Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2627

Search results for: bronchial epithelial cells

2627 Screening Active Components in YPFS for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Inflammation

Authors: Dandan Shen, Hui-zhu Wang, Xi Yu, LiLi Gui, Xiao Wei, Xiao-yan Jiang, Da-wei Wang, Min Hong

Abstract:

Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a clinical medicine for asthma and other allergic diseases, but the mechanism of YPFS on relapse of allergy is unclear. Currently, people come to realize the epithelial cells(EC) play a key role in stimulating and regulating local immune response. The study of thymic stromal lymphopoietin(TSLP derived from EC provides an important evidence that the EC can regulate immune response to stimulate allergic response. In this study, we observed the effect of YPFS on TSLP in vivo and in vitro. We established a method by using bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) for screening potential bioactive components by HPLC-MS in YPFS and then analyzed the components in serum containing YPFS by UPLC-MS. The results showed that YPFS could decrease TSLP protein level in OVA-sensitized mice and 16HBE cells. Five components combing with the 16HBE cells were both detected in the serum.

Keywords: TSLP, bronchial epithelial cells, cell-binding, drug-containing serum

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2626 Umbilical Cord-Derived Cells in Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza

Abstract:

Extensive studies of the human umbilical cord, both basic and translational, over the last three decades have unveiled a plethora of information. The cord lining harbors at least two phenotypically different multipotent stem cells: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord lining epithelial stem cells (CLECs). These cells exhibit a mixed genetic profiling of both embryonic and adult stem cells, hence display a broader stem features than cells from other sources. We have observed that umbilical cord-derived cells are immunologically privileged and non-tumorigenic by animal study. These cells are ethically acceptable, thus provides a significant advantage over other stem cells. The high proliferative capacity, viability, differentiation potential, and superior harvest of these cells have made them better candidates in comparison to contemporary adult stem cells. Following 30 replication cycles, these cells have been observed to retain their stemness, with their phenotype and karyotype intact. Transplantation of bioengineered CLEC sheets in limbal stem cell-deficient rabbit eyes resulted in regeneration of clear cornea with phenotypic expression of the normal cornea-specific epithelial cytokeratin markers. The striking features of low immunogenicity protecting self along with co-transplanted allografts from rejection largely define the transplantation potential of umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

Keywords: cord lining epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell, regenerative medicine, umbilical cord

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2625 Toxicological Effects of Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Metabolic Activation, Genotoxicity and Epigenetic Modifications

Authors: M. Borgie, Z. Dagher, F. Ledoux, A. Verdin, F. Cazier, H. Greige, P. Shirali, D. Courcot

Abstract:

In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as carcinogenic to humans. Despite the clearly relationship established by epidemiological studies between PM exposure and the onset of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, uncertainties remain about the physiopathological mechanisms responsible for these diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicological effects of two samples of atmospheric PM2.5 collected at urban and rural sites on human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, especially to investigate the metabolic activation of organic compounds, the alteration of epigenetic mechanisms (i.e. microRNAs genes expression), the phosphorylation of H2AX and the telomerase activity. Our results showed a significant increase in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhRR genes expression, miR-21 gene expression, H2AX phosphorylation and telomerase activity in BEAS-2B cells after their exposure to PM2.5, both in a dose and site-dependent manner. These results showed that PM2.5, especially urban PM, are able to induce the expression of metabolizing enzymes which can provide metabolic biotransformation of organic compounds into more toxic and carcinogenic metabolites, and to induce the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 which promotes cell growth and enhances tumor invasion and metastasis in lung cancer. In addition, our results have highlighted the role of PM2.5 in the activation of telomerase, which can maintain the telomeres length and subsequently preventing cell death, and have also demonstrated the ability of PM2.5 to induce DNA breaks and thus to increase the risk of mutations or chromosomal translocations that lead to genomic instability. All these factors may contribute to cell abnormalities, and thus the development of cancer.

Keywords: BEAS-2B cells, carcinogenesis, epigenetic alterations and genotoxicity, PM2.5

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2624 Differential Expression of Biomarkers in Cancer Stem Cells and Side Populations in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Dipali Dhawan

Abstract:

