Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7447

Search results for: learners with special education needs

7447 Special Education Teachers’ Knowledge and Application of the Concept of Curriculum Adaptation for Learners with Special Education Needs in Zambia

Authors: Kenneth Kapalu Muzata, Dikeledi Mahlo, Pinkie Mabunda Mabunda

Abstract:

This paper presents results of a study conducted to establish special education teachers’ knowledge and application of curriculum adaptation of the 2013 revised curriculum in Zambia. From a sample of 134 respondents (120 special education teachers, 12 education officers, and 2 curriculum specialists), the study collected both quantitative and qualitative data to establish whether teachers understood and applied the concept of curriculum adaptation in teaching learners with special education needs. To obtain data validity and reliability, the researchers collected data by use of mixed methods. Semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were administered. Lesson Observations and post-lesson discussions were conducted on 12 selected teachers from the 120 sample that answered the questionnaires. Frequencies, percentages, and significant differences were derived through the statistical package for social sciences. Qualitative data were analyzed with the help of NVIVO qualitative software to create themes and obtain coding density to help with conclusions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were concurrently compared and related. The results revealed that special education teachers lacked a thorough understanding of the concept of curriculum adaptation, thus denying learners with special education needs the opportunity to benefit from the revised curriculum. The teachers were not oriented on the revised curriculum and hence facing numerous challenges trying to adapt the curriculum. The study recommended training of special education teachers in curriculum adaptation.

Keywords: curriculum adaptation, special education, learners with special education needs, special education teachers

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7446 Support Provided by Teachers to Learners With Special Education Needs in Selected Amathole West District Primary Schools South Africa

Authors: Toyin Mary Adewumi, Cina Mosito

Abstract:

Part of enabling learners with special education needs (SEN) to succeed is providing them with adequate support. Support is all activities in a school that enhance its capacity to respond to diversity by making learning contexts and lessons accessible to all learners. The paper reports findings of support provided by teachers to learners with SEN and the pockets of good practice found in the support provided by teachers to these learners in schools in the Amathole West District, Eastern Cape. A purposeful sample, comprising eight teachers, eight principals in eight schools, including one provincial and two district education officials, was selected. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data gathered through semi-structured interviews. The results established that despite the challenges such as lack of qualifications and training in special education needs, learners with SEN received varied support from teachers which include extra exercises, extra time, special attention during break times or after school hours and homework. The study reveals pockets of good practice in some selected primary schools particularly in the poverty-stricken locations in the Amathole West District. This paper recommends adequate training for teachers for the support of learners with SEN.

Keywords: good practice, learner, special education needs, inclusion, support

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7445 Special Education in the South African Context: A Bio-Ecological Perspective

Authors: Suegnet Smit

Abstract:

Prior to 1994, special education in South Africa was marginalized and fragmented. Moving away from a Medical model approach to special education, the Government, after 1994, promoted an Inclusive approach, as a means to transform education in general, and special education in particular. This transformation, however, is moving at too a slow pace for learners with barriers to learning and development to benefit fully from their education. The goal of the Department of Basic Education is to minimize, remove, and prevent barriers to learning and development in the educational setting, by attending to the unique needs of the individual learner. However, the implementation of Inclusive education is problematic, and general education remains poor. This paper highlights the historical development of special education in South Africa, underpinned by a bio-ecological perspective. Problematic areas within the systemic levels of the education system are highlighted in order to indicate how the interactive processes within the systemic levels affect special needs learners on the personal dimension of the bio-ecological approach. As part of the methodology, thorough document analysis was conducted on information collected from a large body of research literature, which included academic articles, reports, policies, and policy reviews. Through a qualitative analysis, data were grouped and categorized according to the bio-ecological model systems, which revealed various successes and challenges within the education system. The challenges inhibit change, growth, and development for the child, who experience barriers to learning. From these findings, it is established that special education in South Africa has been, and still is, on a bumpy road. Sadly, the transformation process of change, envisaged by implementing Inclusive education, is still yet a dream, not fully realized. Special education seems to be stuck at what is, and the education system has not moved forward significantly enough to reach what special education should and could be. The gap that exists between a vision of Inclusive quality education for all, and the current reality, is still too wide. Problems encountered in all the education system levels, causes a funnel-effect downward to learners with special educational needs, with negative effects for the development of these learners.

Keywords: bio-ecological perspective, education systems, inclusive education, special education

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7444 A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers

Authors: M. D. Nghiteke, A. Mji, G. T. Molepo

Abstract:

Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.

