Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 219

Search results for: moon mineralogy mapper

219 Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface

Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan


Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.

Keywords: chandryaan-1, moon mineralogy mapper, mineral, mare orientale, moon

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218 Characterization of Kopff Crater Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Shreekumari Patel, Prabhjot Kaur, Paras Solanki


Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF), Kaguya Terrain Camera images, Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) digital elevation model (DEM) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)- Narrow angle camera (NAC) and Wide angle camera (WAC) images were used to study mineralogy, surface physical properties, and age of the 42 km diameter Kopff crater. M3 indicates the low albedo crater floor to be high-Ca pyroxene dominated associated with floor fracture suggesting the igneous activity of the gabbroic material. Signature of anorthositic material is sampled on the eastern edge as target material is excavated from ~3 km diameter impact crater providing access to the crustal composition. Several occurrences of spinel were detected in northwestern rugged terrain. Our observation can be explained by exposure of spinel by this crater that impacted onto the inner rings of Orientale basin. Spinel was part of the pre-impact target, an intrinsic unit of basin ring. Crater floor was dated by crater counts performed on Kaguya TC images. Nature of surface was studied in detail with LROC NAC and Mini-RF. Freshly exposed surface and boulder or debris seen in LROC NAC images have enhanced radar signal in comparison to mature terrain of Kopff crater. This multidisciplinary analysis of remote sensing data helps to assess lunar surface in detail.

Keywords: crater, mineralogy, moon, radar observations

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
217 Crater Pattern on the Moon and Origin of the Moon

Authors: Xuguang Leng


The crater pattern on the Moon indicates the Moon was captured by Earth in the more recent years, disproves the theory that the Moon was born as a satellite to the Earth. The Moon was tidal locked since it became the satellite of the Earth. Moon’s near side is shielded by Earth from asteroid/comet collisions, with the center of the near side most protected. Yet the crater pattern on the Moon is fairly random, with no distinguishable empty spot/strip, no distinguishable difference near side vs. far side. Were the Moon born as Earth’s satellite, there would be a clear crater free spot, or strip should the tial lock shifts over time, on the near side; and far more craters on the far side. The nonexistence of even a vague crater free spot on the near side of the Moon indicates the capture was a more recent event. Given Earth’s much larger mass and sphere size over the Moon, Earth should have collided with asteroids and comets in much higher frequency, resulting in significant mass gain over the lifespan. Earth’s larger mass and magnetic field are better at retaining water and gas from solar wind’s stripping effect, thus accelerating the mass gain. A dwarf planet Moon can be pulled closer and closer to the Earth over time as Earth’s gravity grows stronger, eventually being captured as a satellite. Given enough time, it is possible Earth’s mass would be large enough to cause the Moon to collide with Earth.

Keywords: moon, origin, crater, pattern

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216 An Application of Modified M-out-of-N Bootstrap Method to Heavy-Tailed Distributions

Authors: Hannah F. Opayinka, Adedayo A. Adepoju


This study is an extension of a prior study on the modification of the existing m-out-of-n (moon) bootstrap method for heavy-tailed distributions in which modified m-out-of-n (mmoon) was proposed as an alternative method to the existing moon technique. In this study, both moon and mmoon techniques were applied to two real income datasets which followed Lognormal and Pareto distributions respectively with finite variances. The performances of these two techniques were compared using Standard Error (SE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The findings showed that mmoon outperformed moon bootstrap in terms of smaller SEs and RMSEs for all the sample sizes considered in the two datasets.

Keywords: Bootstrap, income data, lognormal distribution, Pareto distribution

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215 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala


Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
214 Extraction of Urban Land Features from TM Landsat Image Using the Land Features Index and Tasseled Cap Transformation

Authors: R. Bouhennache, T. Bouden, A. A. Taleb, A. Chaddad


In this paper we propose a method to map the urban areas. The method uses an arithmetic calculation processed from the land features indexes and Tasseled cap transformation TC of multi spectral Thematic Mapper Landsat TM image. For this purpose the derived indexes image from the original image such SAVI the soil adjusted vegetation index, UI the urban Index, and EBBI the enhanced built up and bareness index were staked to form a new image and the bands were uncorrelated, also the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification approaches were first applied on the new image TM data using the reference spectra of the spectral library and subsequently the four urban, vegetation, water and soil land cover categories were extracted with their accuracy assessment.The urban features were represented using a logic calculation applied to the brightness, UI-SAVI, NDBI-greenness and EBBI- brightness data sets. The study applied to Blida and mentioned that the urban features can be mapped with an accuracy ranging from 92 % to 95%.