Cancerous epithelial cells are confined to a primary site by the continued expression of adhesion molecules and the intact basal lamina. However, as the cancer progresses some cells are believed to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) event, leading to increased motility, invasion and, ultimately, metastasis of the cells from the primary tumour to secondary sites within the body. These disseminated cancer cells need the ability to self-renew, as stem cells do, in order to establish and maintain a heterogeneous metastatic tumour mass. Identification of the specific subpopulation of cancer stem cells amenable to the process of metastasis is highly desirable. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cancer stem cells from luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468, MCF7 and T47D) on the basis of cell surface markers CD44 and CD24; as well as Side Populations (SP) using Hoechst 33342 dye efflux. The isolated populations were analysed for epithelial and mesenchymal markers like E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Sfrp1 and Vimentin by Western blotting and Immunocytochemistry. MDA-MB-231 cell lines contain a major population of CD44+CD24- cells whereas MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines show a side population. We observed higher expression of N-cadherin in MCF-7 SP cells as compared to MCF-7NSP (Non-side population) cells suggesting that the SP cells are mesenchymal like cells and hence express increased N-cadherin with stem cell-like properties. There was an expression of Sfrp1 in the MCF7- NSP cells as compared to no expression in MCF7-SP cells, which suggests that the Wnt pathway is expressed in the MCF7-SP cells. The mesenchymal marker Vimentin was expressed only in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hence, understanding the breast cancer heterogeneity would enable a better understanding of the disease progression and therapeutic targeting.

Keywords: cancer stem cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, biomarkers, breast cancer

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2623 Children Asthma; The Role of Molecular Pathways and Novel Saliva Biomarkers Assay

Authors: Seyedahmad Hosseini, Mohammadjavad Sotoudeheian

Abstract:

Introduction: Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous immuno-inflammatory disease based on Th-2-mediated inflammation. Histopathologic abnormalities of the airways characteristic of asthma include epithelial damage and subepithelial collagen deposition. Objectives: Human bronchial epithelial cell genome expression of TNF‑α, IL‑6, ICAM‑1, VCAM‑1, nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathways up-regulate during inflammatory cascades. Moreover, immunofluorescence assays confirmed the nuclear translocation of NF‑κB p65 during inflammatory responses. An absolute LDH leakage assays suggestedLPS-inducedcells injury, and the associated mechanisms are co-incident events. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERKand JNK causes inflammation in epithelial cells through inhibition of ERK and JNK activation and NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of NF-κB mRNA expression and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB lead to anti-inflammatory events. Likewise, activation of SUMF2 which inhibits IL-13 and reduces Th2-cytokines, NF-κB, and IgE levels to ameliorate asthma. On the other hand, TNFα-induced mucus production reduced NF-κB activation through inhibition of the activation status of Rac1 and IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), which mediates airway remodeling, regulates through NF-κB. Bronchial B2R expression is constitutively elevated in allergic asthma. In addition, certain NF-κB -dependent chemokines function to recruit eosinophils in the airway. Besides, bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) plays a significant role in mediating innate immune response in human small airway epithelial cells as well as transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which is detectable in saliva. So, the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein α-subunit, Gα16, expresses a κB-driven luciferase reporter. This response was accompanied by phosphorylation of IκBα. Furthermore, expression of Gα16 in saliva markedly enhanced TNF-α-induced κB reporter activity. Methods: The applied method to form NF-κB activation is the electromobility shift assay (EMSA). Also, B2R-BRD4-TG2 complex detection by immunoassay method within saliva with EMSA of NF-κB activation may be a novel biomarker for asthma diagnosis and follow up. Conclusion: This concept introduces NF-κB signaling pathway as potential asthma biomarkers and promising targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies against asthma.

Keywords: NF-κB, asthma, saliva, T-helper

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2622 Histological Changes of Mice Lungs After Daily Exposure to Different Concentration of Incense Smoke

Authors: Samar Omar A. Rabah, Sahar Ragab El Hadad, Fatmah Albani

Abstract:

Since the discovery of Agarwood (Incense tree), many studies reported its characteristic effects and variable benefits, as either to produce Arabian Incense or as a traditional medicine against many diseases. Laboratory experiments were carried out on the effect of different concentrations of Incense smoke inhalation on the lung weight and tissue in female mice. This research derives its importance from the fact that Incense is heavily used in Saudi Arabia in the absence of thorough studies of its effects on health. Eighty animals are used in this study, and they are divided into four groups, each is 20 animals. Three groups are exposed to different concentrations (2, 4 and 6 gm) of Incense smoke daily for three months, and the fourth group is the control. At the end of each month, five animals from each group were dissected. Obtained data showed an increase but not significant in animal body and lung weight, this results return to natural increase as a result of normal growth of animals. Light microscope reveals some changes in the lung tissue, such as focal emphysema, rupture in the alveolar walls, hemorrhage, congestion, edema and few peri-bronchial lymphoid cells. After continuous exposure to Incense smoke focal necrosis and degradation are observed in some cells of epithelial bronchioles. Also, fibrosis of peri-bronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells are demonstrated in some lungs sections. according to the above manifestations it could be concluded that exposure to Incense smoke causes pulmonary harmful effects. Therefore, we can recommend that Incense smoke will be used only in open places to reduce its harms.

