Commenced in January 2007
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Search results for: carbonate formation

2894 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan


Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of well log analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya (NS) oilfield is one of giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in the NS oilfield. Neurolog software (V5, 2008) was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software (IP, V3.5, 2008). Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4-0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: lithology, porosity, water saturation, carbonate formation, mishrif formation

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2893 Petrologic and Geochemical Characteristics of Marine Sand Strip in the Proterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation of the North China

Authors: Yue Feng, Chun-jiang Wang, Zhi-long Huang


The study of the sedimentary environment of Mesoproterozoic marine deposits in North China has attracted special attention in recent years. It is not clear that the sedimentary environment and the cause of formation of the sandstone strip and its internal carbonate cements and pyrite in the Mesoproterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation in North China. In this study, drilling core samples in North China were identified by microscopy, and their petrological characteristics such as mineral composition and structure were identified. The geochemical data of carbon and oxygen isotopes, total organic carbon (TOC) contents and total sulfur (TS) contents were obtained by processing and analyzing the samples. The samples are mainly quartz particles with low compositional maturity, combined with low value of TOC, it shows that the sedimentary environment of the sandy clastic is a sandy littoral sedimentary environment with relative strong hydrodynamic force, and then the sandstone strip in black shale are formed by the deposition of gravity flow. Analysis of TS values reflect sandstone bands formed in hypoxic environments. The carbonate cements and the pyrite in the sandstone belt are authigenic. The carbon isotope values of authigenic carbonate cements are negatively biased in comparison with the carbonate isotope of carbonate rocks in the same period, but it is more biased than the carbon isotopic values of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) genetic carbonate rocks. Authigenic pyrite may be mainly due to the formation of HS- by the action of bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and Fe²⁺, their causes are in contact. This indicates that authigenic carbonate cements are mainly carbonate precipitates formed but are significantly affected by the effects of AOM. Summary, the sedimentary environment of the sandstone zone in the Chuanlinggou Formation in the North China is a shallow sea facies with iron rich and anoxic.

Keywords: sandstone strip, sedimentary environment, authigenic carbonate cements, authigenic pyrite, The Chuanlinggou group, North China

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2892 The Mechanism of Calcium Carbonate Scale Deposition Affected by Carboxymethyl Chitosan

Authors: Genaro Bolívar, Manuel Mas, Maria Tortolero, Jorge Salazar


Due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance in oil fields, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to break through. In most cases the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulfate and carbonate scales of calcium and strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there are limited processes available for their removal and preventive measures such as the “squeeze” inhibitor treatment have to be taken. It is, therefore, important to gain a proper understanding of the kinetics of scale formation and its detrimental effects on formation damage under both inhibited and uninhibited conditions. Recently, the production of chitosan was started in our country and in the PDVSA-Intevep laboratories was synthesized and evaluated the properties of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMQ) as chelating agent of Ca2 + ions in water injection. In this regard, the characterization of the biopolymer by 13C - NMR, FTIR, TGA, and TM0374-2007 standard laboratory test has demonstrated the ability to remove up to 70% calcium ions in solution and shows a behavior that approaches that of commercial products.

Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan, scale, calcium carbonate scale deposition, water injection

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2891 Facies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Lidam Formation, South East Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Miloud M. Abugares


This study concentrates on the facies analysis, cyclicity and depositional environment of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) carbonate ramp deposits of the Lidam Formation. Core description, petrographic analysis data from five wells in Hamid and 3V areas in the SE Sirt Basin, Libya were studied in detail. The Lidam Formation is one of the main oil producing carbonate reservoirs in Southeast Sirt Basin and this study represents one of the key detailed studies of this Formation. In this study, ten main facies have been identified. These facies are; Chicken-Wire Anhydrite Facies, Fine Replacive Dolomite Facies, Bioclastic Sandstone Facies, Laminated Shale Facies, Stromatolitic Laminated Mudstone Facies, Ostracod Bioturbated Wackestone Facies, Bioturbated Mollusc Packstone Facies, Foraminifera Bioclastic Packstone/Grainstone Facies Peloidal Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone Facies and Squamariacean/Coralline Algae Bindstone Facies. These deposits are inferred to have formed in supratidal sabkha, intertidal, semi-open restricted shallow lagoon and higher energy shallow shoal environments. The overall depositional setting is interpreted as have been deposited in inner carbonate ramp deposits. The best reservoir quality is encountered in Peloidal- Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone facies, these facies represents storm - dominated shoal to back shoal deposits and constitute the inner part of carbonate ramp deposits. The succession shows a conspicuous hierarchical cyclicity. Porous shoal and backshoal deposits form during maximum transgression system and early regression hemi-cycle of the Lidam Fm. However; oil producing from shoal and backshoal deposits which only occur in the upper intervals 15 - 20 feet, which forms the large scale transgressive cycle of the Upper Lidam Formation.