Keywords: classrooms and schools, inclusive education, resources, training

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7443 Experiences of Trainee Teachers: A Survey on Expectations and Realities in Special Secondary Schools in Kenya

Authors: Mary Cheptanui Sambu

Abstract:

Teaching practice is an integral component of students who are training to be teachers, as it provides them with an opportunity to gain experience in an actual teaching and learning environment. This study explored the experiences of trainee teachers from a local university in Kenya, undergoing a three-month teaching practice in Special Secondary schools in the country. The main aim of the study was to understand the trainees’ experiences, their expectations, and the realities encountered during the teaching practice period. The study focused on special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment. A descriptive survey design was employed and a sample size of forty-four respondents from special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment was purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered to the respondents and the data obtained analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Preliminary analysis shows that challenges facing special secondary schools include inadequate teaching and learning facilities and resources, low academic performance among learners with hearing impairment, an overloaded curriculum and inadequate number of teachers for the learners. The study findings suggest that the Kenyan government should invest more in the education of special needs children, particularly focusing on increasing the number of trained teachers. In addition, the education curriculum offered in special secondary schools should be tailored towards the needs and interest of learners. These research findings will be useful to policymakers and curriculum developers, and will provide information that can be used to enhance the education of learners with hearing impairment; this will lead to improved academic performance, consequently resulting in better transitions and the realization of Vision 2030.

Keywords: hearing impairment, special secondary schools, trainee, teaching practice

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7442 An Analysis of Learners’ Reports for Measuring Co-Creational Education

Authors: Takatoshi Ishii, Koji Kimita, Keiichi Muramatsu, Yoshiki Shimomura

Abstract:

To increase the quality of learning, teacher and learner need mutual effort for realization of educational value. For this purpose, we need to manage the co-creational education among teacher and learners. In this research, we try to find a feature of co-creational education. To be more precise, we analyzed learners’ reports by natural language processing, and extract some features that describe the state of the co-creational education.

Keywords: co-creational education, e-portfolios, ICT integration, latent dirichlet allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
7441 Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Laraba Bala Mohammed

Abstract:

Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.

Keywords: inclusive education, national policy, education, special needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
7440 Development of Distance Training Packages for Teacher on Education Management for Learners with Special Needs

Authors: Jareeluk Ratanaphan

Abstract:

The purposed of this research were; 1. To survey the teacher’s needs on knowledge about special education management for special needs student 2. Development of distance training packages for teacher on special education management for special needs student 3. to study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s achievement 4. to study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s opinion on the distance training packages. The design of the experiment was research and development. The research sample for survey were 86 teachers, and 22 teachers for study the effects of using the packages on achievement and opinion. The research instrument comprised: 1) training packages on special education management for special needs student 2) achievement test 3) questionnaire. Mean, percentage, standard deviation, t-test and content analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: 1. The teacher’s needs on knowledge about teaching for a learner with learning disability, mental retardation, autism, physical and health impairment and research in special education. 2. The package composed of special education management for special needs student document and manual of distance training packages. The document consisted by the name of packages, the explanation for the educator, content’s structure, concept, objectives, content and activities. Manual of distance training packages consisted by the explanation about a document, objectives, explanation about using the package, training schedule, and evaluation. The efficiency of packages was established at 79.50/81.35. 3. The results of using the packages were the posttest average scores of trainee’s achievement were higher than the pretest. 4. The trainee’s opinion on the package was at the highest level.

Keywords: distance training package, teacher, learner with special needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
7439 The Impact of Scaffolding on Motivation of Vocational Special Education Students in Kakamega Program for Persons with Hearing Impaired in Kenya

Authors: J. W. Mbogani, B. A. Bunyasi

Abstract:

The special skills for five students in the vocational class in Kakamega program for Hearing impaired were identified within one term period of the Kenyan education system. Three students were identified as having a liking for tailoring. The remaining two students did not show any interest in any vocational subject. The three students were attached to two professionals in practicing general tailors within the school vicinity for scaffolding purposes. The students were allowed to attend general classes under the normal curriculum and were withdrawn after eleven in the morning for tailoring classes. The students were then monitored with the guideline of a checklist. The purpose of monitoring was to establish whether the behavior of the students reflected a motivated student. It was established that two of them improved in their school attendance in terms of regularity, punctuality and responsibility accomplishment. The third student ended up attending only tailoring classes. The socialization aspect of the two students improved a lot. They also tended to identify more with the teachers than their fellow students. We recommend that learners with special needs in education should be subjected to the normal curriculum. They may benefit more and attain a skill that could help them economically. Further study should also be done to in several institutions involving learners in other classes.