Keywords: incense smoke, lungs, histological changes of lungs, agarwood

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2621 Effects of Substrate Roughness on E-Cadherin Junction of Oral Keratinocytes

Authors: Sungpyo Kim, Changseok Oh, Ga-Young Lee, Hyun-Man Kim

Abstract:

Intercellular junction of keratinocytes is crucial for epithelia to build an epithelial barrier. Junctional epithelium (JE) seals the interfaces between tooth and gingival tissue. Keratinocytes of JE attach to surfaces roughened by abrasion or erosion with aging. Thus behavior of oral keratinocytes on the rough substrates may help understand the epithelial seal of JE of which major intercellular junction is E-cadherin junction (ECJ). The present study investigated the influence of various substrate roughnesses on the development of ECJ between normal human gingival epithelial keratinocytes, HOK-16B cells. HOK-16B cells were slow in the development of ECJ on the rough substrates compared to on the smooth substrates. Furthermore, oral keratinocytes on the substrates of higher roughnesses were delayed in the development of E-cadherin junction than on the substrates of lower roughnesses. Delayed development of E-cadherin junction on the rough substrates was ascribed to the impaired spreading of cells and its higher JNK activity. Cells on the smooth substrates rapidly spread wide cytoplasmic extensions around cells. However, cells on the rough substrates slowly extended narrow cytoplasmic extensions of which number was limited due to the substrate irregularity. As these cytoplasmic extensions formed ECJ when met with the extensions of neighboring cells, thus, the present study demonstrated that a limited chance of contacts between cytoplasmic extensions due to the limited number of cytoplasmic extensions and slow development of cytoplasmic extensions brought about a delayed development of ECJ in oral keratinocytes on the rougher substrates. Sealing between cells was not complete because only part of cell membrane contributes to the formation of intercellular junction between cells on the substrates of higher roughnesses. Interestingly, inhibition of JNK activity promoted the development of ECJ on the rough substrates, of which mechanism remains to be studied further.

Keywords: substrate roughness, E-cadherin junction, oral keratinocyte, cell spreading, JNK

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2620 Novel Steviosides Analogs Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancers

Authors: Ahmed Malki

Abstract:

Breast cancer has been identified as the most lethal form of cancer today. In our study, we designed and screened 16 steviosides derivatives for their cytotoxic activities in MCF-7human breast cancer cells and normal MCF-12a cells. Our data indicated that steviosides derivatives 9 and 15 decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells more thannormal breast cells epithelial cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both steviosides, derivatives 9 and 15 arrested the MCF-7 cells in G1 phase, which is further confirmed by the increased expression level of p21. Moreover, both steviosides derivatives increased caspase-9 activity, and the induction of apoptosis was significantly reduced after treating cells with caspase-9 inhibitor LEHD-CHO. Both steviosides derivatives increased Caspase 3 activities and induced Parp-1 cleavage in H1299 cells. Based on previous results, we have identified two novel steviosides derivatives which provoked apoptosis in breast cancer cells by arresting cells in G1 phase and increasing caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities which merits further development and investigations.

Keywords: steviosides, breast cancer, p53, cell cycle

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2619 Determination of the Toxicity of a Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in vitro

Authors: Agatha Bebbington, Terry Tetley, Kathryn Hadler

Abstract:

Background: Astronauts will set foot on the Moon later this decade, and are at high risk of lunar dust inhalation. Freshly-fractured lunar dust produces reactive oxygen species in solution, which are known to cause cellular damage and inflammation. Cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release was measured in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (cells that line the gas-exchange zone of the lung) exposed to a lunar dust simulant, LMS-1. It was hypothesised that freshly-fractured LMS-1 would result in increased cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release, owing to the angular morphology and high reactivity of fractured particles. Methods: A human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cell line (TT1) and a human macrophage-like cell line (THP-1) were exposed to 0-200μg/ml of unground, aged-ground, and freshly-ground LMS-1 (screened at <22μm). Cell viability, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, IL-8) were assessed using MMT, LDH, and ELISA assays, respectively. LMS-1 particles were characterised for their size, surface area, and morphology before and after grinding. Results: Exposure to LMS-1 particles did not result in overt cytotoxicity in either TT1 epithelial cells or THP-1 macrophage-like cells. A dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release was observed in TT1 cells, whereas THP-1 cell exposure, even at low particle concentrations, resulted in increased IL-8 release. Both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory responses were most marked and significantly greater in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to freshly-fractured LMS-1. Discussion: LMS-1 is a novel lunar dust simulant; this is the first study to determine its toxicological effects on respiratory cells in vitro. An increased inflammatory response in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to ground LMS-1 suggests that low particle size, increased surface area, and angularity likely contribute to toxicity. Conclusions: Evenlow levels of exposure to LMS-1 could result in alveolar inflammation. This may have pathological consequences for astronauts exposed to lunar dust on future long-duration missions. Future research should test the effect of low-dose, intermittent lunar dust exposure on the respiratory system.