Keywords: Lidam Fm. Sirt Basin, Wackestone Facies, petrographic, intertidal

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2890 Geology, Geomorphology and Genesis of Andarokh Karstic Cave, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad


Andarokh basin is one of the main karstic regions in Khorasan Razavi province NE Iran. This basin is part of Kopeh-Dagh mega zone extending from Caspian Sea in the east to northern Afghanistan in the west. This basin is covered by Mozdooran Formation, Ngr evaporative formation and quaternary alluvium deposits in descending order of age. Mozdooran carbonate formation is notably karstified. The main surface karstic features in Mozdooran formation are Groove karren, Cleft karren, Rain pit, Rill karren, Tritt karren, Kamintza, Domes, and Table karren. In addition to surface features, deep karstic feature Andarokh Cave also exists in the region. Studying Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe concentration and Sr/Mn ratio in Mozdooran formation samples with distance to main faults and joints system using PCA analyses demonstrates intense meteoric digenesis role in controlling carbonate rock geochemistry. The karst evaluation in Andarokh basin varies from early stages 'deep seated karst' in Mesozoic to mature karstic system 'Exhumed karst' in quaternary period. Andarokh cave (the main cave in Andarokh basin) is rudimentary branch work consists of three passages of A, B and C and two entrances Andarokh and Sky.

Keywords: Andarokh basin, Andarokh cave, geochemical analyses, karst evaluation

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2889 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz


14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

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2888 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Cârâc, Elena Morosan, Ana Corina Ionita, Rica Bosencu, Geta Carac


Lanthanum carbonate exhibits a considerable ability to bind phosphate and the substitution of Ca2+ ions by divalent or trivalent lanthanide metal ions attracted attention during the past few years. Although Lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite and Lanthanum carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. Calcium hydroxyapatite commonly referred as CHAp is a bioceramic material and is one of the most important implantable materials due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. We prepared calcium hydroxyapatite and lanthanum carbonate. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment , ph below 4.0 The confirmation of both substances structures was made using XRD characterization, FTIR spectra and SEM /EDX analysis. The study group included 20 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group B), CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5 % CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL] only after the 24 hours of combination therapy. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment subjects because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp. The ability of CHAp to decrease the serum phosphate concentration is 1/3 that of lanthanum carbonate.

Keywords: calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphate, structures

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2887 Relationship between Wave Velocities and Geo-Pressures in Shallow Libyan Carbonate Reservoir

Authors: Tarek Sabri Duzan


Knowledge of the magnitude of Geo-pressures (Pore, Fracture & Over-burden pressures) is vital especially during drilling, completions, stimulations, Enhance Oil Recovery. Many times problems, like lost circulation could have been avoided if techniques for calculating Geo-pressures had been employed in the well planning, mud weight plan, and casing design. In this paper, we focused on the relationships between Geo-pressures and wave velocities (P-Wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs)) in shallow Libyan carbonate reservoir in the western part of the Sirte Basin (Dahra F-Area). The data used in this report was collected from four new wells recently drilled. Those wells were scattered throughout the interested reservoir as shown in figure-1. The data used in this work are bulk density, Formation Mult -Tester (FMT) results and Acoustic wave velocities. Furthermore, Eaton Method is the most common equation used in the world, therefore this equation has been used to calculate Fracture pressure for all wells using dynamic Poisson ratio calculated by using acoustic wave velocities, FMT results for pore pressure, Overburden pressure estimated by using bulk density. Upon data analysis, it has been found that there is a linear relationship between Geo-pressures (Pore, Fracture & Over-Burden pressures) and wave velocities ratio (Vp/Vs). However, the relationship was not clear in the high-pressure area, as shown in figure-10. Therefore, it is recommended to use the output relationship utilizing the new seismic data for shallow carbonate reservoir to predict the Geo-pressures for future oil operations. More data can be collected from the high-pressure zone to investigate more about this area.

Keywords: bulk density, formation mult-tester (FMT) results, acoustic wave, carbonate shalow reservoir, d/jfield velocities

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2886 Carbonate Microfacies and Diagenesis of Klapanunggal Formation in Cileungsi District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Reghina Karyadi, Abdurrokhim, Lili Fauzielly


Administratively, the research area is located in Cileungsi District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. Geographically, it located at 106° 56’ 1,9392” - 107° 1’ 27,8112” East Longitude and 6° 32’ 29,3712” - 6° 27’ 5,6124” South Latitude. This research is being held as a purpose to observe microfacies and limestone diagenesis that happened in the study area. Dominantly, the area fulfills of various hills that formed by carbonate and sediment stones which folded and faulted. The method that using in this research is analysis the outcrop data and petrography by using red alizarin for differentiating of minerals type. Microfacies type and diagenesis processes can be known from petrography analysis results like rock texture, rock structure, porosity, type of grain and fossils. The result of research shows that carbonate rocks in the study area can be divided into 3 types microfasies, which is Reef Microfacies (SMF 7), Shallow Water Microfacies (SMF 9), and Textural Inversion Microfacies (SMF 10). Whereas diagenesis process that happened is microbial micritization, compaction, neomorphism, cementation and dissolution process.