Keywords: EBBI, SAVI, Tasseled Cap Transformation, UI

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213 Authigenic Mineralogy in Nubian Sandstone Reservoirs

Authors: Mohamed M. A. Rahoma


This paper presents the results of my sedimentological and petrographical study of the Nubian Formation in the north Gialo area in the Sirte basin in Libya that was used for identifying and recognizing the facies type and their changes through the studied interval. It also helped me to interpret the depositional processes and the depositional environments and describe the textural characteristics, detrital mineralogy, Authigenic mineralogy and porosity characteristics of the rocks within the cored interval. Thus, we can identify the principal controls on porosity and permeability within the reservoir sections for the studied interval. To achieve this study, I described the cores studied well and marked all features represented in color, grain size, lithology, and sedimentary structures and used them to identify the facies. Then, I chose a number of samples according to a noticeable change in the facies through the interval for microscopic investigation. The results of the microscopic investigation showed that the authigenic clays and the authigenic types of cement have an important influence on the reservoir quality by converting intergranular macropores to microporosity and reducing permeability. It is recommended to give these authigenic minerals more investigation in future studies since they have an essential influence on the potential of sandstones reservoirs.

Keywords: diagenesis processes, authigenic minerals, Nubian Sandstone, reservoir quality

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212 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz


14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

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211 Geometallurgy of Niobium Deposits: An Integrated Multi-Disciplined Approach

Authors: Mohamed Nasraoui


Spatial ore distribution, ore heterogeneity and their links with geological processes involved in Niobium concentration are all factors for consideration when bridging field observations to extraction scheme. Indeed, mineralogy changes of Nb-hosting phases, their textural relationships with hydrothermal or secondary minerals, play a key control over mineral processing. This study based both on filed work and ore characterization presents data from several Nb-deposits related to carbonatite complexes. The results obtained by a wide range of analytical techniques, including, XRD, XRF, ICP-MS, SEM, Microprobe, Spectro-CL, FTIR-DTA and Mössbauer spectroscopy, demonstrate how geometallurgical assessment, at all stage of mine development, can greatly assist in the design of a suitable extraction flowsheet and data reconciliation.

Keywords: carbonatites, Nb-geometallurgy, Nb-mineralogy, mineral processing.

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
210 Invalidation of the Start of Lunar Calendars Based on Sighting of Crescent: A Survey of 101 Years of Data between 1938 and 2038

Authors: Rafik Ouared


The purpose of this paper is to invalidate decisions made by the Islamic conference led at Istanbul in 2016, which had defined two basic criteria to determine the start of the lunar month: (1)they are all based on the sighting of the crescent, be it observed or computed with modern methods, and (2) they've strongly recommended the adoption of the principle of 'unification of sighting', by which any occurrence of sighting anywhere would be applicable everywhere. To demonstrate the invalidation of those statements, a survey of 101 years of data, from 1938 to 2038, have been analyzed to compare the probability density function (PDF) of time difference between different types of fajr and new moon. Two groups of fajr have been considered: the 'natural fajr', which is the very first fajr following new moon, and the 'biased fajr', which is defined by human being inclusively of all chosen definitions. The parametric and non-parametric statistical comparisons between the different groups have shown the all the biased PDFs are significantly different from the unbiased (natural) PDF with probability value (p-value) less than 0.001. The significance level was fixed to 0.05. Conclusion: the on-going reference to sighting of crescent is inducing an significant bias in defining lunar calendar. Therefore, 'natural' calendar would be more applicable requiring a more contextualized revision of issue in fiqh.

Keywords: biased fajr, lunar calendar, natural fajr, probability density function, sighting of crescent, time difference between fajr and new moon

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
209 Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Satellite Data and Analyzing Its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine

Authors: ِAbdallah A. A. Shaheen


Gaza Strip faces economic and political issues such as conflict, siege and urbanization; all these have led to an increase in the air pollution over Gaza Strip. In this study, Particulate matter 10 (PM10) concentration over Gaza Strip has been estimated by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, based on a multispectral algorithm. Simultaneously, in-situ measurements for the corresponding particulate are acquired for selected time period. Landsat and ground data for eleven years are used to develop the algorithm while four years data (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014) have been used to validate the results of algorithm. The developed algorithm gives highest regression, R coefficient value i.e. 0.86; RMSE value as 9.71 µg/m³; P values as 0. Average validation of algorithm show that calculated PM10 strongly correlates with measured PM10, indicating high efficiency of algorithm for the mapping of PM10 concentration during the years 2000 to 2014. Overall results show increase in minimum, maximum and average yearly PM10 concentrations, also presents similar trend over urban area. The rate of urbanization has been evaluated by supervised classification of the Landsat image. Urban sprawl from year 2000 to 2014 results in a high concentration of PM10 in the study area.