Keywords: lunar dust, LMS-1, lunar dust simulant, long-duration space travel, lunar dust toxicity

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2618 Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increases IgE Receptors in Children with Asthma

Authors: A. Vijayendra Chary, R. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Background: Vitamin D is a potent modulator of the immune system and is involved in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased severity of asthma in children. Asthma has dramatically increased in past decades, particular in developing countries and affects up to 20% of the population. IgE and its receptors, CD23 (FcεRII) and CD 21, play an essential role in all allergic conditions. Methods: A case control study was conducted on asthma and age and sex matched control children. 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 was quantified by HPLC; CD23; and CD21 expression on B cells were performed by flow cytometry. Total Histamine, total IGE and IL-5 and IFN-γ cytokines were determined by ELISA in blood samples of bronchial asthma (n=45) and control children (n=45). Results: The mean ± SE of vitamin D was significantly (p<0.05) low in asthma children (13.6±0.54 ng/mL) than in controls (17.4 ± 0.37 ng/mL). The mean (%) ± SE of CD23 and CD21 expression on B cells were significantly (p<0.01) high in asthma (1.02±0.09; 1.67± 0.13), when compared to controls (0.24±0.01; 0.94±0.03) respectively. The mean± SE of Serum IgE and blood histamine levels in asthma children (354.52 ± 17.33 IU/mL; 53.27 ± 2.54 nM/mL) were increased (P<0.05) when compared to controls (183.12±17.62 IU/mL 39.34±4.16 nM/mL) respectively and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) was lower (P<0.01) (16.37±1.27 pg/mL) than in controls (43.34±6.21 pg/mL). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased IgE receptors CD23 and CD21 on B cells. In addition, there was preferential activation of Th2 (IL-5) and suppression of Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines in children with asthma.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, CD23, IgE, vitamin D

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2617 Antiviral Activity of Interleukin-11 in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection

Authors: Li Yuchen, Wu Qingxin, Jin Yuxing, Yang Qian

Abstract:

Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, helps to protect against intestinal epithelium damage caused by physical or chemical factors. However, little is known about the role of IL-11 during viral infection. Herein, high mRNA and protein levels of IL-11 were found in epithelial cells and jejunum of piglets during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and IL-11 expression was positively correlated with the level of viral infection. Pretreatment with recombinant porcine IL-11 (pIL-11) suppressed PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells, while IL-11 knockdown promoted viral infection. Furthermore, pIL-11 inhibited viral infection by preventing PEDV-mediated apoptosis of cells through activating the IL-11/STAT3 signal pathway. Conversely, application of a STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor significantly antagonized the anti-apoptosis function of pIL-11 and counteracted its inhibition of PEDV. Our data suggested that that IL-11 is a novel PEDV-inducible cytokine, and its production enhances the anti-apoptosis ability of epithelial cells against PEDV infection. The potential uses of IL-11 as a novel therapeutic against devastating viral diarrhea in piglets deserves more attention and study.

Keywords: Interleukin-11, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, STAT3, anti-apoptosis

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2616 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner

Abstract:

Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculating the pressure losses in the real lungs is due to its complexity and diversity lengthy and inefficient process. For these calculations is necessary the lungs to slightly simplify (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the models of lungs. The simplification could cause deviations from real values. The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. Then, evaluate the desirability of using this formula to determine the pressure loss across the bronchial tree.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, real geometry of bronchial tree, breathing

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2615 Regulation of PKA-Dependent Calcineurin as a Switch in Cell Secretion

Authors: Hani M. M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo

Abstract:

This study will investigate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent calcineurin (Cn), known as protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B) as well, regulation of chloride ion (Cl⁻) secretion and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules in immune cells such as cytokines. THP-1-derived monocytes, primary human monocytes and the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) were used in this study. The 16HBE14o- cells were chosen as positive control. Hence, to further confirm the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium binding protein (S100A10), annexin A2 (AnxA2) and calcineurin A subunit (CnA) in all three cell types, cell lysate was probed against corresponding primary antibodies by immunoblotting. Western blot analyses show the expression of CFTR, AnxA2, CnA and S100A10 in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes. In conclusion, CFTR, S100A10, CnA and AnxA2 are expressed in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes and regulate Cl⁻ secretion. Also, they may play a role in the pro-inflammatory molecules release. The ongoing work will confirm interaction between these proteins in the cell lines.

