Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5283

Search results for: special secondary schools

5283 Experiences of Trainee Teachers: A Survey on Expectations and Realities in Special Secondary Schools in Kenya

Authors: Mary Cheptanui Sambu

Abstract:

Teaching practice is an integral component of students who are training to be teachers, as it provides them with an opportunity to gain experience in an actual teaching and learning environment. This study explored the experiences of trainee teachers from a local university in Kenya, undergoing a three-month teaching practice in Special Secondary schools in the country. The main aim of the study was to understand the trainees’ experiences, their expectations, and the realities encountered during the teaching practice period. The study focused on special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment. A descriptive survey design was employed and a sample size of forty-four respondents from special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment was purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered to the respondents and the data obtained analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Preliminary analysis shows that challenges facing special secondary schools include inadequate teaching and learning facilities and resources, low academic performance among learners with hearing impairment, an overloaded curriculum and inadequate number of teachers for the learners. The study findings suggest that the Kenyan government should invest more in the education of special needs children, particularly focusing on increasing the number of trained teachers. In addition, the education curriculum offered in special secondary schools should be tailored towards the needs and interest of learners. These research findings will be useful to policymakers and curriculum developers, and will provide information that can be used to enhance the education of learners with hearing impairment; this will lead to improved academic performance, consequently resulting in better transitions and the realization of Vision 2030.

Keywords: hearing impairment, special secondary schools, trainee, teaching practice

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5282 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh

Authors: Nasser Marshad Alzeer

Abstract:

This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.

Keywords: analysis, distribution, Saudi, GIS, schools

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5281 Application of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of English Language in Nigerian Secondary Schools

Authors: Richard Ayobayowa Foyewa

Abstract:

This work examined the application of ICT in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. The definition of ICT was given briefly before areas in which the ICT could be applied in teaching and learning of English language were observed. Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of the computer and Internet facilities were also observed. The conclusion drawn was that ICT is very relevant in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. It was therefore recommended that teachers who are not computer literate should go for the training without further delay; government should always employ English language teachers who are computer literates. Government should make fund available in schools for the training and re-training of English language teachers in various computer programmes and in making internet facilities available in secondary schools.

Keywords: ICT, Nigerian secondary schools, teaching and learning of English

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5280 Efficiency of Secondary Schools by ICT Intervention in Sylhet Division of Bangladesh

Authors: Azizul Baten, Kamrul Hossain, Abdullah-Al-Zabir

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to develop an appropriate stochastic frontier secondary schools efficiency model by ICT Intervention and to examine the impact of ICT challenges on secondary schools efficiency in the Sylhet division in Bangladesh using stochastic frontier analysis. The Translog stochastic frontier model was found an appropriate than the Cobb-Douglas model in secondary schools efficiency by ICT Intervention. Based on the results of the Cobb-Douglas model, it is found that the coefficient of the number of teachers, the number of students, and teaching ability had a positive effect on increasing the level of efficiency. It indicated that these are related to technical efficiency. In the case of inefficiency effects for both Cobb-Douglas and Translog models, the coefficient of the ICT lab decreased secondary school inefficiency, but the online class in school was found to increase the level of inefficiency. The coefficients of teacher’s preference for ICT tools like multimedia projectors played a contributor role in decreasing the secondary school inefficiency in the Sylhet division of Bangladesh. The interaction effects of the number of teachers and the classrooms, and the number of students and the number of classrooms, the number of students and teaching ability, and the classrooms and teaching ability of the teachers were recorded with the positive values and these have a positive impact on increasing the secondary school efficiency. The overall mean efficiency of urban secondary schools was found at 84.66% for the Translog model, while it was 83.63% for the Cobb-Douglas model. The overall mean efficiency of rural secondary schools was found at 80.98% for the Translog model, while it was 81.24% for the Cobb-Douglas model. So, the urban secondary schools performed better than the rural secondary schools in the Sylhet division. It is observed from the results of the Tobit model that the teacher-student ratio had a positive influence on secondary school efficiency. The teaching experiences of those who have 1 to 5 years and 10 years above, MPO type school, conventional teaching method have had a negative and significant influence on secondary school efficiency. The estimated value of σ-square (0.0625) was different from Zero, indicating a good fit. The value of γ (0.9872) was recorded as positive and it can be interpreted as follows: 98.72 percent of random variation around in secondary school outcomes due to inefficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, secondary schools, ICT, stochastic frontier analysis