Keywords: carbonate, limestone, microfacies, diagenesis

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2885 Total Organic Carbon, Porosity and Permeability Correlation: A Tool for Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential Evaluation in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin, Brazil

Authors: Richardson M. Abraham-A., Colombo Celso Gaeta Tassinari


The correlation between Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and flow units have been carried out to predict and compare the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential of the shale and carbonate rocks in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin. The equations for permeability (K), reservoir quality index (RQI) and flow zone indicator (FZI) are redefined and engaged to evaluate the flow units in both potential reservoir rocks. Shales show higher values of TOC compared to carbonates, as such,  porosity (Ф) is most likely to be higher in shales compared to carbonates. The increase in Ф corresponds to the increase in K (in both rocks). Nonetheless, at lower values of Ф, K is higher in carbonates compared to shales. This shows that at lower values of TOC in carbonates, Ф is low, yet, K is likely to be high compared to shale. In the same vein, at higher values of TOC in shales, Ф is high, yet, K is expected to be low compared to carbonates.  Overall, the flow unit factors (RQI and FZI) are better in the carbonates compared to the shales. Moreso, within the study location,  there are some portions where the thicknesses of the carbonate units are higher compared to the shale units. Most parts of the carbonate strata in the study location are fractured in situ, hence,  this could provide easy access for the storage of CO2. Therefore, based on these points and the disparities between the flow units in the evaluated rock types, the carbonate units are expected to show better potentials for the storage of CO2. The shale units may be considered as potential cap rocks or seals.

Keywords: total organic content, flow units, carbon dioxide storage, geologic structures

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2884 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz


In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature

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2883 Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Carbonate Bearing-Argillites on the Southeastern Flank of Mount Cameroon, Likomba

Authors: Chongwain G. Mbzighaa, Christopher M. Agyingi, Josepha-Forba-Tendo


Background and aim: Sedimentological, geochemical and petrographic studies were carried out on carbonate-bearing argillites outcropping at the southeastern flank of Mount Cameroon (Likomba) to determine the lithofacies and their associations, major element geochemistry and mineralogy. Methods: Major elements of the rocks were analyzed using XRF technique. Thermal analysis and thin section studies were carried out accompanied with the determination of insoluble components of the carbonates. Results: The carbonates are classed as biomicrites with siderite being the major carbonate mineral. Clay, quartz and pyrite constitute the major insoluble components of these rocks. Geochemical results depict a broad variation in their concentrations with silica and iron showing the highest concentrations and sodium and manganese with the least concentrations. Two factors were revealed with the following elemental associations, Fe2O3-MgO-Mn2O3 (72.56 %) and TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O (23.20%) indicating both Fe-enrichment, the subsequent formation of the siderite and the contribution of the sediments to the formation of these rocks. Conclusion: The rocks consist of cyclic iron-rich carbonates alternating with sideritic-shales and might have been formed as a result of variations in the sea conditions as well as variation in sediment influx resulting from transgression and regression sequences occurring in a shallow to slightly deep marine environments.

Keywords: sedimentology, geochemistry, petrography, iron carbonates, Likomba

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2882 Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)

Authors: Azad Jarrahian, Ehsan Heidaryan


Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.

Keywords: carbonate acidizing, organic acids, spending rate, acid penetration, incomplete spending.

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2881 Mineralogy and Classification of Altered Host Rocks in the Zaghia Iron Oxide Deposit, East of Bafq, Central Iran

Authors: Azat Eslamizadeh, Neda Akbarian


The Zaghia Iron ore, in 15 km east of a town named Bafq, is located in Precambrian formation of Central Iran in form of a small local deposit. The Volcano-sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Cambrian age, belonging to Rizu series have spread through the region. Substantial portion of the deposit is covered by alluvial deposits. The rocks hosting the Zaghia iron ore have a main combination of rhyolitic tuffs along with clastic sediments, carbonate include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, conglomerate and is somewhat metamorphed causing them to have appeared as slate and phyllite. Moreover, carbonate rocks are in existence as skarn compound of marble bearing tremolite with mineralization of magnetite-hematite. The basic igneous rocks have dramatically altered into green rocks consist of actinolite-tremolite and chlorite along with amount of iron (magnetite + Martite). The youngest units of ore-bearing rocks in the area are found as dolerite - diabase dikes. The dikes are cutting the rhyolitic tuffs and carbonate rocks.