Keywords: annexin A2, calcineurin, CFTR, chloride, monocytes, pro-inflammatory molecules, S100A10

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2614 Absence of Malignancy in Oral Epithelial Cells from Individuals Occupationally Exposed to Organic Solvents Working in the Shoe Industry

Authors: B. González-Yebra, B. Flores-Nieto, P. Aguilar-Salinas, M. Preciado Puga, A. L. González Yebra

Abstract:

The monitoring of populations occupationally exposed to organic solvents has been an important issue for several shoe factories for years since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has advised on the potential carcinogenic risk of chemicals related to occupations. In order to detect if exposition to organic solvents used in some Mexican shoe factories contributes to oral carcinogenesis, we performed monitoring in three factories. Occupational exposure was determined by using monitors 3M. Organic solvents were assessed by gas chromatography. Then, we recruited 30 shoe workers (30.2 ± 8.4 years) and 10 unexposed subjects (43.3 ± 11.2 years) for the micronuclei (MN) test and immunodetection of some cancer biomarkers (ki-67, p16, caspase-3) in scraped oral epithelial cells. Monitored solvents detected were acetone, benzene, hexane, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene in acceptable levels according to Official Mexican Norm. We found by MN test higher incidence of nuclear abnormalities (karyorrhexis, pycnosis, karyolysis, condensed chromatin, and macronuclei) in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. On the other hand, we found, a negative expression for Ki-67 and p16 in exfoliated epithelial cells from exposed and non-exposed to organic solvents subjects. Only caspase-3 shown positive patter of expression in 9/30 (30%) exposed subjects, and we detected high karyolysis incidence in caspase-3 subjects (p = 0.021). The absence of expression of proliferation markers p16 and ki-67 and presence of apoptosis marker caspase-3 are indicating the absence of malignancy in oral epithelial cells and low risk for oral cancer. It is a fact that the MN test is a very effective method to detect nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated buccal cells from subjects that have been exposed to organic solvents in the shoe industry. However, in order to improve this tool and predict cancer risk is it is mandatory to implement complementary tests as other biomarkers that can help to detect malignancy in individuals occupationally exposed.

Keywords: biomarkers, oral cancer, organic solvents, shoe industries

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2613 In vitro Effects of Porcine Follicular Fluid Proteins on Cell Culture Growth in Luteal Phase Porcine Oviductal Epithelial Cells

Authors: Mayuva Youngsabanant, Chanikarn Srinark, Supanyika Sengsai, Soratorn Kerdkriangkrai, Nongnuch Gumlungpat, Mayuree Pumipaiboon

Abstract:

The follicular fluid proteins of healthy medium size follicles (4-6 mm in diameters) and large size follicles (7-8 mm in diameter) of large white pig ovaries were collected by using sterile technique. They were used for testing the effect on primary in vitro cell culture growth of porcine oviductal epithelial cells (pOEC). Porcine oviductal epithelial cells of luteal phase was culture in M199 and added with 10% fetal calf serum 2.2 mg/mL, NaHCO₃, 0.25 mM pyruvate, 15 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL, gentamycin sulfate at high humidified atmosphere with 5% CO₂ in 95% air atmosphere at 37°C for 96 h before testing. The optimized concentration of pFF of two follicle sizes (at concentration of 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500, and 600 µg proteins) in culture medium was observed for 24 h using MTT assay. Results were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA in SPSS statistic. Moreover, pOEC was also studied in morphological characteristic on long-term culture. The results of long-term study revealed that pOEC showed 70-80 percentage of healthy morphology on epithelial-like character and contained 30 percentage of an elongated shape (fibroblast-like morphology) at 4 weeks of culture time. MTT assay reviewed an increase in the percentage of viability of pOEC in 2 treated of follicular fluid groups. Two treatment concentration groups were higher than control group (p < 0.05) but not in positive control group. Interestingly, at 200 µg protein of 2 treated follicular fluid groups were reached the highest cell viability which is higher than a positive control and it is significantly different form control group (P < 0.05). These cells are developed and had fibroblast elongate shape which is longer than the cells in control group and positive control group. This report implies that pFF of medium follicle size at 200 µg proteins and large follicle size at 200 and 500 µg proteins could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in culture medium to promote cell growth and development instead of growth hormone from fetal calf serum. It could be applied in cell biotechnology researches. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: in vitro, porcine follicular fluid protein (pFF), porcine oviductal epithelial cells (pOEC), MTT