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5279 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen A. Kalinga

Abstract:

Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-learning, Tanzania, secondary school

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5278 Investigation on the Functional Expectation and Professional Support Needs of Special Education Resource Center

Authors: Hongxia Wang, Yanjie Wang, Xiuqin Wang, Linlin Mo, Shuangshuang Niu

Abstract:

Special Education Resource Center (SERC) is the localized product in the development of inclusive education in People’s Republic of China, which provides professional support and service for the students with special education needs(SEN) and their parents, teachers as well as inclusive schools. The study investigated 155 administrators, resource teachers and inclusive education teachers from primary and secondary schools in Beijing. The results indicate that: (1) The surveyed teachers put highest expectation of SERC on specialized guidance and teacher training , instead of research and administration function; (2) Each dimension of professional support needs gets higher scores, in which individual guidance gets highest score, followed by instruction guidance, psychological counseling, proposing suggestions, informational support and teacher training; (3) locality and training experience of surveyed teachers significantly influence their expectations and support needs of SERC.

Keywords: special education resource center (SERC) , functional expectation, professional support needs, support system

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5277 Barriers That Special Education Teachers Faced When Working with Students with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusion Schools

Authors: Faris Algahtani

Abstract:

Every child has a right to education. This is one of the laws in the constitution and it empowers every child to access knowledge but it does not, however, allocate special interest to the rights of education for children with disabilities. It also does not address the challenges that teachers of such children face while trying to educate them. This study was conducted at government schools of Saudi Arabia. As the teaching profession is the most valuable profession and deserves to have its challenges tackled. This paper explores the challenges that teachers face as they try to teach students who have intellectual disabilities (ID). It looks at the daily challenges of a teacher who has to teach both children with disabilities and those without. The literature review shed light on the various aspects of mainstream education from the classroom to the outside environment to the teachers involved in mainstream education. The study employed qualitative methods in which Focus Group Discussions were utilized and Twenty (N=20) special education teachers were randomly sampled from primary schools through 6 groups of teachers from 6 different schools were interviewed through semi-structured interviews with the aim of drawing collective perceptions rather than personal perceptions about the challenges. The study found that most teachers had similar perceptions about the challenges that teachers face as they educate students with intellectual disabilities. The study recommends that The Ministry of Education should consider increasing the availability of special needs courses, workshops and conference for special education teachers.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, inclusion, mainstream schools, disabilities, special education teachers

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5276 Delivering Comprehensive Sexuality Education to Students with Disability in Special Schools in Fiji

Authors: Sera Ratu, Jane Chivers, Jessica Botfield

Abstract:

Objectives: The Reproductive and Family Health Association of Fiji (RFHAF) and Family Planning Australia are working together to introduce quality comprehensive sexuality education into Special Schools - which are schools for students with disability. Sexual and reproductive health information is needed by students with disability attending Special Schools. Children with special needs go through the same changes as able-bodied children. The Fiji Disability Inclusion project is a three-year project that started in 2015. One of its objectives is to increase exposure to comprehensive sexuality education for primary and secondary school students with disability. Method: A baseline survey was undertaken with 72 students with disability; it included questions about puberty, sexual health, and relationships. 34 teachers also completed a survey about their views of sexuality education and confidence in delivering it. Consent was facilitated by running information sessions with teachers and parents. The process of gaining consent and completing the surveys was designed to be accessible to students with disability. Given the sensitive nature of reproductive and sexual health, and the potential vulnerability of young people with disability, ethical considerations were important in the design and implementation of the surveys, and ethics approval was obtained. Results: Findings from the surveys suggest that students have mixed knowledge and awareness of sexual health issues. Most teachers reported a need for their students to learn about sexuality and relationships. A positive outcome of conducting the surveys was that RFHAF staff reported they have developed skills and confidence in communicating with young people with a range of disabilities. They have a greater understanding of what students want to learn, and what teachers feel is important. Conclusions: These survey findings will assist RFHAF in developing comprehensive sexuality education programs that are relevant and accessible to students in Special Schools, and to develop an appropriate professional development program for teachers. Findings may also be applicable to other Special Schools when developing sexuality education programs. The education programs developed for students as part of this project, and the professional development programs for teachers, may be relevant to other countries.

