Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Schlumberger

15 Design of a Virtual Instrument (VI) System for Earth Resistivity Survey

Authors: Henry Okoh, Obaro Verisa Omayuli, Gladys A. Osagie


One of the challenges of developing nations is the dearth of measurement devices. Aside the shortage, when available, they are either old or obsolete and also very expensive. When this is the situation, researchers must design alternative systems to help meet the desired needs of academia. This paper presents a design of cost-effective multi-disciplinary virtual instrument system for scientific research. This design was based on NI USB-6255 multifunctional DAQ which was used for earth resistivity measurement in Schlumberger array and the result obtained compared closely with that of a conventional ABEM Terrameter. This instrument design provided a hands-on experience as related to full-waveform signal acquisition in the field.

Keywords: cost-effective, data acquisition (DAQ), full-waveform, multi-disciplinary, Schlumberger array, virtual Instrumentation (VI).

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14 Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.

Keywords: resistivity, Schlumberger, phosphate, wavelet, Morocco

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13 Groundwater Investigation Using Resistivity Method and Drilling for Irrigation during the Dry Season in Lwantonde District, Uganda

Authors: Tamale Vincent


Groundwater investigation is the investigation of underground formations to understand the hydrologic cycle, known groundwater occurrences, and identify the nature and types of aquifers. There are different groundwater investigation methods and surface geophysical method is one of the groundwater investigation more especially the Geoelectrical resistivity Schlumberger configuration method which provides valuable information regarding the lateral and vertical successions of subsurface geomaterials in terms of their individual thickness and corresponding resistivity values besides using surface geophysical method, hydrogeological and geological investigation methods are also incorporated to aid in preliminary groundwater investigation. Investigation for groundwater in lwantonde district has been implemented. The area project is located cattle corridor and the dry seasonal troubles the communities in lwantonde district of which 99% of people living there are farmers, thus making agriculture difficult and local government to provide social services to its people. The investigation was done using the Geoelectrical resistivity Schlumberger configuration method. The measurement point is located in the three sub-counties, with a total of 17 measurement points. The study location is at 0025S, 3110E, and covers an area of 160 square kilometers. Based on the results of the Geoelectrical information data, it was found two types of aquifers, which are open aquifers in depth ranging from six meters to twenty-two meters and a confined aquifer in depth ranging from forty-five meters to eighty meters. In addition to the Geoelectrical information data, drilling was done at an accessible point by heavy equipment in the Lwakagura village, Kabura sub-county. At the drilling point, artesian wells were obtained at a depth of eighty meters and can rise to two meters above the soil surface. The discovery of artesian well is then used by residents to meet the needs of clean water and for irrigation considering that in this area most wells contain iron content.

Keywords: artesian well, geoelectrical, lwantonde, Schlumberger

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12 Geoelectric Survey for Groundwater Potential in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed, Suleiman Taofiq, Muhammad Naziru Yahya


Geoelectrical measurements using Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method were carried out in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the groundwater potential in the area. Twelve (12) Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) data were collected using Terrameter (ABEM SAS 300c) and analyzed using computer software (IPI2win), which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The results of the interpretation of VES data were used in the characterization of three to five geo-electric layers from which the aquifer units were delineated. Data analysis indicated that water bearing formation exists in the third and fourth layers having resistivity range of 312 to 767 Ωm and 9.51 to 681 Ωm, respectively. The thickness of the formation ranges from 14.7 to 41.8 m, while the depth is from 8.22 to 53.7 m. Based on the result obtained from the interpretation of the data, five (5) VES stations were recommended as the most viable locations for groundwater exploration in the study area. The VES stations include VES A4, A5, A6, B1, and B2. The VES results of the entire area indicated that the water bearing formation occurs at maximum depth of 53.7 m at the time of this survey.

Keywords: aquifer, depth, groundwater, resistivity, Schlumberger

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11 Geophysical Exploration of Aquifer Zones by (Ves) Method at Ayma-Kharagpur, District Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal

Authors: Mayank Sharma


Groundwater has been a matter of great concern in the past years due to the depletion in the water table. This has resulted from the over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Sub-surface exploration of groundwater is a great way to identify the groundwater potential of an area. Thus, in order to meet the water needs for irrigation in the study area, there was a need for a tube well to be installed. Therefore, a Geophysical investigation was carried out to find the most suitable point of drilling and sinking of tube well that encounters an aquifer. Hence, an electrical resistivity survey of geophysical exploration was used to know the aquifer zones of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method was employed to know the subsurface geology of the area. Seven vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array were carried out, having the maximum AB electrode separation of 700m at selected points in Ayma, Kharagpur-1 block of Paschim Midnapore district, West Bengal. The VES was done using an IGIS DDR3 Resistivity meter up to an approximate depth of 160-180m. The data was interpreted, processed and analyzed. Based on all the interpretations using the direct method, the geology of the area at the points of sounding was interpreted. It was established that two deeper clay-sand sections exist in the area at a depth of 50-70m (having resistivity range of 40-60ohm-m) and 70-160m (having resistivity range of 25-35ohm-m). These aquifers will provide a high yield of water which would be sufficient for the desired irrigation in the study area.