Keywords: Zaghia, iron ore deposite, mineralogy, petrography Bafq, Iran

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2880 The Effects of Lithofacies on Oil Enrichment in Lucaogou Formation Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks in Santanghu Basin, China

Authors: Guoheng Liu, Zhilong Huang


For more than the past ten years, oil and gas production from marine shale such as the Barnett shale. In addition, in recent years, major breakthroughs have also been made in lacustrine shale gas exploration, such as the Yanchang Formation of the Ordos Basin in China. Lucaogou Formation shale, which is also lacustrine shale, has also yielded a high production in recent years, for wells such as M1, M6, and ML2, yielding a daily oil production of 5.6 tons, 37.4 tons and 13.56 tons, respectively. Lithologic identification and classification of reservoirs are the base and keys to oil and gas exploration. Lithology and lithofacies obviously control the distribution of oil and gas in lithological reservoirs, so it is of great significance to describe characteristics of lithology and lithofacies of reservoirs finely. Lithofacies is an intrinsic property of rock formed under certain conditions of sedimentation. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale formed under different sedimentary conditions display great particularity and distinctiveness. Hence, to our best knowledge, no constant and unified criteria and methods exist for fine-grained sedimentary rocks regarding lithofacies definition and classification. Consequently, multi-parameters and multi-disciplines are necessary. A series of qualitative descriptions and quantitative analysis were used to figure out the lithofacies characteristics and its effect on oil accumulation of Lucaogou formation fine-grained sedimentary rocks in Santanghu basin. The qualitative description includes core description, petrographic thin section observation, fluorescent thin-section observation, cathode luminescence observation and scanning electron microscope observation. The quantitative analyses include X-ray diffraction, total organic content analysis, ROCK-EVAL.II Methodology, soxhlet extraction, porosity and permeability analysis and oil saturation analysis. Three types of lithofacies were mainly well-developed in this study area, which is organic-rich massive shale lithofacies, organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies and organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies mainly include massive shale and tuffaceous shale, of which quartz and clay minerals are the major components. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies contain lamina and cloddy structure. Rocks from this lithofacies chiefly consist of dolomite and quartz. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies mainly contains massive bedding fine-grained carbonate rocks, of which fine-grained dolomite accounts for the main part. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies contain the highest content of free hydrocarbon and solid organic matter. Moreover, more pores were developed in organic-rich massive shale lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies contain the lowest content solid organic matter and develop the least amount of pores. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies develop the largest number of cracks and fractures. To sum up, organic-rich massive shale lithofacies is the most favorable type of lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies is impossible for large scale oil accumulation.

Keywords: lithofacies classification, tuffaceous shale, oil enrichment, Lucaogou formation

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2879 The Potential of Kepulauan Seribu as Marine-Based Eco-Geotourism Site: The Study of Carbonate Platform as Geotourism Object in Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

Authors: Barry Majeed, Eka Febriana, Seto Julianto


Kepulauan Seribu National Parks is a marine preservation region in Indonesia. It is located in 5°23' - 5°40' LS, 106°25' - 106°37' BT North of Jakarta City. Covered with area 107,489 ha, Kepulauan Seribu has a lot of tourism spots such as cluster islands, fringing reef and many more. Kepulauan Seribu is also nominated as Strategic Tourism Region In Indonesia (KSPN). So, these islands have a lot of potential sides more than preservation function as a national park, hence the development of sustainable geotourism. The aim of this study is for enhancing the development of eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu. This study concern for three main aspect of eco-geotourism such as tourism, form and process. Study for the tourism aspect includes attractions, accommodations, tours, activities, interpretation, and planning & management in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the form aspect focused on the carbonate platform situated between two islands. Primarily in carbonate reef such as head coral, branchy coral, platy coral that created the carbonate sequence in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the process aspect primarily discussed the process of forming of carbonate from carbonate factory later becomes Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the regional geology of Kepulauan Seribu has been conducted and suggested that Kepulauan Seribu lithologies are mainly quarternary limestone. In this study, primary data was taken from an observation of quarternary carbonate platform between two islands from Hati Island, Macan Island, Bulat Island, Ubi Island and Kelapa Island. From this observation, the best routes for tourist have been made from Island to Island. Qualitative methods such as depth interview to the local people in purposive sampling also have been made. Finally, this study also giving education about geological site – carbonate sequence - in Kepulauan Seribu for the local wisdom so that this study can support the development of sustainable eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu.

Keywords: carbonate factory, carbonate platform, geotourism, Kepulauan Seribu

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2878 Wave Agitated Signatures in the Oolitic Limestones of Kunihar Formation, Proterozoic Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Alono Thorie, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