Keywords: comprehensive sexuality education, delivery, sexual and reproductive health and rights, special schools

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5275 Coping Strategies Used By Special Education Teachers In Rural Schools

Authors: Susan P. Gregory

Abstract:

The United States has a critical shortage of special education teachers and rural states face more challenges in finding teachers to fill these positions. The state of Montana is one of the larger rural states in the United States and has had a critical need for special education teachers for over 30 years. It is the 4th largest state in the United States with respect to size but the 44th in the nation with respect to population size. Montana’s state department of education supports rural schools that have difficulty in finding a special education teacher. School districts are allowed to fill vacant special education positions with licensed teachers that have no background in teaching students with special needs. These teachers are given three years to complete a university program leading to an endorsement in special education. The teachershave a range of teaching experience from veteran teachers to those who arein their first teaching position. The common factor they share is that they are all teaching in an area for which they have had no previous experience, that is special education. They also share the experience of teaching in rural schools where they may be the only special education teacher in their school. The literature tells us that teachers are stressed and that the demands of special education can exacerbate that stress. As institutions of higher education prepare preservice teachers to enter the profession, knowledge of the challenges these preservice teachers will face and how they overcome those challenges, are an important part of the preparing them for the reality of schools today. This study will report interviews conducted with a group oflicensed teachers who were new to special education. These teachers were hired within the past three years for special education positions in rural schools in the state of Montana. Individual phone interviews will be conducted, and the teachers will be asked to identify not just the challenges they face but the strategies they use to overcome them. The interviews will be transcribed and common themes emerging from those interviews will identified. The strategies that these teachers use to manage the challenges and stressors of being first year special education teachers in rural schools will be reported. The conclusion will present strategies identified by the teachers in this study and examine them in the context of the research literature. These strategies will provide information for facultywho are preparing preservice teachers to take positions in rural schools.

Keywords: coping strategies, rural, special education, teachers

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5274 Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Public School During Covid-19: A Way Forward

Authors: Sumaira Taj

Abstract:

Blended learning is emerged as a prerequisite approach for teaching in all schools after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how much public elementary and secondary schools in Pakistan are ready for adapting this approach and what should be done to prepare schools and students for blended learning are the questions that this paper attempts to answer. Mixed-method research methodology was used to collect data from 40 teachers, 500 students, and 10 mothers. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data. As for as readiness is concerned, schools lack resources for blended/ virtual/ online classes from infra-structure to skills, parents’ literacy level hindered students’ learning process and teachers’ skills presented challenges in a smooth and swift shift of the schools from face-to-face learning to blended learning. It is recommended to establish a conducive environment in schools by providing all required resources and skills. Special trainings should be organized for low literacy level parents. Multiple ways should be adopted to benefit all students.

Keywords: blended learning, challenges in online classes, education in covid-19, public schools in pakistan

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5273 The Impact of School Environment and Peer Relation on Anti-Social Behaviour of Students in Science Secondary Schools in Katsina State

Authors: Umar Mamman

Abstract:

The study investigated the impact of school environment and peer relations on antisocial behaviour of the students of science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: to determine whether school influences antisocial behaviour among science secondary school students, and to determine whether peer relation influences anti-social behaviour among science secondary school students. The study population composed of all the students in science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study used a sample of 378 students and 18 teachers randomly selected from eleven science secondary schools in Katsina state. Three instruments were used to collect data for the study, thus: socio-economic status background questionnaire, antisocial process screening device (APSD), and inventory of parent and peer relationship questionnaire. The study findings revealed that school environment has significant effect on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 52.08, p ≤ .01), and there is a significant effect of peer relation on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 14.229, p ≤ .01). Based on these findings the following major recommendations were made: School environment should be made attractive and conducive for learning and character development. Teachers, as role model, should desist from indecent acts. School environment should be made learner-centered and friendly. Functional guidance and counselling outfits need to be provided in all secondary schools in Katsina state.

Keywords: school environment, peer relation, anti-social behaviour, psychology

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5272 Transformational Leadership Style of Principal and Conflict Management in Public Secondary Schools in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Odeh Regina Comfort, Angelina Okewu Ogwuche

Abstract:

The study investigated transformational leadership style of principal and conflict management in secondary schools in North Central Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 34,473 teachers in 1949 public secondary schools in the study area. Proportionate stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 39 public secondary schools and 689 respondents, respectively, for the study. The researcher utilized a self-structured questionnaire titled 'Influence of Transformational Leadership Style Questionnaire (ITLSQ)'. Face and content validity were ensured. The reliability index of 0.86 was obtained through Cronbach alpha statistics. The instrument was a modified Likert rating scale of Very High Extent (4), High Extent (3), Low Extent (2) and Very Low Extent (1). Mean, and standard deviation were used to answer 2 research questions, while chi-square goodness of fit was used to test the 2 hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results among others indicate: that intellectual stimulation and individualized components of transformational leadership style of principal in public secondary schools in the study area have significant influence on conflict management in secondary schools. Based on the results, it was recommended that principals of secondary schools should be encouraged to practice the intellectual stimulation component of transformational leadership style that would help to consider teachers' levels of knowledge to decide what suits them to reach high levels of attainment thereby minimizing conflict in school settings; also transformational leadership should be taught to all people at all levels of secondary school especially that which pertains to individualized consideration to have a positive impact on the overall performance of teachers and this would help to minimize conflict in schools.

Keywords: conflict management, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, transformational leadership style

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5271 Students’ Views on Mathematics Learning: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Katsina State of Nigeria

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study students’ view on mathematics learning in Katsina State Senior Secondary Schools of Nigeria, such as their conceptions of mathematics, attitudes toward mathematics learning, etc. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 1,225 senior secondary two (SS II) students of Katsina State in Nigeria. The data collected showed a clear picture of the hurdles that affect the teaching and learning of mathematics in our schools. Problems such as logistics and operational which include shortage of mathematics teachers, non–availability of a mathematics laboratory, etc. were identified. It also depicted the substantial trends of changing views and attitudes toward mathematics across secondary schools. Students’ responses to the conception of mathematics were consistent and they demonstrated some specific characteristics of their views in learning mathematics. This survey has provided useful information regarding students’ needs and aspirations in mathematics learning for curriculum planners and frontline teachers for future curriculum reform and implementation.

Keywords: attitudes, mathematics, students, teacher

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5270 The Project Management for Quality Services in Special Education Schools

Authors: Aysegul Salikutluk, Zehra Altinay, Gokmen Dagli, Fahriye Altinay

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to reveal the performance of special education schools as regards the service quality and management within the school culture. The project management and school climate are the fundamental elements for the quality in organisations. Having strategic plans, activities and funded projects improve service quality and satisfaction for the families who have children with disabilities. The research has qualitative nature, self-reports were used to examine the perceptions of teachers upon project management and school climate for service quality. The results show that special education schools' teachers are aware of essence of school climate and flow of communication for service quality and project management.

Keywords: disability, education, service quality, project management

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5269 Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms: An Overview of Secondary Schools in Bangladesh

Authors: Saifunnahar

Abstract:

As a former English colony, the relationship of Bangladesh with the English language goes a long way back. English is taught as a compulsory subject in Bangladesh from an early age starting from grade 1 and continuing through the 12th, yet, students are not competent enough to communicate in English proficiently. To improve students’ English language competency, the Bangladesh Ministry of Education introduced communicative language teaching (CLT) methods in English classrooms in the 1990s. It has been decades since this effort was taken, but the students’ level of proficiency is still not satisfactory. The main reason behind this failure is that CLT-based teaching-learning methods have not been effectively implemented. Very little research has been conducted to address the issues English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms are facing to carry out CLT methodologies in secondary schools (grades 6 to 10) in Bangladesh. Though the secondary level is crucial for students’ language learning and retention, EFL classrooms are marked with various issues that make teaching-learning harder for teachers and students. This study provides an overview of the status of CLT in EFL classrooms and the reasons behind failing to implement CLT in secondary schools in Bangladesh through an analysis of the qualitative data collected from different literature. Based on the findings, effective approaches have been recommended to employ CLT in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: Bangladesh, communicative language teaching, English as a foreign language, secondary schools, pedagogy

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5268 General Awareness of Teenagers in Information Security

Authors: Magdaléna Náplavová, Tomáš Ludík, Petr Hrůza, František Božek

Abstract:

The use of IT equipment has become a part of every day. However, each device that is part of cyberspace should be secured against unauthorized use. It is very important to know the basics of these security devices, but also the basics of safe conduct their owners. This information should be part of every curriculum computer science education in primary and secondary schools. Therefore, the work focuses on the education of pupils in primary and secondary schools on the Internet. Analysis of the current state describes approaches to the education of pupils in security issues on the Internet. The paper presents a questionnaire-based survey which was carried out in the Czech Republic, whose task was to ascertain the level of opinion pupils in primary and secondary schools on the issue of communication in social networks. The research showed that awareness of socio-pathological phenomena on the Internet environment is very low. Based on the results it was proposed appropriate ways of teaching to this issue and its inclusion a proposal of curriculum for primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: information security, cyber space, general awareness, questionnaire, socio-pathological phenomena, educational system