Keywords: VES method, Schlumberger method, electrical resistivity survey, geophysical exploration

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10 Delineation of the Geoelectric and Geovelocity Parameters in the Basement Complex of Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, G. C. Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai


The geology of Northern Nigeria is under intense investigation particularly that of the northwest believed to be of the basement complex. The variability of the lithology is consistently inconsistent. Hence, the need for a close range study, it is, in view of the above that, two geophysical techniques, the vertical electrical sounding employing the Schlumberger array and seismic refraction methods, were used to delineate the geoelectric and geovelocity parameters of the basement complex of northwestern Nigeria. A total area of 400,000 m² was covered with sixty geoelectric stations established and sixty sets of seismic refraction data collected using the forward and reverse method. From the interpretation of the resistivity data, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by not more than five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities when a maximum half electrode spread of 100m was used. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. The results of the two techniques, suggests that the area of study has an undulating bedrock topography with geoeletric and geovelocity layers composed of weathered rock materials.

Keywords: basement complex, delineation, geoelectric, geovelocity, Nigeria

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9 Evaluation of Aquifer Protective Capacity and Soil Corrosivity Using Geoelectrical Method

Authors: M. T. Tsepav, Y. Adamu, M. A. Umar


A geoelectric survey was carried out in some parts of Angwan Gwari, an outskirt of Lapai Local Government Area on Niger State which belongs to the Nigerian Basement Complex, with the aim of evaluating the soil corrosivity, aquifer transmissivity and protective capacity of the area from which aquifer characterisation was made. The G41 Resistivity Meter was employed to obtain fifteen Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding data along profiles in a square grid network. The data were processed using interpex 1-D sounding inversion software, which gives vertical electrical sounding curves with layered model comprising of the apparent resistivities, overburden thicknesses and depth. This information was used to evaluate longitudinal conductance and transmissivities of the layers. The results show generally low resistivities across the survey area and an average longitudinal conductance variation from 0.0237Siemens in VES 6 to 0.1261 Siemens in VES 15 with almost the entire area giving values less than 1.0 Siemens. The average transmissivity values range from 96.45 Ω.m2 in VES 4 to 299070 Ω.m2 in VES 1. All but VES 4 and VES14 had an average overburden greater than 400 Ω.m2, these results suggest that the aquifers are highly permeable to fluid movement within, leading to the possibility of enhanced migration and circulation of contaminants in the groundwater system and that the area is generally corrosive.

Keywords: geoelectric survey, corrosivity, protective capacity, transmissivity

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8 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan


Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of well log analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya (NS) oilfield is one of giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in the NS oilfield. Neurolog software (V5, 2008) was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software (IP, V3.5, 2008). Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4-0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: lithology, porosity, water saturation, carbonate formation, mishrif formation

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7 Geoelectrical Investigation Around Bomo Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: B. S. Jatau, Baba Adama, S. I. Fadele


Electrical resistivity investigation was carried out around Bomo area, Zaria, Kaduna state in order to study the subsurface geologic layer with a view of determining the depth to the bedrock and thickness of the geologic layers. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at fifteen (15) VES stations. ABEM terrameter (SAS 300) was used for the data acquisition. The field data obtained have been analyzed using computer software (IPI2win) which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The VES results revealed heterogeneous nature of the subsurface geological sequence. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of hard pan top soil (clayey and sandy-lateritic), weathered layer, partly weathered or fractured basement and fresh basement. The resistivity value for the topsoil layer varies from 40Ωm to 450Ωm with thickness ranging from 1.25 to 7.5 m. The weathered basement has resistivity values ranging from 50Ωm to 593Ωm and thickness between 1.37 and 20.1 m. The fractured basement has resistivity values ranging from 218Ωm to 520Ωm and thickness of between 12.9 and 26.3 m. The fresh basement (bedrock) has resistivity values ranging from 1215Ωm to 2150Ωm with infinite depth. However, the depth of the earth’s surface to the bedrock surface varies between 2.63 and 34.99 m. The study further stressed the importance of the findings in civil engineering structures and groundwater prospecting.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, CERT (CT), vertical electrical sounding (VES), top soil (TP), weathered basement (WB), partly weathered basement (PWB), fresh basement (FB)

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6 Use of Quasi-3D Inversion of VES Data Based on Lateral Constraints to Characterize the Aquifer and Mining Sites of an Area Located in the North-East of Figuil, North Cameroon

Authors: Fofie Kokea Ariane Darolle, Gouet Daniel Hervé, Koumetio Fidèle, Yemele David