Keywords: general tailoring, scaffolding, term, vocational class

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7438 Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, empathy, learners’ emotional needs, teachers’ empathic skills

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7437 Mindfulness among Educators in General and Special Education at Independent Schools in Qatar and Its Effects on Their Academic Performance and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Mohamed S. Osman, Mohamed R. Nosair

Abstract:

The study aims to determine the effects of mindfulness on self-efficacy and professional success among educators of general and special education at Qatar Independent. The study sample will consist of 100 educators from the males and females divided to (50) educators of general education and (50) educators of Special Education in primary, and high schools. They will response to mindfulness scale and the scale of self-efficacy. In addition, use reports of the assessment by the Department of Education for their performance and assessments of their supervisors. The study will examine the effect of some variables such as differences between educators from general and special education, as well as the differences between males and females and years of experience. The study will use a statistic descriptive approach and Correlative analysis such as; means and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The study may predicts differences between educators in all variables study.

Keywords: mindfulness, educators, general education, special education, academic performance, self-efficacy

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7436 Motivational Strategies for Young Learners in Distance Education

Authors: Saziye Darendeli

Abstract:

Motivation has a significant impact on a second/foreign language learning process, so it plays a vital role while achieving the learning goal. As it is defined by Simon (1967, p. 29), motivation is “a goal terminating mechanism, permitting goals to be processed serially.”AccordingtoSimon, if a learning goal is activated and enough attention is given, the learner starts learning. In connection with this view, the more attention is given on a subject, and the more activation takes place on it, the quicker learning will occur. Moreover, today almost every teacher is familiar with the term “distance education” regardless of their student's age group. As it is stated by Visser (2002), when compared to the traditional classrooms, in distance education, the rate and success of language learningdecreasesandone of the most essential reasons is that motivating students in distance education contexts, in which interaction is lower, is much more challenging than face-to-face training especially with young learners(Lim& Kim, 2003). Besides, there are limited numbers of studies conducted on motivational strategies for young learners in distance education contexts since we have been experiencing full time the online schooling process recently, yet online teaching seems to be permanent in our lives with the new technological era. Therefore, there appears to be a need for various strategies to motivate young learners in distance education, and the current study aims to find out the strategies that young learners’ teachers use to increase their students’ motivation level in distance education. To achieve this aim, a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological method with an interpretive design will be used. The participants, who are teachers of young learners, will be interviewed using a structured interview format consisting of 7 questions. As the participants are young learners’teacherswhohavebeenexperiencingteaching online, exploring thestrategiesthattheyusetoincreasetheirstudents’ motivationlevelwillprovidesomesuggestionsaboutthemotivationalstrategiesforfuture online classes. Also, in this paper, I will move beyond the traditional classrooms that have face-to-face lessons and discuss the effective motivational strategies for young learners in distance education.

Keywords: motivation, distance education, young learners, strategies

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7435 Selecting Special Education as a Career: A Qualitative Study of Motivating Factors for Special Education Teachers

Authors: Jennifer Duffy, Liz Fleming

Abstract:

Teacher shortage in special education is an American educational problem. Due to the implementation of The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) and The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004), there has been an increase in the number of students requiring special education services. Consequently, there has been an influx to hire more special education teachers. However, the historic challenge of hiring certified special education teachers has been intensified with this the profession’s increasing demand of positions to fill. Efforts to improve recruitment and entry into the field must be informed by an understanding of the factors that initially inspire special education teachers to choose this career pathway. Hence, an understanding of reasons why teachers select special education as a profession is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore personal, academic, and professional motivations that lead to the selection of special education as a career choice. Using the grounded theory approach, this research investigation examined the factors that were most instrumental in influencing applicants to select special education as a career choice. Over one hundred de-identified graduate school applications to Bay Path University’s Graduate Special Education Programs from 2014- 2017 were qualitatively analyzed. Grounded coding was used to discover themes that emerged in applicants’ admissions essays explaining why he/she was pursuing a career in special education. The central themes that were most influential in applicants’ selection of special education as a career trajectory were (a) personal/familial connections to disability, (b) meaningful paraprofessional experiences working with disabled children, (c) aptitudes for teaching, and (d) finding personal rewards and professional fulfillment by advocating for vulnerable children. Implications from these findings include educating family members of children with disabilities about possible career tracks in special education, designing programs for paraprofessionals to become certified teachers, exposing prospective teacher candidates to the field of special education, and recruiting professionals from the human services field who seek to improve the quality of life and educational opportunities for children with special needs.