Keywords: PM10, landsat, atmospheric reflectance, Gaza strip, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
208 Investigations on Utilization of Chrome Sludge, Chemical Industry Waste, in Cement Manufacturing and Its Effect on Clinker Mineralogy

Authors: Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, Prasad G., Ramaswamy V., Kalyani K. V., Chaturvedi S. K., Mohapatra B. N., Sunder Rao TBVN


The utilization of industrial waste materials and by-products in the cement industry helps in the conservation of natural resources besides avoiding the problems arising due to waste dumping. The use of non-carbonated materials as raw mix components in clinker manufacturing is identified as one of the key areas to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Chrome sludge is a waste material generated from the manufacturing process of sodium dichromate. This paper aims to present studies on the use of chrome sludge in clinker manufacturing, its impact on the development of clinker mineral phases and on the cement properties. Chrome sludge was found to contain substantial amounts of CaO, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 and therefore was used to replace some conventional sources of alumina and iron in the raw mix. Different mixes were prepared by varying the chrome sludge content from 0 to 5 % and the mixes were evaluated for burnability. Laboratory prepared clinker samples were evaluated for qualitative and quantitative mineralogy using X-ray Diffraction Studies (XRD). Optical microscopy was employed to study the distribution of clinker phases, their granulometry and mineralogy. Since chrome sludge also contains considerable amounts of chromium, studies were conducted on the leachability of heavy elements in the chrome sludge as well as in the resultant cement samples. Estimation of heavy elements, including chromium was carried out using ICP-OES. Further, the state of chromium valence, Cr (III) & Cr (VI), was studied using conventional chemical analysis methods coupled with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Assimilation of chromium in the clinker phases was investigated using SEM-EDXA studies. Bulk cement was prepared from the clinker to study the effect of chromium sludge on the cement properties such as setting time, soundness, strength development against the control cement. Studies indicated that chrome sludge can be successfully utilized and its content needs to be optimized based on raw material characteristics.

Keywords: chrome sludge, leaching, mineralogy, non-carbonate materials

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207 Management of Al-Khaldiyah Road (Al Khobar) in Order to Optimize Safety and Improve Sight View

Authors: Amer Alsari, Hassan Alhalal, Tahar Ayadat, Andi Asiz, Omar KM Ouda


Al Khaldiyah is a regional road situated in west-south of Al Khobar, precisely in the area of Half Moon Bay. It is characterized by four lines, which become six lines in some places, in both directions extending over about 10 km length. The road extends between the bridge near the Air Force Base and Half Moon Bay Road. Many accidents have been observed in this road notably over the last two years. Many injuries and deaths were recorded, some of the victims were PMU students. Consequently, management of the road to eliminate or reduce accidents to a large extend becomes imperative. The main goal of this project are to propose sustainable solutions for the purpose optimizing safety and improving its sight view by designing some appropriate junctions including bridge and tunnel in the critical locations.

Keywords: management, road, accident, traffic, safety, sustainable, solutions

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206 In vivo Determination of Anticoagulant Property of the Tentacle Extract of Aurelia aurita (Moon Jellyfish) Using Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Bea Carmel H. Casiding, Charmaine A. Guy, Funny Jovis P. Malasan, Katrina Chelsea B. Manlutac, Danielle Ann N. Novilla, Marianne R. Oliveros, Magnolia C. Sibulo


Moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, has become a popular research organism for diverse studies. Recent studies have verified the prevention of blood clotting properties of the moon jellyfish tentacle extract through in vitro methods. The purpose of this study was to validate the blood clotting ability of A. aurita tentacle extract using in vivo method of experimentation. The tentacles of A. aurita jellyfish were excised and filtered then centrifuged at 3000xg for 10 minutes. The crude nematocyst extract was suspended in 1:6 ratios with phosphate buffer solution and sonicated for three periods of 20 seconds each at 50 Hz. Protein concentration of the extract was determined using Bradford Assay. Bovine serum albumin was the standard solution used with the following concentrations: 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, 140.0, 175.0, 210.0, 245.0, and 280.0 µg/mL. The absorbance was read at 595 nm. Toxicity testing from OECD guidelines was adapted. The extract suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solution was arbitrarily set into three doses (0.1mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg) and were administered daily for five days to the experimental groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats (one dose per group). Before and after the administration period, bleeding time and clotting time tests were performed. The One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the difference of before and after bleeding time and clotting time from the three treatment groups, time, positive and negative control groups. The average protein concentration of the sonicated crude tentacle extract was 206.5 µg/mL. The highest dose administered (0.5mg/kg) produced significant increase in the time for both bleeding and clotting tests. However, the preceding lower dose (0.3mg/kg) only was significantly effective for clotting time test. The protein contained in the tentacle extract with a concentration of 206.5 mcg/mL and dose of 0.3 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of A. aurita elicited anticoagulating activity.