Ooid bearing horizons of the Proterozoic Kunihar Formation, Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya have been addressed in the present work. The study is concentrated around the outskirts of Arki town, Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Based on the sedimentary facies associations, the processes that promote the formation of ooids have been documented. The facies associations that have been recorded are: (i) Oolitic-Intraclastic grainstone (FA1), (ii) Oolitic grainstone (FA2), (iii) Boundstone (FA3), (iv) Dolomudstone (FA4) and (v) Rudstone (FA5). Oolitic-Intraclastic grainstone (FA1) mainly consists of well sorted ooids with concentric laminae and intraclasts. Large ooids with grain sizes more than 4 mm are characteristic of oolites throughout the area. Normally graded beds consisting of ooids and intraclasts are frequently documented in storm sediments in shelf environments and carbonate platforms. The well-sorted grainstone fabric indicates deposition in a high-energy shoal with tidal currents and storm reworking. FA2 comprises spherical to elliptical grains up to 8.5cm in size with concentric cortex and micritic nuclei. Peloids in FA2 are elliptical, rounded objects <0.3 mm in size. FA1 and FA2 have been recorded alongside boundstones (FA3) comprising stromatolites having columnar, wavy and domal morphology. Boundstones (FA3) reflect microbial growth in carbonate platforms and reefs. Dolomudstones (FA4) interbedded with cross laminated sandstones and erosional surfaces reflect sedimentation in storm dominated zones below fair-weather wave base. Rudstone (FA5) is composed of oolitic grainstone (FA2), boundstone (FA3) and dolomudstone (FA4). These clasts are few mm to more than 10 cm in length. Rudstones indicate deposition along a slope with intermittent influence of wave currents and storm activities. Most ooids from the Kunihar Formation are regular ooids with abundance of broken ooids. Compound and concentric ooids indicating medium to low energy environments are present but scarce. Ooids from high energy domains are more dominant than ooids developed from low energy environments. The unusually large size of the Kunihar ooids (more than 8.5 cm) is rare in the geological record. Development of carbonate deposits such as oolitic- intraclastic Grainstones (FA1), oolitic grainstones (FA2) and rudstones (FA5), and reflect deposition in an agitated beach environment with abundant microbial activity and high energy shallow marine waters influenced by tide, wave and storm currents. Occurrences of boundstone (FA4) or stromatolitic carbonate amongst oolitic facies (FA1 and FA2) and appearance of compound and concentric ooids indicate intervals of calm in between agitated phases of storm, wave and tidal activities.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Group, ooids, stromatolites

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2877 Comparison of Tidalites in Siliciclastics and Mixed Siliciclastic Carbonate Systems: An Outstanding Example from Proterozoic Simla Basin, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Tithi Banerjee, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


The comparison of ancient tidalites recorded in both siliciclastics and carbonates has not been well documented due to a lack of suitable outcropping examples. The Proterozoic Simla Basin, Lesser Himalaya serves a unique example in this regard. An attempt has been made in the present work to differentiate sedimentary facies and architectural elements of tidalites in both siliciclastics and carbonates recorded in the Simla Basin. Lithofacies and microfacies analysis led to identification of 11 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements from the siliciclastics, 6 lithofacies and 3 architectural elements from the carbonates. The most diagnostic features for comparison of the two tidalite systems are sedimentary structures, textures, and architectural elements. The physical features such as flaser-lnticular bedding, mud/silt couplets, tidal rhythmites, tidal bundles, cross stratified successions, tidal bars, tidal channels, microbial structures are common to both the environments. The architecture of these tidalites attests to sedimentation in shallow subtidal to intertidal flat facies, affected by intermittent reworking by open marine waves/storms. The seventeen facies attributes were categorized into two major facies belts (FA1 and FA2). FA1 delineated from the lower part of the Chhaosa Formation (middle part of the Simla Basin) represents a prograding muddy pro-delta deposit whereas FA2 delineated from the upper part of the Basantpur Formation (lower part of the Simla Basin) bears the signature of an inner-mid carbonate ramp deposit. Facies distribution indicates development of highstand systems tract (HST) during sea level still stand related to normal regression. The aggradational to progradational bedsets record the history of slow rise in sea level.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Basin, tidalites, inner-mid carbonate ramp, prodelta, TST, HST

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2876 Microfacies and Diagenetic Study of Rembang Limestone, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Evalita Amrita, Abdurrokhim, Ildrem Syafri


Research area is located in Pasedan District, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province. This research is being held for the purpose of microfacies and diagenetic study of carbonate rocks. The study area is dominated by deformed carbonate rocks, folded and faulted. The research method is petrographic analysis with red alizarin staining to differentiate mineral types. Microfacies types and diagenetic processes can be known from petrographic analysis of rock texture, rock structure, type of grain, and fossils. Carbonate rocks in the study area can be divided into 4 types of microfacies: Reef Microfacies (SMF 7), Shallow Water Microfacies (SMF 9), and Textural Inversion Microfacies (SMF 10). Diagenetic processes that take place in carbonate rocks are microbial micritization, compaction, neomorphism, cementation, and dissolution.

Keywords: diagenetic, limestone, microfacies, Rembang

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2875 Microwave Assisted Solvent-free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua


As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varing grades of glycerol i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity that obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters; it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Admist the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demostrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.3% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: base-catalyzed transesterification, glycerol, glycerol carbonate, microwave irradiation

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2874 Middle Ordovician (Llanvirnian) Relative Sea-Level Fluctuations