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5267 Perception of Secondary Schools’ Students on Computer Education in Federal Capital Territory (FCT-Abuja), Nigeria

Authors: Salako Emmanuel Adekunle

Abstract:

Computer education is referred to as the knowledge and ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from basic use to advance. Computer continues to make an ever-increasing impact on all aspect of human endeavours such as education. With numerous benefits of computer education, what are the insights of students on computer education? This study investigated the perception of senior secondary school students on computer education in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 7500 senior secondary schools students was involved in the study, one hundred (100) private and fifty (50) public schools within FCT. They were selected by using simple random sampling technique. A questionnaire [PSSSCEQ] was developed and validated through expert judgement and reliability co-efficient of 0.84 was obtained. It was used to gather relevant data on computer education. Findings confirmed that the students in the FCT had positive perception on computer education. Some factors were identified that affect students’ perception on computer education. The null hypotheses were tested using t-test and ANOVA statistical analyses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include competent teachers should be employed into all secondary schools; this will help students to acquire relevant knowledge in computer education, technological supports should be provided to all secondary schools; this will help the users (students) to solve specific problems in computer education and financial supports should be provided to procure computer facilities that will enhance the teaching and the learning of computer education.

Keywords: computer education, perception, secondary school, students

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5266 Violence and Unintentional Injuries among Secondary School Students in Jordan

Authors: Malakeh Zuhdi Malak, Mahmoud Taher Kalaldeh

Abstract:

In Jordan, no available data exists regarding violence and unintentional injuries among secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The purpose of this study was to assess the violence and unintentional injuries among those students, and to compare these two behaviors between male and female students. A descriptive cross-sectional design was carried out on randomly selected eight comprehensive secondary schools (four schools for females and four schools for males) from the public school educational directorate located in Amman. A modified Arabic version of the General School Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure violence and unintentional injuries. A sample of 750 secondary school students was studied. The findings showed that 26.8 % of students had been physically attacked. Overall, 43.3 % of students had been involved in a physical fight and 20.1% of them had been bullied. Overall, 45.3% of students were seriously injured. There was a difference between male and female students regarding to physical attack, physical fight, and serious injuries. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop effective training program in life skills for students that functions to reduce risk-taking behaviors that often leading to violence and unintentional injuries.

Keywords: secondary school students, violence, unintentional injuries, bullying

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5265 Students with Hearing Impairment and Their Access to Inclusive Education in Nagpur City, India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Avanika Gupta

Abstract:

Education plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of a country. Inclusive education is considered as the most appropriate mode of teaching students with hearing impairment (SwHI) by various national and international legislations. But inclusive education is still an evolving concept among the disability studies scholars and policy makers in India. The study aimed to examine accessibility of SwHI in mainstream schools if there are special provisions for SwHI. The study also intended to identify if the provisions are same for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Using stratified random sampling technique, a school was selected from each of the six administrative zones of Nagpur city. All the selected schools had primary and secondary level education and were co-educational in nature. Interview with principals of these schools and focused-group- observation method showcased lack of accessibility for SwHI in attending schools. Not even a single school had a hearing impaired student, either deaf or hard-of-hearing depicting the double marginalization of SwHI. This is despite the fact that the right to education is a fundamental right in India, and national legislation on disability has special provisions for ensuring educational opportunities to SwHI. None of the schools even had an Indian Sign Language (ISL) instructor. Both observations seemed cause and effect of one another. One of the principals informed that they have seats for all students with disabilities but they usually lie vacant due to lack of awareness among the parents. One school had 2 students with locomotive impairment while another had a student with visual impairment. Principals of two special schools were also interviewed to understand the reason behind the low enrollment rate of SwHI in mainstream schools. Guardian preference, homogeneity, relatable faculty, familiar environment were some of the chief reasons mentioned. Few suggestions for the policymakers, teachers, guardians and the students are also recommended so that Indian education system could become inclusive in true sense.