The electrical resistivity method is successfully used in this paper in order to have a clearer picture of the subsurface of the North-East ofFiguil in northern Cameroon. It is worth noting that this method is most often used when the objective of the study is to image the shallow subsoils by considering them as a set of stratified ground layers. The problem to be solved is very often environmental, and in this case, it is necessary to perform an inversion of the data in order to have a complete and accurate picture of the parameters of the said layers. In the case of this work, thirty-three (33) Schlumberger VES have been carried out on an irregular grid to investigate the subsurface of the study area. The 1D inversion applied as a preliminary modeling tool and in correlation with the mechanical drillings results indicates a complex subsurface lithology distribution mainly consisting of marbles and schists. Moreover, the quasi-3D inversion with lateral constraint shows that the misfit between the observed field data and the model response is quite good and acceptable with a value low than 10%. The method also reveals existence of two water bearing in the considered area. The first is the schist or weathering aquifer (unsuitable), and the other is the marble or the fracturing aquifer (suitable). The final quasi 3D inversion results and geological models indicate proper sites for groundwaters prospecting and for mining exploitation, thus allowing the economic development of the study area.

Keywords: electrical resistivity method, 1D inversion, quasi 3D inversion, groundwaters, mining

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5 Delineation of Fracture Zones for Investigation of Groundwater Potentials Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in a Sedimentary Complex Terrain

Authors: M. N. Yahaya, K. A. Salako, U. Z. Magawata


Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was used to investigate the groundwater potential at the southern part of Gulumbe district, Kebbi State, north-western part of Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer’s parameters (resistivity and thickness) and uses the same to characterize the groundwater potential of the study area. The Schlumberger configuration was used for data acquisition. A total number of thirty-three (33) sounding points (VES) were surveyed over six profiles. The software IPI2WIN was used to obtain n-layered geo-electric sections. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation revealed that three subsurface layers could be delineated, which comprise of top soil, sand, sandstone, coarse sand, limestone, and gravelly sand. The results of the resistivity sounding were correlated with the lithological logs of nearby boreholes that expose cross-section geologic units around the study area. We found out that the area is dominated by three subsurface layers. The coarse sand layers constituted the aquifer zones in the majority of sounding stations. Thus, this present study concluded that the depth of any borehole in the study area should be located between the depth of 18.5 to 39 m. The study further classified the VES points penetrated based on their conductivity content as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitably, and poor zones for groundwater exploration. Hence, from this research, we recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones across VES 2, 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 27, and 33, respectively.

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding, resistivity, geo-electric, resistivity, aquifer and groundwater

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4 Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Muzyan Shahzad, Liu Jianxin, Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Sharjeel Raza, Sun Ya, Fanidi Meryem


Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).

Keywords: aquifer, Dar Zarrouk parameters, geoelectric layers, Tarbela Ghazi

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3 Exploration of Hydrocarbon Unconventional Accumulations in the Argillaceous Formation of the Autochthonous Miocene Succession in the Carpathian Foredeep

Authors: Wojciech Górecki, Anna Sowiżdżał, Grzegorz Machowski, Tomasz Maćkowski, Bartosz Papiernik, Michał Stefaniuk


The article shows results of the project which aims at evaluating possibilities of effective development and exploitation of natural gas from argillaceous series of the Autochthonous Miocene in the Carpathian Foredeep. To achieve the objective, the research team develop a world-trend based but unique methodology of processing and interpretation, adjusted to data, local variations and petroleum characteristics of the area. In order to determine the zones in which maximum volumes of hydrocarbons might have been generated and preserved as shale gas reservoirs, as well as to identify the most preferable well sites where largest gas accumulations are anticipated a number of task were accomplished. Evaluation of petrophysical properties and hydrocarbon saturation of the Miocene complex is based on laboratory measurements as well as interpretation of well-logs and archival data. The studies apply mercury porosimetry (MICP), micro CT and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (using the Rock Core Analyzer). For prospective location (e.g. central part of Carpathian Foredeep – Brzesko-Wojnicz area) reprocessing and reinterpretation of detailed seismic survey data with the use of integrated geophysical investigations has been made. Construction of quantitative, structural and parametric models for selected areas of the Carpathian Foredeep is performed on the basis of integrated, detailed 3D computer models. Modeling are carried on with the Schlumberger’s Petrel software. Finally, prospective zones are spatially contoured in a form of regional 3D grid, which will be framework for generation modelling and comprehensive parametric mapping, allowing for spatial identification of the most prospective zones of unconventional gas accumulation in the Carpathian Foredeep. Preliminary results of research works indicate a potentially prospective area for occurrence of unconventional gas accumulations in the Polish part of Carpathian Foredeep.