Keywords: anticoagulant, bleeding time test, clotting time test, moon jellyfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
205 Multi-Temporal Urban Land Cover Mapping Using Spectral Indices

Authors: Mst Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu


Multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is of paramount importance for monitoring urban sprawl and managing the ecological environment. For diversified urban activities, it is challenging to map land covers in a complex urban environment. Spectral indices have proved to be effective for mapping urban land covers. To improve multi-temporal urban land cover classification and mapping, we evaluate the performance of three spectral indices, e.g. modified normalized difference bare-land index (MNDBI), tasseled cap water and vegetation index (TCWVI) and shadow index (ShDI). The MNDBI is developed to evaluate its performance of enhancing urban impervious areas by separating bare lands. A tasseled cap index, TCWVI is developed to evaluate its competence to detect vegetation and water simultaneously. The ShDI is developed to maximize the spectral difference between shadows of skyscrapers and water and enhance water detection. First, this paper presents a comparative analysis of three spectral indices using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Second, optimized thresholds of the spectral indices are imputed to classify land covers, and finally, their performance of enhancing multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is assessed. The results indicate that the spectral indices are competent to enhance multi-temporal urban land cover mapping and achieves an overall classification accuracy of 93-96%.

Keywords: land cover, mapping, multi-temporal, spectral indices

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204 Perturbative Analysis on a Lunar Free Return Trajectory

Authors: Emre Ünal, Hasan Başaran


In this study, starting with a predetermined Lunar free-return trajectory, an analysis of major near-Earth perturbations is carried out. Referencing to historical Apollo-13 flight, changes in the mission’s resultant perimoon and perigee altitudes with each perturbative effect are evaluated. The perturbations that were considered are Earth oblateness effects, up to the 6th order, atmospheric drag, third body perturbations consisting of solar and planetary effects and solar radiation pressure effects. It is found that for a Moon mission, most of the main perturbative effects spoil the trajectory significantly while some came out to be negligible. It is seen that for apparent future request of constructing low cost, reliable and safe trajectories to the Moon, most of the orbital perturbations are crucial.

Keywords: Apollo-13 trajectory, atmospheric drag, lunar trajectories, oblateness effect, perturbative effects, solar radiation pressure, third body perturbations

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203 Handling, Exporting and Archiving Automated Mineralogy Data Using TESCAN TIMA

Authors: Marek Dosbaba


Within the mining sector, SEM-based Automated Mineralogy (AM) has been the standard application for quickly and efficiently handling mineral processing tasks. Over the last decade, the trend has been to analyze larger numbers of samples, often with a higher level of detail. This has necessitated a shift from interactive sample analysis performed by an operator using a SEM, to an increased reliance on offline processing to analyze and report the data. In response to this trend, TESCAN TIMA Mineral Analyzer is designed to quickly create a virtual copy of the studied samples, thereby preserving all the necessary information. Depending on the selected data acquisition mode, TESCAN TIMA can perform hyperspectral mapping and save an X-ray spectrum for each pixel or segment, respectively. This approach allows the user to browse through elemental distribution maps of all elements detectable by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Re-evaluation of the existing data for the presence of previously unconsidered elements is possible without the need to repeat the analysis. Additional tiers of data such as a secondary electron or cathodoluminescence images can also be recorded. To take full advantage of these information-rich datasets, TIMA utilizes a new archiving tool introduced by TESCAN. The dataset size can be reduced for long-term storage and all information can be recovered on-demand in case of renewed interest. TESCAN TIMA is optimized for network storage of its datasets because of the larger data storage capacity of servers compared to local drives, which also allows multiple users to access the data remotely. This goes hand in hand with the support of remote control for the entire data acquisition process. TESCAN also brings a newly extended open-source data format that allows other applications to extract, process and report AM data. This offers the ability to link TIMA data to large databases feeding plant performance dashboards or geometallurgical models. The traditional tabular particle-by-particle or grain-by-grain export process is preserved and can be customized with scripts to include user-defined particle/grain properties.