Keywords: career choice, professional pathways to teaching children with disabilities, special education, teacher recruitment

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7434 Inclusive Education in South African Universities: Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences

Authors: Cina Mosito, Toyin Mary Adewumi, Charlene Nissen

Abstract:

One of the goals of inclusive education is to provide learners with suitable learning environments and prospects to best attain their potential. This study sought to determine the experiences of studying inclusive education on pre-service teachers’ teaching within the South African education context. A purposeful sample comprising 6 pre-service teachers was selected from a university of technology located in the Western Cape South Africa. Data were collected using open-ended questionnaires, which were exploratory in nature and analyzed thematically. The findings supported significant proportions of experiences as self-reported by pre-service teachers. The pre-service teachers’ experiences of studying inclusive education included inclusive education as an “eye-opener” to the fact that learners experiencing various barriers to learning can be accommodated in the regular classrooms, exposure to some aspects of inclusive education, such as diversity, learners’ rights, and curriculum differentiation. It was also revealed that studying inclusive education made pre-service teachers love and enjoy teaching more. The study shows that awareness of inclusive education has influenced pre-service teachers in South African schools.

Keywords: experience, inclusive education, pre-service teacher, South Africa

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7433 Coping Strategies Used By Special Education Teachers In Rural Schools

Authors: Susan P. Gregory

Abstract:

The United States has a critical shortage of special education teachers and rural states face more challenges in finding teachers to fill these positions. The state of Montana is one of the larger rural states in the United States and has had a critical need for special education teachers for over 30 years. It is the 4th largest state in the United States with respect to size but the 44th in the nation with respect to population size. Montana’s state department of education supports rural schools that have difficulty in finding a special education teacher. School districts are allowed to fill vacant special education positions with licensed teachers that have no background in teaching students with special needs. These teachers are given three years to complete a university program leading to an endorsement in special education. The teachershave a range of teaching experience from veteran teachers to those who arein their first teaching position. The common factor they share is that they are all teaching in an area for which they have had no previous experience, that is special education. They also share the experience of teaching in rural schools where they may be the only special education teacher in their school. The literature tells us that teachers are stressed and that the demands of special education can exacerbate that stress. As institutions of higher education prepare preservice teachers to enter the profession, knowledge of the challenges these preservice teachers will face and how they overcome those challenges, are an important part of the preparing them for the reality of schools today. This study will report interviews conducted with a group oflicensed teachers who were new to special education. These teachers were hired within the past three years for special education positions in rural schools in the state of Montana. Individual phone interviews will be conducted, and the teachers will be asked to identify not just the challenges they face but the strategies they use to overcome them. The interviews will be transcribed and common themes emerging from those interviews will identified. The strategies that these teachers use to manage the challenges and stressors of being first year special education teachers in rural schools will be reported. The conclusion will present strategies identified by the teachers in this study and examine them in the context of the research literature. These strategies will provide information for facultywho are preparing preservice teachers to take positions in rural schools.

Keywords: coping strategies, rural, special education, teachers

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7432 Barriers That Special Education Teachers Faced When Working with Students with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusion Schools

Authors: Faris Algahtani

Abstract:

Every child has a right to education. This is one of the laws in the constitution and it empowers every child to access knowledge but it does not, however, allocate special interest to the rights of education for children with disabilities. It also does not address the challenges that teachers of such children face while trying to educate them. This study was conducted at government schools of Saudi Arabia. As the teaching profession is the most valuable profession and deserves to have its challenges tackled. This paper explores the challenges that teachers face as they try to teach students who have intellectual disabilities (ID). It looks at the daily challenges of a teacher who has to teach both children with disabilities and those without. The literature review shed light on the various aspects of mainstream education from the classroom to the outside environment to the teachers involved in mainstream education. The study employed qualitative methods in which Focus Group Discussions were utilized and Twenty (N=20) special education teachers were randomly sampled from primary schools through 6 groups of teachers from 6 different schools were interviewed through semi-structured interviews with the aim of drawing collective perceptions rather than personal perceptions about the challenges. The study found that most teachers had similar perceptions about the challenges that teachers face as they educate students with intellectual disabilities. The study recommends that The Ministry of Education should consider increasing the availability of special needs courses, workshops and conference for special education teachers.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, inclusion, mainstream schools, disabilities, special education teachers

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7431 Distance Training Packages on Providing for Learner with Special Needs

Authors: Jareeluk Ratanaphan

Abstract:

The purposed of this research were; 1.To survey the teacher’s needs on knowledge about special education management for special needs learner 2.To development of distance training packages on providing for learner with special needs. 3. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s achievement. 4. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s opinion on the distance training packages. The design of the experiment was research and development. The research sample for survey were 86 teachers, and 22 teachers for study the effects of using the packages on achievement and opinion. The research instrument comprised: 1) training packages on special education management for special needs learner 2) achievement test 3) questionnaire. Mean, percentage, standard deviation, t-test and content analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: 1. The teacher’s needs on knowledge about teaching for learner with learning disability, mental retardation, autism, physical and health impairment and research in special education. 2. The package composed of special education management for special needs student document and manual of distance training packages. The efficiency of packages was established at 79.50/81.35. 3. The results of using the packages were the posttest average scores of trainee’s achievement were higher than pretest. 4. The trainee’s opinion on the package was at the highest level.