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2612 Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Inhibits by INT3 & Quercetin in MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Objectives: Imperviousness gainst estrogen treatments is a noteworthy reason for infection backslide and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast diseases. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal builds the reliance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 flagging. Here, we researched the commitment of Quercetin and INT3 motioning in endocrine-safe breast tumor cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine treatments safe (ETR) breast tumor: Tamoxifen-safe (TamR) and long haul estrogen-denied (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the transitory and intrusive limit of these cells by Transwell cells. Articulation of epithelial to mesenchymal move (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by constant PCR and western smudge investigation. Besides, we tried in-vitro hostile to Quercetin monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) and Gamma Secretase Inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT inversion remedial specialists. At last, we created stable Quercetin overexpressing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT components and reaction to Tamoxifen. Results: We found that ETR cells procured an Epithelial to Mesenchymal move (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we distinguished more elevated amount of INT3 however lower levels of INT1 and INT3 proposing a change to motioning through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Against Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were powerful in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 pivot and in part repressing the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell relocation and attack were weakened and the immature microorganism like populace was essentially decreased. Hereditary hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. At long last, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to Tamoxifen by INT3 initiation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives intrusive conduct. Hostile to Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen articulation of EMT particles decreasing cell obtrusiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates Tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and INT3 warrants further clinical Correlation as substantial restorative methodologies in endocrine-safe breast.

Keywords: endocrine, epithelial, mesenchymal, INT3, quercetin, MCF7

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2611 Pluripotent Stem Cells as Therapeutic Tools for Limbal Stem Cell Deficiencies and Drug Testing

Authors: Aberdam Edith, Sangari Linda, Petit Isabelle, Aberdam Daniel

Abstract:

Background and Rationale: Transparent avascularised cornea is essential for normal vision and depends on limbal stem cells (LSC) that reside between the cornea and the conjunctiva. Ocular burns or injuries may destroy the limbus, causing limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The cornea becomes vascularised by invaded conjunctival cells, the stroma is scarring, resulting in corneal opacity and loss of vision. Grafted autologous limbus or cultivated autologous LCS can restore the vision, unless the two eyes are affected. Alternative cellular sources have been tested in the last decades, including oral mucosa or hair follicle epithelial cells. However, only partial success has been achieved by the use of these cells since they were not able to uniformly commit into corneal epithelial cells. Human pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) display both unlimited growth capacity and ability to differentiate into any cell type. Our goal was to design a standardized and reproducible protocol to produce transplantable autologous LSC from patients through cell reprogramming technology. Methodology: First, keratinocyte primary culture was established from a small number of plucked hair follicles of healthy donors. The resulting epithelial cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and further differentiate into corneal epithelial cells (CEC), according to a robust protocol that recapitulates the main step of corneal embryonic development. qRT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescent staining during the course of differentiation confirm the expression of stage specific markers of corneal embryonic lineage. First appear ectodermal progenitor-specific cytokeratins K8/K18, followed at day 7 by limbal-specific PAX6, TP63 and cytokeratins K5/K14. At day 15, K3/K12+-corneal cells are present. To amplify the iPSC-derived LSC (named COiPSC), intact small epithelial colonies were detached and cultivated in limbal cell-specific medium. In that culture conditions, the COiPSC can be frozen and thaw at any passage, while retaining their corneal characteristics for at least eight passages. To evaluate the potential of COiPSC as an alternative ocular toxicity model, COiPSC were treated at passage P0 to P4 with increasing amounts of SDS and Benzalkonium. Cell proliferation and apoptosis of treated cells was compared to LSC and the SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE) routinely used by cosmetological industrials. Of note, HCE are more resistant to toxicity than LSC. At P0, COiPSC were systematically more resistant to chemical toxicity than LSC and even to HCE. Remarkably, this behavior changed with passage since COiPSC at P2 became identical to LSC and thus closer to physiology than HCE. Comparative transcriptome analysis confirmed that COiPSC from P2 are similar to a mixture of LSC and CEC. Finally, by organotypic reconstitution assay, we demonstrated the ability of COiPSC to produce a 3D corneal epithelium on a stromal equivalent made of keratocytes. Conclusion: COiPSC could become valuable for two main applications: (1) an alternative robust tool to perform, in a reproducible and physiological manner, toxicity assays for cosmetic products and pharmacological tests of drugs. (2). COiPSC could become an alternative autologous source for cornea transplantation for LSCD.