Keywords: Tescan, electron microscopy, mineralogy, SEM, automated mineralogy, database, TESCAN TIMA, open format, archiving, big data

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202 Malaysian's Shale Formation Characterizations: Geochemical Properties, Mineralogy, Adsorption and Desorption Behavior

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mutarreb, Shiferaw R. Jufar


Global shale gas resource assessment is still in its preliminary stage in most of the countries including the development of shale gas reservoirs in Malaysia. This project presents the main geochemical and mineral characteristics of few Malaysian’s shale samples which contribute on evaluating shale gas reserve world resource evaluations. Three shale samples from the western part of Peninsular Malaysia (Batu-Caja, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor Baru shale formations) were collected for this study. Total organic carbon wt.%, thermal maturity, kerogen type, mineralogy and adsorption/desorption characteristics are measured at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS laboratories. Two samples show good potential in TOC results exhibited > 2wt.% exceeding the minimum values of Shale gas potential, while the third revealed < 1.5wt. Mineralogical compositions for the three samples are within the acceptable range percentage% of quartz and clays compared to shale plays in USA. This research’s results are promising and recommend to continue exploring and assessing unconventional shale gas reserves values in these areas.

Keywords: shale gas characterizations, geochemical properties, Malaysia, shale gas reserve

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201 The Gravitational Impact of the Sun and the Moon on Heavy Mineral Deposits and Dust Particles in Low Gravity Regions of the Earth

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


The Earth’s gravity is not uniform. The satellite imageries of the Earth’s surface from NASA reveal a number of different gravity anomaly regions all over the globe. When the moon rotates around the earth, its gravity has a major physical influence on a number of regions on the earth. This physical change can be seen by the tides. The tides make sea levels high and low in coastal regions. During high tide, the gravitational force of the Moon pulls the Earth’s gravity so that the total gravitational intensity of Earth is reduced; it is further reduced in the low gravity regions of Earth. This reduction in gravity helps keep the suspended particles such as dust in the atmosphere, sand grains in the sea water for longer. Dramatic differences can be seen from the floating dust in the low gravity regions when compared with other regions. The above phenomena can be demonstrated from experiments. The experiments have to be done in high and low gravity regions of the earth during high and low tide, which will assist in comparing the final results. One of the experiments that can be done is by using a water filled cylinder about 80 cm tall, a few particles, which have the same density and same diameter (about 1 mm) and a stop watch. The selected particles were dropped from the surface of the water in the cylinder and the time taken for the particles to reach the bottom of the cylinder was measured using the stop watch. The times of high and low tide charts can be obtained from the regional government authorities. This concept is demonstrated by the particle drop times taken at high and low tides. The result of the experiment shows that the particle settlement time is less in low tide and high in high tide. The experiment for dust particles in air can be collected on filters, which are cellulose ester membranes and using a vacuum pump. The dust on filters can be used to make slides according to the NOHSC method. Counting the dust particles on the slides can be done using a phase contrast microscope. The results show that the concentration of dust is high at high tide and low in low tide. As a result of the high tides, a high concentration of heavy minerals deposit on placer deposits and dust particles retain in the atmosphere for longer in low gravity regions. These conditions are remarkably exhibited in the lowest low gravity region of the earth, mainly in the regions of India, Sri Lanka and in the middle part of the Indian Ocean. The biggest heavy mineral placer deposits are found in coastal regions of India and Sri Lanka and heavy dust particles are found in the atmosphere of India, particularly in the Delhi region.

Keywords: gravity, minerals, tides, moon, costal, atmosphere

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200 Mineralogy and Classification of Altered Host Rocks in the Zaghia Iron Oxide Deposit, East of Bafq, Central Iran

Authors: Azat Eslamizadeh, Neda Akbarian


The Zaghia Iron ore, in 15 km east of a town named Bafq, is located in Precambrian formation of Central Iran in form of a small local deposit. The Volcano-sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Cambrian age, belonging to Rizu series have spread through the region. Substantial portion of the deposit is covered by alluvial deposits. The rocks hosting the Zaghia iron ore have a main combination of rhyolitic tuffs along with clastic sediments, carbonate include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, conglomerate and is somewhat metamorphed causing them to have appeared as slate and phyllite. Moreover, carbonate rocks are in existence as skarn compound of marble bearing tremolite with mineralization of magnetite-hematite. The basic igneous rocks have dramatically altered into green rocks consist of actinolite-tremolite and chlorite along with amount of iron (magnetite + Martite). The youngest units of ore-bearing rocks in the area are found as dolerite - diabase dikes. The dikes are cutting the rhyolitic tuffs and carbonate rocks.

Keywords: Zaghia, iron ore deposite, mineralogy, petrography Bafq, Iran

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199 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi


Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.

Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran

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198 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran

Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro


The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.

Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysis

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197 Characterization of Coal Fly Ash with Potential Use in the Manufacture Geopolymers to Solidify/Stabilize Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: P. M. Fonseca Alfonso, E. A. Murillo Ruiz, M. Diaz Lagos


Understanding the physicochemical properties and mineralogy of fly ash from a particular source is essential for to protect the environment and considering its possible applications, specifically, in the production of geopolymeric materials that solidify/stabilize heavy metals ions. The results of the characterization of three fly ash samples are shown in this paper. The samples were produced in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant in the State of Boyaca, Colombia. The particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogy, and molecular structure of three samples were analyzed using laser diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy respectively. The particle size distribution of the three samples probably ranges from 0.128 to 211 μm. Approximately 59 elements have been identified in the three samples. It is noticeable that the ashes are made up of aluminum and silicon compounds. Besides, the iron phase in low content was also found. According to the results found in this study, the fly ash samples type F has a great potential to be used as raw material for the manufacture of geopolymers with potential use in the stabilization/solidification of heavy metals; mainly due to the presence of amorphous aluminosilicates typical of this type of ash, which react effectively with alkali-activator.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymers, molecular structure, physicochemical properties.

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196 Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Study of the Kebbouch South Pb-Zn Deposit, Northwest Tunisia

Authors: Imen Salhi, Salah Bouhlel, Bernrd Lehmann


The Kebbouch South Pb-Zn deposit is located 20 km to the east of El Kef (NW) in the southeastern part of the Triassic diapir belt in the Tunisian Atlas. The deposit is composed of sulfide and non-sulfide zinc-lead ore bodies. The aim of this study is to provide petrographic results, mineralogy, as well as fluid inclusion data of the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn Kebbouch South deposit. Mineralization forms two major ore types: (1) lenticular dolostones and clay breccias in the contact zone between Triassic and Upper Cretaceous strata;, it consists of small-scale lenticular, strata-or fault-controlled mineralization mainly composed of marcasite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and (2) stratiform mineralization in the Bahloul Formation (Upper Cenomanian-Lower Turonian) consisting of framboidal and cubic pyrite, disseminated sphalerite and galena. Non-metalliferous and/or gangue minerals are represented by dolomite, calcite, celestite and quartz. Fluid inclusion petrography study has been carried out on calcite and celestite. Fluid inclusions hosted in celestite are less than 20 µm large and show two types of aqueous inclusions: monophase liquid aqueous inclusions (L), abundant and very small, generally less than 15 µm and liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L+V). The gas phase forms a mobile vapor bubble. Microthermometric analyses of (L+V) fluid inclusions for celestite indicate that the homogenization temperature ranges from 121 to 156°C, and final ice melting temperatures are in the range of – 19 to -9°C corresponding to salinities of 12 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. (L+V) fluid inclusions from calcite are frequently localized along the growth zones; their homogenization temperature ranges from 96 to 164°C with final ice melting temperatures between -16 and -7°C corresponding to salinities of 9 to 19 wt% NaCl eq. According to mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies, mineralization in the Pb – Zn Kebbouch South deposit formed between 96 to 164°C with salinities ranging from 9 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. A contribution of basinal brines in the ore formation of the kebbouch South Pb–Zn deposit is likely. The deposit is part of the family of MVT deposits associated with the salt diapir environment.

Keywords: fluid inclusion, Kebbouch South, mineralogy, MVT deposits, Pb-Zn

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195 Probing Extensive Air Shower Primaries and Their Interactions by Combining Individual Muon Tracks and Shower Depth

Authors: Moon Moon Devi, Ran Budnik


The current large area cosmic ray detector surface arrays typically measure only the net flux and arrival-time of the charged particles produced in an extensive air shower (EAS). Measurement of the individual charged particles at a surface array will provide additional distinguishing parameters to identify the primary and to map the very high energy interactions in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In turn, these may probe anomalies in QCD interactions at energies beyond the reach of current accelerators. The recent attempts of studying the individual muon tracks are limited in their expandability to larger arrays and can only probe primary particles with energy up to about 10^15.5 eV. New developments in detector technology allow for a realistic cost of large area detectors, however with limitations on energy resolutions, directional information, and dynamic range. In this study, we perform a simulation study using CORSIKA to combine the energy spectrum and lateral spread of the muons with the longitudinal depth (Xmax) of an EAS initiated by a primary at ultra high energies (10¹⁶ – 10¹⁹) eV. Using proton and iron as the shower primaries, we show that the muon observables and Xmax together can be used to distinguish the primary. This study can be used to design a future detector for the surface array, which will be able to enhance our knowledge of primaries and QCD interactions.