Keywords: distance training, training package, teacher, learner with special needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
7430 Second Language Skill through M-Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran, A. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper addresses three issues: how to prepare the instructional design for imparting English language skill from inter-disciplinary self-learning material; how the disadvantaged students are benefited from such kind of language skill imparted through m-learning; and how do m-learners perform better than the other learners. This paper examines these issues through an experimental study conducted among the distance learners enrolled in a preparatory program for bachelor’s degree. This program is designed for the disadvantaged learners especially for the school drop-outs to qualify to pursue graduate program through distant education. It also explains how mobile learning helps them to enhance their capacity in learning despite their rural background and other disadvantages. In India, nearly half of the students enrolled in schools do not complete their study. The pursuance of higher education is very low when compared with developed countries. This study finds a significant increase in their learning capacity and mobile learning seems to be a viable alternative where the conventional system could not reach the disadvantaged learners. Improving the English language skill is one of the reasons for such kind of performance. Exercises framed from the relevant self-learning material for enhancing English language skill not only improves language skill but also widens the subject-knowledge. This paper explains these issues out of the study conducted among the disadvantaged learners.

Keywords: English language skill, disadvantaged learners, distance education, m-learning

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7429 What Constitutes Pre-School Mathematics and How It Look Like in the Classroom?

Authors: Chako G. Chako

Abstract:

This study reports on an ongoing research that explores pre-school mathematics. Participants in the study includes three pre-school teachers and their pre-school learners from one school in Gaborone. The school was purposefully selected based on its performance in Botswana’s 2019 national examinations. Specifically, the study is interested on teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in pre-school mathematics tasks. The interest on explanations was informed by the view that suggests that, the mathematics learners get to learn, resides in teachers’ explanations. Recently, Botswana’s basic education has integrated pre-school education into the mainstream public primary school education. This move is part of the government’s drive to elevate Botswana to a knowledge-based-economy. It is believed that provision of pre-school education to all Batswana children will contribute immensely towards a knowledge-based-economy. Since pre-school is now a new phenomenon in our education, there is limited research at this level of education in Botswana. In particular, there is limited knowledge about what and how the teaching is conducted in Pre-Schools in Botswana. Hence, the study seeks to gain insight into what constitutes mathematics in tasks that learners are given, and how concepts are made accessible to Pre-school learners. The research question of interest for this study is stated as: What is the nature Pre-school teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in tasks given to learners. Casting some light into what and how pre-school mathematics tasks are enacted is critical for policy and Pre-school teacher professional development. The sociocultural perspective framed the research. Adler and Rhonda’s (2014) notion of exemplification and explanatory communication are used to analyze tasks given to learners and teachers’ explanations respectively.

Keywords: classroom, explanation, mathematics, pre-school, tasks

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7428 Evaluation of the Quality of Education Offered to Students with Special Needs in Public Schools in the City of Bauru, Brazil

Authors: V. L. M. F. Capellini, A. P. P. M. Maturana, N. C. M. Brondino, M. B. C. L. B. M. Peixoto, A. J. Broughton

Abstract:

A paradigm shift is a process. The process of implementing inclusive education, a system constructed to support all learners, requires planning, identification, experimentation, and evaluation. In this vein, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of one Brazilian state school systems to provide special education students with a quality inclusive education. This study originated at the behest of concerned families of students with special needs who filed complaints with the Municipality of Bauru, São Paulo. These families claimed, 1) children with learning differences and educational needs had not been identified for services, and 2) those who had been identified had not received sufficient specialized educational assistance (SEA) in schools across the City of Bauru. Hence, the Office of Civil Rights for the state of São Paulo (Ministério Público de São Paulo) summoned the local higher education institution, UNESP, to design a research study to investigate these allegations. In this exploratory study, descriptive data were gathered from all elementary and middle schools including 58 state schools and 17 city schools, for a total of 75 schools overall. Data collection consisted of each school's annual strategic action plan, surveys and interviews with all school stakeholders to determine their perceptions of the inclusive education available to students with Special Education Needs (SEN). The data were collected as one of four stages in a larger study which also included field observations of a focal students' experience and a continuing education course for all teachers and administrators in both state and city schools. For the purposes of this study, the researchers were interested in understanding the perceptions of school staff, parents, and students across all schools. Therefore, documents and surveys from 75 schools were analyzed for adherence to federal legislation guaranteeing students with SEN the right to special education assistance within the regular school setting. Results shows that while some schools recognized the legal rights of SEN students to receive special education, the plans to actually deliver services were absent. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed both school staff and families have insufficient planning and accessibility resources, and the schools have inadequate infrastructure for full-time support to SEN students, i.e., structures and systems to support the identification of SEN and delivery of services within schools of Bauru, SP. Having identified the areas of need, the city is now prepared to take next steps in the process toward preparing all schools to be inclusive.