Keywords: deaf, hard-of-hearing, inclusive education, India, Nagpur, students with hearing impairment

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5264 Influence of Information Technology on Financial Management Practices in Secondary School: For National Transormation in Zone C Senatorional District of Benue State

Authors: Eru Ihie Joel

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the influence of information technology on financial management practice in secondary schools for transformation. In Zone C Senatorial District of Benue state. The study answered four research questions and tested four hypotheses. Related literature was reviewed to show the gap to be filled in the study. The population was 196 respondents made up of principals and finance clerks of secondary schools. The descriptive survey was adopted for the study. A structured 20 item questionnaire (IITFMPSQ) was constructed and used to collect date for the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research question while the chi- square (x2) test of goodness of fit was used to test the hypothesis. The major findings revealed that the use of computer system significantly influences budgeting in secondary schools in zone senatorial district of Benue State for transformation. It was also established that the use of internet facilities influences the funding of secondary schools for transformation in the zone. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among other things that administrators and teachers in schools should be trained to make effective use of the computer in budgeting so as to facilitate delegations, control, evaluation, accountability for transformation. It was further suggested that the study be replicated on the effective use of information communication teaching (ITC) in teaching and learning in secondary school for transformation.

Keywords: influence, finance, management, technology

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5263 Application of Basic Principles of Educational Administration for the Enhancement of Senior Secondary School Principals in Kano State Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Auwal

Abstract:

This study focuses on senior secondary education towards the development of younger generation in general terms, and specifically for the enhancement of senior secondary school principals. Investigation was made to correlate between principals’ application of basic principles of educational administration and principals’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Kano State. The instrument used to collect relevant data was self designed Observation Inventory for School Principals (OISP). The observation inventory items were scrutinized by experts from the School of Education Federal College of Education Kano to ascertain the contents validity, and the reliability coefficient was 0.83. Using purposive sampling technique, 30 schools were chosen from 85 senior secondary schools in Kano state and 30 principals were deliberately sampled due to their small number. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) Coefficient was used to test the hypothesis generated for the study. The results of the analysis showed that principals’ application of basic principles of educational administration was significantly correlated with principals’ productivity and it promote the performance of the students. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, government should in as much as possible encourage school principals to obtain degrees in relevant and specialized areas in education specifically educational administration and planning so as to get all the necessary knowledge and skills of leader ship procedures that will definitely promote teachers morale, improve students’ academic performance and enhances principals’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Kano State.

Keywords: principles of educational administration, principals of senior secondary schools, Kano, educational sciences

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5262 Environmental Variables as Determinants of Students Achievement in Biology Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

Authors: Ayeni Margaret Foluso, K. A. Omotayo

Abstract:

This study investigated the impact of selected environmental variables as determinants of students’ achievements in biology in secondary schools. The selected environmental variables are class size and laboratory adequacy. The purpose was to find out whether these environmental variables can bring about improvement in the learning of biology by Senior Secondary School Students. The study design used was descriptive research of the survey type. Two instruments were used that is, Biology Achievement Test and School Environment Questionnaire .The population of the study consisted of all Biology students in both public and private Senior Secondary Schools class III (SSIII) in all the three selected states in South West Nigeria. A sample of 900 Biology students and 45 Biology Teachers from both public and private Senior Secondary Schools Class III were used. Two research hypotheses were generated for the study. The data collected were subjected to both descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation; and the inferential statistics of regression Analyses was employed to test the hypotheses formulated. From the results, it was revealed that the selected environmental variables had influence on the students’ achievement in biology.

Keywords: environmental variables, determinants, students’ achievement, school science

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5261 Evaluation of the Quality of Education Offered to Students with Special Needs in Public Schools in the City of Bauru, Brazil

Authors: V. L. M. F. Capellini, A. P. P. M. Maturana, N. C. M. Brondino, M. B. C. L. B. M. Peixoto, A. J. Broughton

Abstract:

A paradigm shift is a process. The process of implementing inclusive education, a system constructed to support all learners, requires planning, identification, experimentation, and evaluation. In this vein, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of one Brazilian state school systems to provide special education students with a quality inclusive education. This study originated at the behest of concerned families of students with special needs who filed complaints with the Municipality of Bauru, São Paulo. These families claimed, 1) children with learning differences and educational needs had not been identified for services, and 2) those who had been identified had not received sufficient specialized educational assistance (SEA) in schools across the City of Bauru. Hence, the Office of Civil Rights for the state of São Paulo (Ministério Público de São Paulo) summoned the local higher education institution, UNESP, to design a research study to investigate these allegations. In this exploratory study, descriptive data were gathered from all elementary and middle schools including 58 state schools and 17 city schools, for a total of 75 schools overall. Data collection consisted of each school's annual strategic action plan, surveys and interviews with all school stakeholders to determine their perceptions of the inclusive education available to students with Special Education Needs (SEN). The data were collected as one of four stages in a larger study which also included field observations of a focal students' experience and a continuing education course for all teachers and administrators in both state and city schools. For the purposes of this study, the researchers were interested in understanding the perceptions of school staff, parents, and students across all schools. Therefore, documents and surveys from 75 schools were analyzed for adherence to federal legislation guaranteeing students with SEN the right to special education assistance within the regular school setting. Results shows that while some schools recognized the legal rights of SEN students to receive special education, the plans to actually deliver services were absent. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed both school staff and families have insufficient planning and accessibility resources, and the schools have inadequate infrastructure for full-time support to SEN students, i.e., structures and systems to support the identification of SEN and delivery of services within schools of Bauru, SP. Having identified the areas of need, the city is now prepared to take next steps in the process toward preparing all schools to be inclusive.