Keywords: ultra high energy extensive air shower, muon tracking, air shower primaries, QCD interactions

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194 High-Throughput Screening of Sediments for Microplastic Pollution: A Case Study Using Automated Mineralogy

Authors: Gareth Rogers, Louise B. Hamdy, Amy McGarry, Mark Rees, Meredith Cave, David P. Gold, Catharina Pieper, Lisa Buckley


Microplastic has been identified in virtually all environments and its impact on human and animal health is becoming increasingly well understood. This includes hazards such as absorption into living cells and toxicity effects. To prevent microplastic entering the environment in the first place, it is essential to understand the pathways by which it arrives and, furthermore, its behaviour and movements thereafter. Sediments are an established host for microplastic pollution. However, the identification of microplastic-polluted, or even the most highly polluted sites, is not necessarily straightforward. Current methodologies used to identify microplastic present in sediment often involves time-consuming, manually conducted processes, which present a bottleneck in the efficiency of identifying highly contaminated locations for further attention. This presentation describes a case study introducing a newly developed high throughput workflow to screen locations for microplastic pollution. Samples from the most contaminated areas are then treated using optimized laboratory techniques to isolate microplastic for further study by analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy. The workflow centers around the application of automated mineralogy to rapidly screen multiple samples. Automated mineralogy techniques are generally applied to the study of minerals, rocks and industrial materials. The technique involves using SEM to image a sample and measuring the elemental concentration and density of the mineral particles. The resulting information can be presented in a mineral map image displaying the mineral and textural data, along with particle size distribution and shape. The process presented here utilizes an automated mineralogy technique called Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy (QEMSCAN®). The method relies on adapting the sample preparation procedures and the analytical parameters used to define minerals to detect the presence of carbon-based polymeric particles within a sediment sample. The identification of plastic particles is corroborated via a comparison of their elemental data to a database comprising examples of known plastics. QEMSCAN sample preparation would commonly involve the use of epoxy resin to mount sediments to provide contrast between the particles of interest and the mounting medium. Here, the adapted technique uses an inorganic mounting medium and a non-carbon coating to enable the differentiation of plastic particles amongst the sediment. The use of QEMSCAN also enables particle mapping and the automatic collection of quantitative data on essential information such as particle size, shape and angularity and allows examination of the particles’ interaction with the host sediment. This method introduces a non-destructive, high throughput preliminary screening tool that facilitates the data-driven targeting of key samples for further analysis and polymer identification, as well as the rapid collection of morphological data. As the method is refined and optimized, this pioneering approach shows huge potential to support systematic research into microplastic pollution.

Keywords: microplastic, sediment, screening, automated mineralogy

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193 The Application of Animal Welfare Certification System for Farm Animal in South Korea

Authors: Ahlyum Mun, Ji-Young Moon, Moon-Seok Yoon, Dong-Jin Baek, Doo-Seok Seo, Oun-Kyong Moon


There is a growing public concern over the standards of farm animal welfare, with higher standards of food safety. In addition, the recent low incidence of Avian Influenza in laying hens among certificated farms is receiving attention. In this study, we introduce animal welfare systems covering the rearing, transport and slaughter of farm animals in South Korea. The concepts of animal welfare farm certification are based on ensuring the five freedoms of animal. The animal welfare is also achieved by observing the condition of environment including shelter and resting area, feeding and water and the care for the animal health. The certification of farm animal welfare is handled by the Animal Protection & Welfare Division of Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA). Following the full amendment of Animal Protection Law in 2011, animal welfare farm certification program has been implemented since 2012. The certification system has expanded to cover laying hen, swine, broiler, beef cattle and dairy cow, goat and duck farms. Livestock farmers who want to be certified must apply for certification at the APQA. Upon receipt of the application, the APQA notifies the applicant of the detailed schedule of the on-site examination after reviewing the document and conducts the on-site inspection according to the evaluation criteria of the welfare standard. If the on-site audit results meet the certification criteria, APQA issues a certificate. The production process of certified farms is inspected at least once a year for follow-up management. As of 2017, a total of 145 farms have been certified (95 laying hen farms, 12 swine farms, 30 broiler farms and 8 dairy cow farms). In addition, animal welfare transportation vehicles and slaughterhouses have been designated since 2013 and currently 6 slaughterhouses have been certified. Animal Protection Law has been amended so that animal welfare certification marks can be affixed only to livestock products produced by animal welfare farms, transported through animal welfare vehicles and slaughtered at animal welfare slaughterhouses. The whole process including rearing–transportation- slaughtering completes the farm animal welfare system. APQA established its second 5-year animal welfare plan (2014-2019) that includes setting a minimum standard of animal welfare applicable to all livestock farms, transportation vehicles and slaughterhouses. In accordance with this plan, we will promote the farm animal welfare policy in order to truly advance the Korean livestock industry.

