech applications, solid impurities, structural impurities

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253 Microplastic Storages in Riverbed Sediments: Experimental on the Settling Process and Its Deposits

Authors: Alvarez Barrantes, Robert Dorrell, Christopher Hackney, Anne Baar, Roberto Fernandez, Daniel Parsons


Microplastic particles entering fluvial environments are deposited with natural sediments. Their settling properties can change by the absorption or adsorption of contaminants, organic matter, and organisms. These deposits include positively, neutrally, and negatively buoyant particles. This study aims to understand how plastic particles of different densities interact with natural sediments as they settle and how they are stored within the sediment deposit. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the deposition of microplastic particles and associated pollution in rivers. A set of 48 experiments was designed to investigate the settling process of microplastic particles in freshwater. The experimental work describes the vertical variation of cohesive and/or non-cohesive sediment versus microplastic densities in deposited sediment. The experiment consisted of adding microplastic particles, sediment, and water in a waterproof carton tube of a height of 24 cm and a diameter of 5 cm. The plastic selected is positively, neutrally, and negatively buoyant. The sediments consist of sand and clay with four different concentrations. The mixture of materials was shaken until is thoroughly mixed and left to settle for 24 hours. After the settlement, the tubes were frozen at -20 °C to be able to cut them and measure the thickness of the deposits and analyze the sediment and plastic distribution. The most representative experiments were repeated in a glass tube of the same size; to analyse the influences of current flows and depositional process. Finally, the glass tube experiments were used to study organic materials adsorption in plastic, settling the sample for four months. Defined microplastic layers were identified as the density of the plastic change. Preliminary results show that most of the positive buoyancy particles floated, neutral buoyancy particles form a layer above the sediment and negative buoyancy particles mixed with the sediment. The vertical grain size distribution of the deposits was analysed to determine deposition variation with and without plastic. It is expected that the positively buoyant particles are trapped in the sediment by the currents flows and sink due to organic material adsorption. Finally, the experiments will explain how microplastic particles, including positively buoyant ones, are stored in natural sediment deposits.

Keywords: microplastic adsorption process, microplastic deposition in natural sediment, microplastic pollution in rivers, storages of positive buoyancy microplastic particles

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252 Seismic Reflection Highlights of New Miocene Deep Aquifers in Eastern Tunisia Basin (North Africa)

Authors: Mourad Bédir, Sami Khomsi, Hakim Gabtni, Hajer Azaiez, Ramzi Gharsalli, Riadh Chebbi


Eastern Tunisia is a semi-arid area; located in the northern Africa plate; southern Mediterranean side. It is facing water scarcity, overexploitation, and decreasing of water quality of phreatic water table. Water supply and storage will not respond to the demographic and economic growth and demand. In addition, only 5 109 m3 of rainwater from 35 109 m3 per year renewable rain water supply can be retained and remobilized. To remediate this water deficiency, researches had been focused to near new subsurface deep aquifers resources. Among them, Upper Miocene sandstone deposits of Béglia, Saouaf, and Somaa Formations. These sandstones are known for their proven Hydrogeologic and hydrocarbon reservoir characteristics in the Tunisian margin. They represent semi-confined to confined aquifers. This work is based on new integrated approaches of seismic stratigraphy, seismic tectonics, and hydrogeology, to highlight and characterize these reservoirs levels for aquifer exploitation in semi-arid area. As a result, five to six third order sequence deposits had been highlighted. They are composed of multi-layered extended sandstones reservoirs; separated by shales packages. These reservoir deposits represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences, which represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences. They constitute important strategic water resources volumes for the region.

Keywords: Tunisia, Hydrogeology, sandstones, basin, seismic, aquifers, modeling

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251 Precious and Rare Metals in Overburden Carbonaceous Rocks: Methods of Extraction

Authors: Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov, Nadezhda Nikolaeva


A problem of complex mineral resources development is urgent and priority, it is aimed at realization of the processes of their ecologically safe development, one of its components is revealing the influence of the forms of element compounds in raw materials and in the processing products. In view of depletion of the precious metal reserves at the traditional deposits in the XXI century the large-size open cast deposits, localized in black shale strata begin to play the leading role. Carbonaceous (black) shales carry a heightened metallogenic potential. Black shales with high content of carbon are widely distributed within the scope of Bureinsky massif. According to academician Hanchuk`s data black shales of Sutirskaya series contain generally PGEs native form. The presence of high absorptive towards carbonaceous matter gold and PGEs compounds in crude ore results in decrease of valuable components extraction because of their sorption into dissipated carbonaceous matter.

Keywords: сarbonaceous rocks, bitumens, precious metals, concentration, extraction

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