Authors: Ying Jia Teoh


The Canning Basin is located between the Kimberley and Pilbara Precambrian cratonic blocks. It is a large but relatively poorly explored Paleozoic basin in remote Western Australia. During the early Ordovician period, the Australian continent was located near the equator. Middle Ordovician age Nita and Goldwyer Formations in Canning Basin are therefore warm water carbonates. The Nita Formation carbonates are a regressive sequence which conformably overlies the Goldwyer Formation. It contains numerous progradational cycles of limestone, vuggy dolomitized carbonate beds and shale deposited in subtidal to supratidal environments. The Goldwyer Formation contains transgressive shale sequences and regressive carbonates deposited in shallow subtidal conditions. The shales contain oil-prone Gloeocapsormorpha prisca-bearing source rocks. Llanvirnian relative sea-level fluctuations were reconstructed by using Fischer plots methodology for three key wells (wells McLarty 1, Looma 1 and Robert 1) in Broome Platform and compared with INPEFA data. The Goldwyer lower shale (interval Or1000P) shows increasing relative sea-level and this matches with a transgressive systems tract. Goldwyer middle carbonate (interval Or2000) shows relative sea-level drop and this matches with a regressive systems tract. Goldwyer upper shale (interval Or2000P) shows relative sea-level drop and this matches with a transgressive systems tract. Nita Formation Leo Member (interval Or3000) shows a relative sea level drop and this matches with a regressive systems tract. The Nita Formation Cudalgarra Member (intervals Or3000P and Or4000) with transgressive systems tract then this is followed by a regressive systems tract. This pattern matches with the relative sea-level curves in wells McLarty 1 and Robert 1. The correlation is weak for parts of well Looma 1. This is probably influenced by the fact that the thickness of this section is quite small. As a conclusion, Fischer plots for the Llanvirnian Goldwyer and Nita Formations show good agreement with the third order global sea level cycles of Haq and others. Fischer plots are generally correlated well with trend and cyclicity determined by INPEFA curves and as a method of cross-checking INPEFA data and sea-level change.

Keywords: canning basin, Fischer plots, Llanvirnian, middle Ordovician, sea-level fluctuations, stratigraphy

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2873 Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India

Authors: K. F. Khan, Samsuddin Khan


The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.

Keywords: apatite, petro-mineralogy, phosphorites, sallopat, stromatolites

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2872 The Relationship between Lithological and Geomechanical Properties of Carbonate Rocks. Case study: Arab-D Reservoir Outcrop Carbonate, Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ammar Juma Abdlmutalib, Osman Abdullatif


Upper Jurrasic Arab-D Reservoir is considered as the largest oil reservoir in Saudi Arabia. The equivalent outcrop is exposed near Riyadh. The study investigates the relationships between lithofacies properties changes and geomechanical properties of Arab-D Reservoir in the outcrop scale. The methods used included integrated field observations and laboratory measurements. Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness, Point Load Index tests were carried out to estimate the strength of the samples, ultrasonic wave velocity test also was applied to measure P-wave, S-wave, and dynamic Poisson's ratio. Thin sections have been analyzed and described. The results show that there is a variation in geomechanical properties between the Arab-D member and Upper Jubaila Formation at outcrop scale, the change in texture or grain size has no or little effect on these properties. This is because of the clear effect of diagenesis which changes the strength of the samples. The result also shows the negative or inverse correlation between porosity and geomechanical properties. As for the strength, dolomitic mudstone and wackestone within Upper Jubaila Formation has higher Schmidt hammer values, wavy rippled sandy grainstone which is rich in quarts has the greater point load index values. While laminated mudstone and breccias, facies has lower strength. This emphasizes the role of mineral content in the geomechanical properties of Arab-D reservoir lithofacies.

Keywords: geomechanical properties, Arab-D reservoir, lithofacies changes, Poisson's ratio, diageneis

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2871 Petrophysical Interpretation of Unconventional Shale Reservoir Naokelekan in Ajeel Oil-Gas Field

Authors: Abeer Tariq, Mohammed S. Aljawad, Khaldoun S. Alfarisi


This paper aimed to estimate the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, and fluid saturation) of the Ajeel well (Aj-1) Shale reservoir. Petrophysical properties of the Naokelekan Formation at Ajeel field are determined from the interpretation of open hole log data of one well which penetrated the source rock reservoir. However, depending on these properties, it is possible to divide the Formation which has a thickness of approximately 28-34 m, into three lithological units: A is the upper unit (thickness about 9 to 13 m) consisting of dolomitized limestones; B is a middle unit (thickness about 13 to 20 m) which is composed of dolomitic limestone, and C is a lower unit (>22 m thick) which consists of shale-rich and dolomitic limestones. The results showed that the average formation water resistivity for the formation (Rw = 0.024), the average resistivity of the mud filtration (Rmf = 0.46), and the Archie parameters were determined by the picket plot method, where (m) value equal to 1.86, (n) value equal to 2 and (a) value equal to 1. Also, this reservoir proved to be economical for future developments to increase the production rate of the field by dealing with challenging reservoirs. In addition, Porosity values and water saturation Sw were calculated along with the depth of the composition using Interactive Petrophysics (IP) V4.5 software. The interpretation of the computer process (CPI) showed that the better porous zone holds the highest amount of hydrocarbons in the second and third zone. From the flow zone indicator FZI method, there are two rock types in the studied reservoir.