Keywords: animal welfare, farm animal, certification system, South Korea

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
192 A Caged Bird Set Free: The Women Saviors in Fae Myenne Ng's Steer Toward Rock

Authors: Hei Yuen Pak


Steer Toward Rock, Fae Myenne Ng’s second novel after the National Bestseller Bone, is superficially concluded as a story of pessimism, which underestimates the sophistication of Ng’s portrayal. It is often summarized as a “heartbreaking novel of unrequited love” or “a story of timeless and tragic”; yet, Ng’s novel conveys more than a mere sense of tragedy and heartbreak, but rather an overflowing warmth and optimism. Ng is complimented of “illuminating a part of U.S. history few are aware of”—the false identity established on the paper relationships. Nevertheless, toward the end of the novel, this falsity enlightens the male protagonist, Jack Moon Szeto, of the ultimate realization of the “truthfulness” to himself, with the escort of the female characters. This paper intends to investigate how Ng’s depiction subverts the traditional sex/gender system and also the patriarchal savior stereotype. This paper mainly examines the characterization of and the relations among the four major characters: Jack Moon Szeto, Joice Qwan, Veda Qwan, and Ilin Cheung. By deploying Kate Millett’s, Marilyn French’s, Mary Daly’s feminist theories, the first half of the essay elucidates the power relations between Jack and the three females Joice, Veda, and Ilin in terms of gender and sexuality. After analyzing the relations, Jack, this male caged bird, is set free by the epiphany derived from the three female characters, which is the pivot of the second half. In reference to Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir’s existentialist perspectives, I argue how Jack is transformed from, in Satre’s term, being-for-others to being-for-itself. Hence, the caged bird is free by the women saviors.

Keywords: Fae Myenne Ng, gender and sexuality, feminism, power relations

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191 Challenges in the Characterization of Black Mass in the Recovery of Graphite from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Anna Vanderbruggen, Kai Bachmann, Martin Rudolph, Rodrigo Serna


Recycling of lithium-ion batteries has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and focuses primarily on valuable metals such as cobalt, nickel, and lithium. Despite the growth in graphite consumption and the fact that it is classified as a critical raw material in the European Union, USA, and Australia, there is little work focusing on graphite recycling. Thus, graphite is usually considered waste in recycling treatments, where graphite particles are concentrated in the “black mass”, a fine fraction below 1mm, which also contains the foils and the active cathode particles such as LiCoO2 or LiNiMnCoO2. To characterize the material, various analytical methods are applied, including X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and SEM-based automated mineralogy. The latter consists of the combination of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is a powerful and well-known method for primary material characterization; however, it has not yet been applied to secondary material such as black mass, which is a challenging material to analyze due to fine alloy particles and to the lack of an existing dedicated database. The aim of this research is to characterize the black mass depending on the metals recycling process in order to understand the liberation mechanisms of the active particles from the foils and their effect on the graphite particle surfaces and to understand their impact on the subsequent graphite flotation. Three industrial processes were taken into account: purely mechanical, pyrolysis-mechanical, and mechanical-hydrometallurgy. In summary, this article explores various and common challenges for graphite and secondary material characterization.

Keywords: automated mineralogy, characterization, graphite, lithium ion battery, recycling

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190 Noise Mitigation Techniques to Minimize Electromagnetic Interference/Electrostatic Discharge Effects for the Lunar Mission Spacecraft

Authors: Vabya Kumar Pandit, Mudit Mittal, N. Prahlad Rao, Ramnath Babu


TeamIndus is the only Indian team competing for the Google Lunar XPRIZE(GLXP). The GLXP is a global competition to challenge the private entities to soft land a rover on the moon, travel minimum 500 meters and transmit high definition images and videos to Earth. Towards this goal, the TeamIndus strategy is to design and developed lunar lander that will deliver a rover onto the surface of the moon which will accomplish GLXP mission objectives. This paper showcases the various system level noise control techniques adopted by Electrical Distribution System (EDS), to achieve the required Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of the spacecraft. The design guidelines followed to control Electromagnetic Interference by proper electronic package design, grounding, shielding, filtering, and cable routing within the stipulated mass budget, are explained. The paper also deals with the challenges of achieving Electromagnetic Cleanliness in presence of various Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and In-House developed components. The methods of minimizing Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) by identifying the potential noise sources, susceptible areas for charge accumulation and the methodology to prevent arcing inside spacecraft are explained. The paper then provides the EMC requirements matrix derived from the mission requirements to meet the overall Electromagnetic compatibility of the Spacecraft.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, electrostatic discharge, electrical distribution systems, grounding schemes, light weight harnessing

Procedia PDF Downloads 227