Keywords: autochthonous Miocene, Carpathian foredeep, Poland, shale gas

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2 Sedimentary, Diagenesis and Evaluation of High Quality Reservoir of Coarse Clastic Rocks in Nearshore Deep Waters in the Dongying Sag; Bohai Bay Basin

Authors: Kouassi Louis Kra


The nearshore deep-water gravity flow deposits in the Northern steep slope of Dongying depression, Bohai Bay basin, have been acknowledged as important reservoirs in the rift lacustrine basin. These deep strata term as coarse clastic sediment, deposit at the root of the slope have complex depositional processes and involve wide diagenetic events which made high-quality reservoir prediction to be complex. Based on the integrated study of seismic interpretation, sedimentary analysis, petrography, cores samples, wireline logging data, 3D seismic and lithological data, the reservoir formation mechanism deciphered. The Geoframe software was used to analyze 3-D seismic data to interpret the stratigraphy and build a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thin section identification, point counts were performed to assess the reservoir characteristics. The software PetroMod 1D of Schlumberger was utilized for the simulation of burial history. CL and SEM analysis were performed to reveal diagenesis sequences. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were recorded for definition of the textural relationships between diagenetic phases. The result showed that the nearshore steep slope deposits mainly consist of conglomerate, gravel sandstone, pebbly sandstone and fine sandstone interbedded with mudstone. The reservoir is characterized by low-porosity and ultra-low permeability. The diagenesis reactions include compaction, precipitation of calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, quartz cement and dissolution of feldspars and rock fragment. The main types of reservoir space are primary intergranular pores, residual intergranular pores, intergranular dissolved pores, intergranular dissolved pores, and fractures. There are three obvious anomalous high-porosity zones in the reservoir. Overpressure and early hydrocarbon filling are the main reason for abnormal secondary pores development. Sedimentary facies control the formation of high-quality reservoir, oil and gas filling preserves secondary pores from late carbonate cementation.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, Dongying Sag, deep strata, formation mechanism, high-quality reservoir

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1 Application of Electrical Resistivity Surveys on Constraining Causes of Highway Pavement Failure along Ajaokuta-Anyigba Road, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Moroof, O. Oloruntola, Sunday Oladele, Daniel, O. Obasaju, Victor, O Ojekunle, Olateju, O. Bayewu, Ganiyu, O. Mosuro


Integrated geophysical methods involving Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2D resistivity survey were deployed to gain an insight into the influence of the two varying rock types (mica-schist and granite gneiss) underlying the road alignment to the incessant highway failure along Ajaokuta-Anyigba, North-central Nigeria. The highway serves as a link-road for the single largest cement factory in Africa (Dangote Cement Factory) and two major ceramic industries to the capital (Abuja) via Lokoja. 2D Electrical Resistivity survey (Dipole-Dipole Array) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) (Schlumberger array) were employed. Twenty-two (22) 2D profiles were occupied, twenty (20) conducted about 1 m away from the unstable section underlain by mica-schist with profile length each of approximately 100 m. Two (2) profiles were conducted about 1 m away from the stable section with a profile length of 100 m each due to barriers caused by the drainage system and outcropping granite gneiss at the flanks of the road. A spacing of 2 m was used for good image resolution of the near-surface. On each 2D profile, a range of 1-3 VES was conducted; thus, forty-eight (48) soundings were acquired. Partial curve matching and WinResist software were used to obtain the apparent and true resistivity values of the 1D survey, while DiprofWin software was used for processing the 2-D survey. Two exposed lithologic sections caused by abandoned river channels adjacent to two profiles as well as the knowledge of the geology of the area helped to constrain the VES and 2D processing and interpretation. Generally, the resistivity values obtained reflect the parent rock type, degree of weathering, moisture content and competency of the tested area. Resistivity values < 100; 100 – 950; 1000 – 2000 and > 2500 ohms-m were interpreted as clay, weathered layer, partly weathered layer and fresh basement respectively. The VES results and 2-D resistivity structures along the unstable segment showed similar lithologic characteristics and sequences dominated by clayey substratum for depths range of 0 – 42.2 m. The clayey substratum is a product of intensive weathering of the parent rock (mica-schist) and constitutes weak foundation soils, causing highway failure. This failure is further exacerbated by several heavy-duty trucks which ply the section round the clock due to proximity to two major ceramic industries in the state and lack of drainage system. The two profiles on the stable section show 2D structures that are remarkably different from those of the unstable section with very thin topsoils, higher resistivity weathered substratum (indicating the presence of coarse fragments from the parent rock) and shallow depth to the basement (1.0 – 7. 1 m). Also, the presence of drainage and lower volume of heavy-duty trucks are contributors to the pavement stability of this section of the highway. The resistivity surveys effectively delineated two contrasting soil profiles of the subbase/subgrade that reflect variation in the mineralogy of underlying parent rocks.

Keywords: clay, geophysical methods, pavement, resistivity

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