Keywords: petrophysical properties, porosity, permeability, ajeel field, Naokelekan formation, Jurassic sequences, carbonate reservoir, source rock

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2870 An Experimental Study of the Influence of Particle Breakage on the Interface Friction Angle and Shear Strength of Carbonate Sands

Authors: Ruben Dario Tovar-Valencia, Eshan Ganju, Fei Han, Monica Prezzi, Rodrigo Salgado


Particle breakage occurs even in strong silica sand particles. There is compelling evidence that suggests that particle breakage causes changes in several properties such as permeability, peak strength, dilatancy and critical state friction angle. Current pile design methods that are based on soil properties do not account for particle breakage that occurs during driving or jacking of displacement piles. This may lead to significant overestimation of pile capacity in sands dominated by particles susceptible to breakage, such as carbonate sands. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of shear displacement on particle breakage and friction angle of carbonate sands, and to furthermore quantify the change in friction angle observed with different levels of particle breakage. To study the phenomenon of particle breakage, multiple ring shear tests have been performed at different levels of vertical confinement on a thoroughly characterized carbonate sand to find i) the shear displacement necessary to reach stable friction angles and ii) the effect of particle breakage on the mobilized friction angle of the tested sand. The findings of this study can potentially be used to update the current pile design methods by developing a friction angle which is a function of shear displacement and breakage characteristics of the sand instead of being a constant value.

Keywords: breakage, carbonate sand, friction angle, pile design, ring shear test

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2869 Preparation and CO2 Permeation Properties of Carbonate-Ceramic Dual-Phase Membranes

Authors: H. Ishii, S. Araki, H. Yamamoto


In recent years, the carbon dioxide (CO2) separation technology is required in terms of the reduction of emission of global warming gases and the efficient use of fossil fuels. Since the emission amount of CO2 gas occupies the large part of greenhouse effect gases, it is considered that CO2 have the most influence on global warming. Therefore, we need to establish the CO2 separation technologies with high efficiency at low cost. In this study, we focused on the membrane separation compared with conventional separation technique such as distillation or cryogenic separation. In this study, we prepared carbonate-ceramic dual-phase membranes to separate CO2 at high temperature. As porous ceramic substrate, the (Pr0.9La0.1)2(Ni0.74Cu0.21Ga0.05)O4+σ, La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.3 Fe0.7O3 and Ca0.8Sr0.2Ti0.7Fe0.3O3-α (PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF) were examined. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF have the perovskite structure. The perovskite structure has high stability and shows ion-conducting doped by another metal ion. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF have perovskite structure and has high stability and high oxygen ion diffusivity. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF powders were prepared by a solid-phase process using the appropriate carbonates or oxides. To prepare porous substrates, these powders mixed with carbon black (20 wt%) and a few drops of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt%) aqueous solution. The powder mixture were packed into stainless steel mold (13 mm) and uniaxially pressed into disk shape under a pressure of 20 MPa for 1 minute. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF disks were calcined in air for 6 h at 1473, 1573 and 1473 K, respectively. The carbonate mixture (Li2CO3/Na2CO3/K2CO3: 42.5/32.5/25 in mole percent ratio) was placed inside a crucible and heated to 793 K. Porous substrates were infiltrated with the molten carbonate mixture at 793 K. Crystalline structures of the fresh membranes and after the infiltration with the molten carbonate mixtures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. We confirmed the crystal structure of PLNCG and CSTF slightly changed after infiltration with the molten carbonate mixture. CO2 permeation experiments with PLNCG-carbonate, LSTF-carbonate and CSTF-carbonate membranes were carried out at 773-1173 K. The gas mixture of CO2 (20 mol%) and He was introduced at the flow rate of 50 ml/min to one side of membrane. The permeated CO2 was swept by N2 (50 ml/min). We confirmed the effect of ceramic materials and temperature on the CO2 permeation at high temperature.

Keywords: membrane, perovskite structure, dual-phase, carbonate

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2868 Anti-Scale Magnetic Method as a Prevention Method for Calcium Carbonate Scaling

Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit


The effect of anti-scale magnetic method (AMM) in retarding scaling deposition is confirmed by many researchers, to result in new crystal morphology, the crystal which has the tendency to remain suspended more than precipitated. AMM is considered as an economic method when compared to other common methods used for scale prevention in desalination plant as acid treatment and addition of antiscalant. The current project was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of AMM in preventing calcium carbonate scaling. The AMM was tested at different flow velocities (1.0, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.003 m/s), different operating temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C), different feed pH and different magnetic field strength. The results showed that AMM was effective in retarding calcium carbonate scaling deposition, and the performance of AMM depends strongly on the flow velocity. The scaling retention time was found to be affected by the operating temperatures, flow velocity, and magnetic strength (MS), and in general, it was found that as the operating temperatures increased the effectiveness of the AMM in retarding calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) scaling increased.

Keywords: magnetic treatment, field strength, flow velocity, magnetic scale retention time

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2867 Paleobathymetry and Biostratigraphy of Sambipitu Formation and Its Relation with the Presence of Ichnofossil in Geoheritage Site Ngalang River Yogyakarta

Authors: Harman Dwi R., Alwin Mugiyantoro, Heppy Chintya P.