Keywords: Limbal stem cell deficiency, iPSC, cornea, limbal stem cells

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2610 Influence of Smoking on Fine And Ultrafine Air Pollution Pm in Their Pulmonary Genetic and Epigenetic Toxicity

Authors: Y. Landkocz, C. Lepers, P.J. Martin, B. Fougère, F. Roy Saint-Georges. A. Verdin, F. Cazier, F. Ledoux, D. Courcot, F. Sichel, P. Gosset, P. Shirali, S. Billet

Abstract:

In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and fine particles as carcinogenic to humans. Causal relationships exist between elevated ambient levels of airborne particles and increase of mortality and morbidity including pulmonary diseases, like lung cancer. However, due to a double complexity of both physicochemical Particulate Matter (PM) properties and tumor mechanistic processes, mechanisms of action remain not fully elucidated. Furthermore, because of several common properties between air pollution PM and tobacco smoke, like the same route of exposure and chemical composition, potential mechanisms of synergy could exist. Therefore, smoking could be an aggravating factor of the particles toxicity. In order to identify some mechanisms of action of particles according to their size, two samples of PM were collected: PM0.03 2.5 and PM0.33 2.5 in the urban-industrial area of Dunkerque. The overall cytotoxicity of the fine particles was determined on human bronchial cells (BEAS-2B). Toxicological study focused then on the metabolic activation of the organic compounds coated onto PM and some genetic and epigenetic changes induced on a co-culture model of BEAS-2B and alveolar macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages performed in smokers and non-smokers. The results showed (i) the contribution of the ultrafine fraction of atmospheric particles to genotoxic (eg. DNA double-strand breaks) and epigenetic mechanisms (eg. promoter methylation) involved in tumor processes, and (ii) the influence of smoking on the cellular response. Three main conclusions can be discussed. First, our results showed the ability of the particles to induce deleterious effects potentially involved in the stages of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. The second conclusion is that smoking affects the nature of the induced genotoxic effects. Finally, the in vitro developed cell model, using bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages can take into account quite realistically, some of the existing cell interactions existing in the lung.

Keywords: air pollution, fine and ultrafine particles, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations, smoking

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2609 Retrospective Study of Bronchial Secretions Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: S. Mantzoukis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are exposed to a different spectrum of microorganisms relative to the hospital. Due to the fact that the majority of these patients are intubated, bronchial secretions should be examined. Material and Method: Bronchial secretions should be taken with care so as not to be mixed with sputum or saliva. The bronchial secretions are placed in a sterile container and then inoculated into blood, Mac Conkey No2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed and then the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 365 samples of bronchial secretions from the Intensive Care Unit. 237 were found positive. S. epidermidis was identified in 1 specimen, A. baumannii in 60, K. pneumoniae in 42, P. aeruginosa in 50, C. albicans in 40, P. mirabilis in 4, E. coli in 4, S. maltophilia in 6, S. marcescens in 6, S. aureus in 12, S. pneumoniae in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, P. fluorescens in 1, E. aerogenes in 1, E. cloacae in 5. Conclusions: The majority of ICU patients appear to be a fertile ground for the development of infections. The nature of the findings suggests that a significant part of the bacteria found comes from the unit (nosocomial infection).

Keywords: bronchial secretions, cultures, infections, intensive care units

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2608 In vitro Modeling of Aniridia-Related Keratopathy by the Use of Crispr/Cas9 on Limbal Epithelial Cells and Rescue

Authors: Daniel Aberdam

Abstract:

Haploinsufficiency of PAX6 in humans is the main cause of congenital aniridia, a rare eye disease characterized by reduced visual acuity. Patients have also progressive disorders including cataract, glaucoma and corneal abnormalities making their condition very challenging to manage. Aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK), caused by a combination of factors including limbal stem-cell deficiency, impaired healing response, abnormal differentiation, and infiltration of conjunctival cells onto the corneal surface, affects up to 95% of patients. It usually begins in the first decade of life resulting in recurrent corneal erosions, sub-epithelial fibrosis with corneal decompensation and opacification. Unfortunately, current treatment options for aniridia patients are currently limited. Although animal models partially recapitulate this disease, there is no in vitro cellular model of AKT needed for drug/therapeutic tools screening and validation. We used genome editing (CRISPR/Cas9 technology) to introduce a nonsense mutation found in patients into one allele of the PAX6 gene into limbal stem cells. Resulting mutated clones, expressing half of the amount of PAX6 protein and thus representative of haploinsufficiency were further characterized. Sequencing analysis showed that no off-target mutations were induced. The mutated cells displayed reduced cell proliferation and cell migration but enhanced cell adhesion. Known PAX6 targets expression was also reduced. Remarkably, addition of soluble recombinant PAX6 protein into the culture medium was sufficient to activate endogenous PAX6 gene and, as a consequence, rescue the phenotype. It strongly suggests that our in vitro model recapitulates well the epithelial defect and becomes a powerful tool to identify drugs that could rescue the corneal defect in patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the homeotic transcription factor Pax6 is able to be uptake naturally by recipient cells to function into the nucleus.