Keywords: inclusion, school, special education, special needs

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5260 Disciplinary Procedures Used by Secondary School Teachers in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria

Authors: N. N. Nkomo, M. L. Mayanchi

Abstract:

The present study investigated various forms of disciplinary procedures or punishment used by teachers in secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Nigera. There are agitations amongst parents and educators on the use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure against children. Those against the use of corporal punishment argue that this form of punishment does not teach, it only terminates behaviour temporarily and inculcates violence. Those in support are of the view that corporal punishment serves as a deterrent to others. This study sought to find out the most common measure of discipline employed by teachers in private and public schools. The study had three objectives, three research questions and two hypotheses. The design of the present study was the ex-post facto descriptive survey, since variables under study were not manipulated by the researcher. Teachers in Calabar Municipal Secondary Schools formed the population. A sample of 160 teachers was used for the study. The data collection instrument was a facts finding questionnaire titled Disciplinary Procedures Inventory. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentages and chi-square. The major findings were that physical measures such as flogging, exercise/drills, and painful postures were commonly used by teachers in secondary schools. It was also found that these measures were more often used in public schools. It was recommended that teachers should rather employ non-violent techniques of discipline than physical punishment.

Keywords: discipline, non-violent punishment, physical punishment, penalties, rewards

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5259 Psychometric Properties of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire among Adolescents at Five Secondary Schools

Authors: Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire (3SQ) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency among adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 secondary school students in five secondary schools. Stratified random sampling was used to select schools and participants. The confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS to examine construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. The reliability analysis was performed by SPSS to determine internal consistency. The results showed that the original six-factor model with 44 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, suggesting poor model fit. The new five-factor model of 3SQ with 22 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit indices to signify a model fit. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value for the new version 3SQ was 0.93, while the five constructs ranged from 0.68 to 0.94. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.68 and 0.93, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. Our study did not support the construct validity of the original version of 3SQ. We found the new version 3SQ showed more convincing evidence of validity and reliability to measure stressors of adolescents. Continued research is needed to verify and maximize the psychometric credentials of 3SQ across countries.

Keywords: stressors, adolescents, secondary school students, 3SQ, psychometric properties

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5258 Support Provided by Teachers to Learners With Special Education Needs in Selected Amathole West District Primary Schools South Africa

Authors: Toyin Mary Adewumi, Cina Mosito

Abstract:

Part of enabling learners with special education needs (SEN) to succeed is providing them with adequate support. Support is all activities in a school that enhance its capacity to respond to diversity by making learning contexts and lessons accessible to all learners. The paper reports findings of support provided by teachers to learners with SEN and the pockets of good practice found in the support provided by teachers to these learners in schools in the Amathole West District, Eastern Cape. A purposeful sample, comprising eight teachers, eight principals in eight schools, including one provincial and two district education officials, was selected. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data gathered through semi-structured interviews. The results established that despite the challenges such as lack of qualifications and training in special education needs, learners with SEN received varied support from teachers which include extra exercises, extra time, special attention during break times or after school hours and homework. The study reveals pockets of good practice in some selected primary schools particularly in the poverty-stricken locations in the Amathole West District. This paper recommends adequate training for teachers for the support of learners with SEN.