The location of this research is a part of Geoheritage that located in Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency, Yogyakarta Special Region. Whereas in this location, the carbonate sandstone of Sambipitu Formation (early-middle Miocene) is well exposed along Ngalang River, also there are ichnofossil presence which causes this formation to be interesting. The determination of paleobathymetry is particularly important in determining paleoenvironment and paleogeographic. Paleobathymetry can be determined by identifying the presence of Foraminifera bentonik fossil and parasequence emerge. The methods that used in this study are spatial method of field observation with systematic sampling, descriptive method of paleontology, biostratigraphy analysis, geometrical analysis of Ichnofossil, and study literature. The result obtained that paleobathymetry of this location is bathyal zone with maximum regression known by Bulliminoides williamsonianus showing depth 17 fathoms at the age of N3-N5 (Oligocenne-Early Miocene) and the maximum transgression is known by Cibicides pseudoungarianus showing depth 862 fathoms at the age of N8-N9 (Early-Middle Miocene). Where the obtained paleobathymetry supported of the presence and formed the pattern of ichnofossil that found in the study area.

Keywords: paleobathymetry, biostratigraphy, ichnofossil, Ngalang river

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2866 Polygenetic Iron Mineralization in the Baba-Ali and Galali Deposits, Further Evidences from Stable (S, O, H) Isotope Data, NW Hamedan, Iran

Authors: Ghodratollah Rostami Paydar


The Baba-Ali and Galali iron deposits are located in northwest Hamedan and the Iranian Sanandaj-Sirjan geological structural zone. The host rocks of these deposits are metavolcanosedimentary successions of Songhor stratigraphic series with permo-trriassic age. Field investigation, ore geometry, textures and structures and paragenetic sequence of minerals, all indicate that the ore minerals are crystallized in four stages: primary volcanosedimentary stage, secondary regional metamorphism with formation of ductile shear zones, contact metamorphism and metasomatism stage and the finally late hydrothermal mineralization within uplift and exposure. Totally 29 samples of sulfide, oxide-silicate and carbonate minerals of iron orees and gangue has been purified for stable isotope analysis. The isotope ratio data assure that occurrence of dynamothermal metamorphism in these areas typically involves a lengthy period of time, which results in a tendency toward isotopic homogenization specifically in O and H stable isotopes and showing the role of metamorphic waters in mineralization process. Measurement of δ34S (CDT) in first generation of pyrite is higher than another ones, so it confirms the volcanogenic origin of primary iron mineralization. δ13C data measurements in Galali carbonate country rocks show a marine origin. δ18O in magnetite and skarn forming silicates, δ18O and δ13C in limestone and skarn calcite and δ34S in sulphides are all consistent with the interaction of a magmatic-equilibrated fluid with Galali limestone, and a dominantly magmatic source for S. All these data imply skarn formation and mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system that maintained high salinity to relatively late stages resulting in the formation of the regional Na metasomatic alteration halo. Late stage hydrothermal quartz-calcite veinlets are important for gold mineralization, but the economic evaluation is required to detailed geochemical studies.

Keywords: iron, polygenetic, stable isotope, BabaAli, Galali

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2865 The Stable Isotopic Composition of Pedogenic Carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia

Authors: Jessica Vasil'chuk, Elena Ivanova, Pavel Krechetov, Vladimir Litvinsky, Nadine Budantseva, Julia Chizhova, Yurij Vasil'chuk


Carbonate minerals’ isotopic composition is widely used as a proxy for environmental parameters of the past. Pedogenic carbonate coatings on lower surfaces of coarse rock fragments are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of soil pore water, precipitation, vegetation and parent material. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized, therefore soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from −7.49 to −10.5‰ (vs V-PDB), and the smallest value −13.9‰ corresponds the coatings found between two buried soil horizons which 14C dates are 4.6 and 5.2 kyr BP. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates’ δ18O range is from −8.3 to −11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is from −9.0 to −10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate coatings’ uniform formation conditions. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from −2.5 to −6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug rivers former floodplains. For Sayanogorsk the range is from −4.9 to −6.8‰ and for Hankul from −2.3 to −5.7‰, where the highest value is for the modern salt crust. δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers of coatings, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. Carbonate parent material δ18O value in the region vary from −11.1 to −12.0‰ and δ13C values vary from −4.9 to −5.7‰. Soil pore water δ18O values that determine the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates vary due to the processes of transpiration and mixing in the studied sites in a wide range of −2.0 to −13.5‰ (vs V-SMOW). Precipitation waters show δ18O values from -6.6‰ in May and -19.0‰ in January (snow) due to the temperature difference. The main conclusions are as follows: pedogenic carbonates δ13C values (−7…−2,5‰) show no correlation with modern C3 vegetation δ13C values (−30…−26‰), expected values under such vegetation are (−19…−15‰) but are closer to C4 vegetation. Late Holocene climate for the Minusinsk Hollow according to obtained data on isotope composition of carbonates and soil pore water chemical composition was dryer and cooler than present, that does not contradict with paleocarpology data obtained for the region. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant №14-27-00083).

Keywords: carbon, oxygen, pedogenic carbonates, South Siberia, stable isotopes

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