Keywords: inclusion, school, special education, special needs

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7427 Experiences and Aspirations of Hearing Impaired Learners in Inclusive Classrooms

Authors: Raymon P. Española

Abstract:

Hearing impaired students are admitted to regular high schools in the context of inclusive education. In this setting, several academic difficulties and social struggles are disregarded by many educators. The study aimed to describe the aspirations and lived experiences in mainstream classrooms of hearing impaired students. In the research process, the participants were interviewed using sign language. Thematic analysis of interview responses was done, supplemented by interviews with teachers and classroom observations. The study revealed four patterns of experiences: academic difficulties, coping mechanisms, identification with hearing peers, and impression management. This means that these learners were struggling in inclusive classrooms, where identification with and modeling the positive qualities of hearing peers were done to cope with academic difficulties and alter negative impressions about them. By implication, these learners tended to socially immerse themselves rather than resort to isolation. Along with this tendency was the aspiration for achievement as they were eager to finish post-secondary technical-vocational education. This means aspiring for continuing social immersion into the mainstream. All these findings provide insights to K-12 educators to increase the use of collaborative techniques and experiential learning strategies, as well as to adequately address the special educational needs of these students.

Keywords: descriptive, experiences and aspirations of hearing impaired learners, inclusive classrooms, Surigao City Philippines

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7426 Perception of the Frequency and Importance of Peer Social Support by Students with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Lucia Hrebeňárová, Jarmila Žolnová, Veronika Palková

Abstract:

Inclusive education of students with special educational needs has been on the increase in the Slovak Republic, facing many challenges. Preparedness of teachers for inclusive education is one of the most frequent issues; teachers lack skills when it comes to the use of effective instruction depending on the individual needs of students, improvement of classroom management and social skills, and support of inclusion within the classroom. Social support is crucial for the school success of students within inclusive settings. The aim of the paper is to analyse perception of the frequency and importance of peer social support by students with special educational needs in inclusive education. The data collection tool used was the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). The research sample consisted of 953 fourth grade students – 141 students with special educational needs educated in an inclusive setting and 812 students of the standard population. No significant differences were found between the students with special educational needs and the students without special educational needs in an inclusive setting when it comes to the perception of frequency and importance of social support of schoolmates and friends. However, the perception of frequency and importance of a friend’s social support was higher than the perception of frequency and importance of a classmate’s social support in both groups of students.

Keywords: inclusive education, peer social support, peer, student with special eEducational needs

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7425 Imparting Second Language Skill through M-Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran, A. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper addresses three issues: how to prepare instructional design for imparting English language skill from inter-disciplinary self-learning material; how the disadvantaged students are benefited from such kind of language skill imparted through m-learning; and how do the m-learners perform better than the other learners. This paper examines these issues through an experimental study conducted among the distance learners enrolled in preparatory program for bachelor’s degree. This program is designed for the disadvantage learners especially for the school drop-outs to qualify to pursue graduate program through distant education. It also explains how mobile learning helps them to enhance their capacity in learning despite their rural background and other disadvantages. In India nearly half of the students enrolled in schools do not complete their study. The pursuance of higher education is very low when compared with developed countries. This study finds a significant increase in their learning capacity and mobile learning seems to be a viable alternative where conventional system could not reach the disadvantaged learners. Improving the English language skill is one of the reasons for such kind of performance. Exercises framed from the relevant self-learning material for enhancing English language skill not only improves language skill but also widens the subject-knowledge. This paper explains these issues out of the study conducted among the disadvantaged learners.