Keywords: good practice, learner, special education needs, inclusion, support

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5257 Teachers’ Attitudes and Techniques in EFL Writing in Secondary Schools in Egypt

Authors: Hosam Mohamed Darwish

Abstract:

In 2008, the Egyptian Ministry of Education introduced a new national coursebook ‘Hello for Secondary Schools, which recommends a shift in EFL teachers’ instructional practices. Since then, very little attention has been paid to teachers’ techniques in EFL writing classes. Hence, this study aimed at investigating teaching writing practices in secondary schools and exploring the teachers’ attitudes towards EFL writing skill in addition to exploring the difficulties that teachers encountered in EFL writing lessons. The study depended on data triangulation through administering two questionnaires: one to 44 teachers and the other to 24 students, and conducting semi-structured interviews with 11 teachers. Both teachers and students were asked to describe teaching practices in EFL writing classes while the open-ended questions and interviews collected data about the teachers’ difficulties in writing lessons. The questionnaires indicate that teachers have negative attitudes towards teaching writing, and most of their practices are still traditional. Five factors have influenced teachers’ practices: backwash of the test, teachers’ professional development, students’ culture of reading and large classes. The study recommends there has to be a necessary change in the students’ examination system, and ongoing teachers’ professional development should be considered. Finally, a teaching model and implications are suggested.

Keywords: EFL writing, Egyptian secondary schools, teachers’ attitudes, teachers’ techniques

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5256 Barriers to the Implementation of Peace Education in Secondary Schools, South Africa

Authors: Ntokozo Dennis Ndwandwe

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to explore the barriers facing the implementation of peace education as a strategy to combat violence in selected secondary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The problem that motivated this enquiry was the absence of stable peace and the increase of incidents of violence in schools. A qualitative approach was followed when conducting the study, and small samples of three case studies of secondary schools were used. Method used in collecting data consisted of semi-structured interviews; focus group interviews and observation. The participants consisted of the program manager for Quaker for Peace Centre (QPC), three principals, nine teachers, and fifteen learners. Data were analysed by transcribing, organising, marking by hand and coding that produced labels that allowed key points to be highlighted. Findings revealed that the effective implementation of peace education was being constrained by factors such as financial constraints, inadequate time allocated, lack of parental involvement, over work-loaded teachers, negative attitude and other societal influences. It is recommended that teachers should receive an ongoing training for peace education. Therefore, the government should prioritise and provide funds for peace education. In addition, parental involvement should be improved in order to enhance the implementation of peace education in selected secondary schools.

Keywords: barriers, implementation, conflict, peace, peace education, conflict resolution, violence

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5255 Emotional Intelligence and General Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Career Commitment of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria

Authors: Moyosola Jude Akomolafe

Abstract:

Career commitment among employees is crucial to the success of any organization. However, career commitment has been reported to be very low among teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria. This study, therefore, examined the contributions of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy to career commitment of among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted for the study. It made use of stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting two hundred and fifty (250) secondary schools teachers for the study. Three standardized instruments namely: The Big Five Inventory (BFI), Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Career Commitment Scale (CCS) were adopted for the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analyzed through Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the predicting capacity of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy on career commitment of secondary school teachers. The results showed that the variables when taken as a whole significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers. The relative contribution of each variable revealed that emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. The researcher recommended that secondary school teachers should be exposed to emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training to enhance their career commitment.

Keywords: career commitment, emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy, secondary school teachers

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5254 Training as Barrier for Implementing Inclusion for Students with Learning Difficulties in Mainstream Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Alhammad

Abstract:

The movement towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools has become widely accepted practice in many countries. However in Saudi Arabia, this is not happening. Instead the practice for students with learning difficulties (LD) is to study in special classrooms in mainstream schools and they are not included with their peers, except at break times and morning assembly, and on school trips. There are a number of barriers that face implementing inclusion for students with LD in mainstream classrooms: one such barrier is the training of teachers. The training, either pre- or in-service, that teachers receive is seen as playing an important role in leading to the successful implementation of inclusion. The aim of this presentation is to explore how pre-service training and in-service training are acting as barriers for implementing inclusion of students with LD in mainstream primary schools in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of teachers. The qualitative research approach was used to explore this barrier. Twenty-four teachers (general education teachers, special education teachers) were interviewed using semi-structured interview and a number of documents were used as method of data collection. The result showed teachers felt that not much attention was paid to inclusion in pre-services training for general education teachers and special education teachers in Saudi Arabia. In addition, pre-service training for general education teachers does not normally including modules on special education. Regarding the in-service training, no courses at all about inclusion are provided for teachers. Furthermore, training courses in special education are few. As result, the knowledge and skills required to implemented inclusion successfully.

Keywords: inclusion, learning difficulties, Saudi Arabia, training

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