Keywords: English language skill, disadvantaged learners, distance education, m-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 582
7424 The Implementation of Inclusive Education in Collaboration between Teachers of Special Education Classes and Regular Classes in a Preschool

Authors: Chiou-Shiue Ko

Abstract:

As is explicitly stipulated in Article 7 of the Enforcement Rules of the Special Education Act as amended in 1998, "in principle, children with disabilities should be integrated with normal children for preschool education". Since then, all cities and counties have been committed to promoting preschool inclusive education. The Education Department, New Taipei City Government, has been actively recruiting advisory groups of professors to assist in the implementation of inclusive education in preschools since 2001. Since 2011, the author of this study has been guiding Preschool Rainbow to implement inclusive education. Through field observations, meetings, and teaching demonstration seminars, this study explored the process of how inclusive education has been successfully implemented in collaboration with teachers of special education classes and regular classes in Preschool Rainbow. The implementation phases for inclusive education in a single academic year include the following: 1) Preparatory stage. Prior to implementation, teachers in special education and regular classes discuss ways of conducting inclusive education and organize reading clubs to read books related to curriculum modifications that integrate the eight education strategies, early treatment and education, and early childhood education programs to enhance their capacity to implement and compose teaching plans for inclusive education. In addition to the general objectives of inclusive education, the objective of inclusive education for special children is also embedded into the Individualized Education Program (IEP). 2) Implementation stage. Initially, a promotional program for special education is implemented for the children to allow all the children in the preschool to understand their own special qualities and those of special children. After the implementation of three weeks of reverse inclusion, the children in the special education classes are put into groups and enter the regular classes twice a week to implement adjustments to their inclusion in the learning area and the curriculum. In 2013, further cooperation was carried out with adjacent hospitals to perform development screening activities for the early detection of children with developmental delays. 3) Review and reflection stage. After the implementation of inclusive education, all teachers in the preschool are divided into two groups to record their teaching plans and the lessons learned during implementation. The effectiveness of implementing the objective of inclusive education is also reviewed. With the collaboration of all teachers, in 2015, Preschool Rainbow won New Taipei City’s “Preschool Light” award as an exceptional model for inclusive education. Its model of implementing inclusive education can be used as a reference for other preschools.

Keywords: collaboration, inclusive education, preschool, teachers, special education classes, regular classes

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7423 Research on the Influence of Robot Teaching on the Creativity of Primary and Secondary School Students under the Background of STEM Education

Authors: Chu Liu

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With the development of society and the changes of the times, the requirements for the cultivation of learners are different. In the 21st century, STEM education has become a boom in the development of education in various countries, aiming to improve the comprehensive ability of learners in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The rise of robot education provides an effective way for STEM education to cultivate computational thinking ability, interdisciplinary ability, problem-solving ability, and teamwork ability. Although robot education has been developed in China for several years, it still lacks a standard curriculum system. This article uses programming software as a platform, through the research and analysis of 'Basic Education Information Technology Curriculum Standards (2012 Edition)', combines with the actual learning situation of learners, tries to conduct teaching project design research, and aims at providing references for the teaching ideas and method of robot education courses. In contemporary society, technological advances increasingly require creativity. Innovative comprehensive talents urgently need a radical and effective education reform to keep up with social changes. So in this context, robot teaching design can be used for students. The tendency of creativity to influence is worth to be verified.

Keywords: STEM education, robot teaching, primary and secondary school students, tendency of creativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
7422 Development of Special Education in Moldova: Paradoxes of Inclusion

Authors: Liya Kalinnikova Magnusson

Abstract:

The present and ongoing research investigation are focusing on special educational origins in Moldova for children with disabilities and its development towards inclusion. The research is coordinated with related research on inclusion in Ukraine and other countries. The research interest in these issues in Moldova is caused by several reasons. The first one is based upon one of the intensive processes of deconstruction of special education institutions in Moldova since 1989. A large number of children with disabilities have been dropping out of these institutions: from 11400 students in 1989 to 5800 students in 1996, corresponding to 1% of all school-age Moldovan learners. Despite the fact that a huge number of students was integrated into regular schools and the dynamics of this data across the country was uneven (the opposite, the dynamics of exclusion was raised in Trans-Dniester on the border of Moldova), the volume of the change was evident and traditional special educational provision was under stable decline. The second reason is tied to transitional challenges, which Moldova met under the force to economic liberalisation that led the country to poverty. Deinstitutionalization of the entire state system took place in the situation of economic polarization of the society. The level of social benefits was dramatically diminished, increasing inequality. The most vulnerable from the comprehensive income consideration were families with many children, children with disabilities, children with health problems, etc.: each third child belonged to the poorest population. In 2000-2001: 87,4% of all families with children had incomes below the minimum wage. The research question raised based upon these considerations has been addressed to the investigation of particular patterns of the origins of special education and its development towards inclusion in Moldova from 1980 until the present date: what is the pattern of special education origins and what are particular arrangements of special education development towards inclusion against inequality? This is a qualitative study, with relevant peer review resources connected to the research question and national documents of educational reforms towards inclusion retrospectively and contemporary, analysed by a content analysis approach. This study utilises long term statistics completed by the respective international agencies as a result of regular monitoring of the implementation of educational reforms. The main findings were composed in three big themes: adoption of the Soviet pattern of special education, ‘endemic stress’ of breaking the pattern, and ‘paradoxes of resolution’.

Keywords: special education, statistics, educational reforms, inclusion, children with disabilities, content analysis

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7421 Investigation on the Functional Expectation and Professional Support Needs of Special Education Resource Center

Authors: Hongxia Wang, Yanjie Wang, Xiuqin Wang, Linlin Mo, Shuangshuang Niu

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Special Education Resource Center (SERC) is the localized product in the development of inclusive education in People’s Republic of China, which provides professional support and service for the students with special education needs(SEN) and their parents, teachers as well as inclusive schools. The study investigated 155 administrators, resource teachers and inclusive education teachers from primary and secondary schools in Beijing. The results indicate that: (1) The surveyed teachers put highest expectation of SERC on specialized guidance and teacher training , instead of research and administration function; (2) Each dimension of professional support needs gets higher scores, in which individual guidance gets highest score, followed by instruction guidance, psychological counseling, proposing suggestions, informational support and teacher training; (3) locality and training experience of surveyed teachers significantly influence their expectations and support needs of SERC.

Keywords: special education resource center (SERC) , functional expectation, professional support needs, support system

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7420 Homosexuality and Inclusion: Experiences of Learners and Teachers within South African School's Contex

Authors: Tsediso Makoelle

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South Africa like in other parts of the world has acknowledged the prevalence of the phenomenon of homosexuality in the society. Due to the number of homosexuality cases in the South African society, questions have been asked about the impact of homosexuality in schools and how teachers and learners deal with homosexuality within the context of an emerging inclusive education system. This qualitative study analysis the experiences of teachers and learners in selected secondary schools in relation to prevalence of transgender in schools. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers and focus group of learners in schools were cases homosexuality have been reported. Data was analysed using an inductive analysis framework. Among the findings was that homosexuality is still viewed as a taboo in Black-African dominated school communities and that the need to create all-embracing and inclusive environment was evident. The study suggests a needs to open communications in communities about homosexuality in order to develop an all-inclusive environment for all learners regardless of their sexual orientation.

Keywords: homosexuality, inclusive education, sexual orientation, transgender

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
7419 Toba Batak Education Stakeholders' Perspectives towards Education of Children with Disabilities in Toba Samosir North Sumatra Indonesia

Authors: Tryastuti I. B. Manullang, Juang Sunanto

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This study aimed to find the perspectives of the Toba Batak education stakeholders towards the education of children with disabilities in Toba Samosir North Sumatra Indonesia. The education stakeholders consist of a head of the education department in Toba Samosir, head of the H foundation, two principals and three teachers from the Special Primary Schools. This study uses qualitative a descriptive approach and research data obtained through interviews. The results of this study demonstrate that the education stakeholders knowledge about disabilities needs improvement in accordance with the development of science. The cultural views towards disability and its implications, and the education services available for children with disabilities, in addition, to encountered its problem in Toba Samosir are known. The education concept considered appropriate is the special school and the CBR (Community Based Rehabilitation) strategy, also inclusive education because it represents the Toba Batak philosophy.

Keywords: community based rehabilitation, education concept, education stakeholders, inclusive education

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
7418 Changing Pedagogy from Segregation to Inclusion: A Phenomenological Case Study of Ten Special Educators

Authors: Monique Somma

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As special education service delivery models are shifting in order to better meet the academic and social rights of students with exceptionalities, teaching practices must also align with these goals. This phenomenological case study explored the change experiences of special education teachers who have transitioned from teaching in a self-contained special education class to an inclusive class setting. Ten special educators who had recently changed their teaching roles to inclusive classrooms, completed surveys and participated in a focus group. Of the original ten educators, five chose to participate further in individual interviews. Data collected from the three methods was examined and compared for common themes. Emergent themes included, support and training, attitudes and perceptions, inclusive practice, growth and change, and teaching practice. The overall findings indicated that despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others and systematic barriers in the education system. They were equally surprised by the overall social and academic performance of students with exceptionalities in inclusive classes, as well as, the social and academic growth and development of the other students in the class. Over the course of their careers, they all identified an overall personal pedagogical shift, to some degree or another, which they contributed to the successful experiences of inclusion they had. They also recognized that collaborating with others was essential for inclusion to be successful. The findings from this study suggest several implications for professional development and training needs specific to special education teachers moving into inclusive settings. Maximizing the skills of teachers with special education experience in a Professional Learning Community (PLC) and mentorship opportunities would be beneficial to all staffs working toward creating inclusive classrooms and schools.

Keywords: attitudes and perceptions, inclusion of students with exceptionalities, special education teachers, teacher change

Procedia PDF Downloads 154