Keywords: Pax6, crispr/cas9, limbal stem cells, aniridia, gene therapy

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2607 Study into the Interactions of Primary Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells and HTCEPI Using Tissue Engineered Cornea

Authors: Masoud Sakhinia, Sajjad Ahmad

Abstract:

Introduction: Though knowledge of the compositional makeup and structure of the limbal niche has progressed exponentially during the past decade, much is yet to be understood. Identifying the precise profile and role of the stromal makeup which spans the ocular surface may inform researchers of the most optimum conditions needed to effectively expand LESCs in vitro, whilst preserving their differentiation status and phenotype. Limbal fibroblasts, as opposed to corneal fibroblasts are thought to form an important component of the microenvironment where LESCs reside. Methods: The corneal stroma was tissue engineered in vitro using both limbal and corneal fibroblasts embedded within a tissue engineered 3D collagen matrix. The effect of these two different fibroblasts on LESCs and hTCEpi corneal epithelial cell line were then subsequently determined using phase contrast microscopy, histolological analysis and PCR for specific stem cell markers. The study aimed to develop an in vitro model which could be used to determine whether limbal, as opposed to corneal fibroblasts, maintained the stem cell phenotype of LESCs and hTCEpi cell line. Results: Tissue culture analysis was inconclusive and required further quantitative analysis for remarks on cell proliferation within the varying stroma. Histological analysis of the tissue-engineered cornea showed a comparable structure to that of the human cornea, though with limited epithelial stratification. PCR results for epithelial cell markers of cells cultured on limbal fibroblasts showed reduced expression of CK3, a negative marker for LESC’s, whilst also exhibiting a relatively low expression level of P63, a marker for undifferentiated LESCs. Conclusion: We have shown the potential for the construction of a tissue engineered human cornea using a 3D collagen matrix and described some preliminary results in the analysis of the effects of varying stroma consisting of limbal and corneal fibroblasts, respectively, on the proliferation of stem cell phenotype of primary LESCs and hTCEpi corneal epithelial cells. Although no definitive marker exists to conclusively illustrate the presence of LESCs, the combination of positive and negative stem cell markers in our study were inconclusive. Though it is less traslational to the human corneal model, the use of conditioned medium from that of limbal and corneal fibroblasts may provide a more simple avenue. Moreover, combinations of extracellular matrices could be used as a surrogate in these culture models.

Keywords: cornea, Limbal Stem Cells, tissue engineering, PCR

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2606 RhoA Regulates E-Cadherin Intercellular Junctions in Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

Authors: Ga-Young Lee, Hyun-Man Kim

Abstract:

The modulation of the cell-cell junction is critical in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumorigenesis. As RhoA activity is known to be up-regulated to dissociate cell-cell junction by contracting acto-myosin complex in various cancer cells, the present study investigated if RhoA activity was also associated with the disruption of the cell-cell junction of oral cancer cells. We studied SCC-25 cells which are established from oral squamous cell carcinoma if their E-cadherin junction (ECJ) was under control of RhoA. Interestingly, development of ECJ of SCC-25 cells depended on the amount of fibronectin (FN) coated on the culture dishes. Seeded cells promptly aggregated to develop ECJ on the substrates coated with a low amount of FN, whereas they were retarded in the development of ECJ on the substrates coated with a high amount of FN. However, it was an unexpected finding that total RhoA activity was lower in the dissociated cells on the substrates of high FN than in the aggregated cells on the substrates of low FN. Treating the dissociated cells on the substrates of high FN with LPA, a RhoA activator, promoted the development to ECJ. In contrast, treating the aggregated cells on the substrates of low FN with Clostridium botulinum C3, a toxin decreasing RhoA activity, dissociated cells concomitant with the disruption of ECJ. Genetical knockdown of RhoA expression by transfecting RhoA siRNA also down-regulated the development of ECJ in SCC-25 cells. Furthermore, PMA, an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), down-regulated the development of ECJ junction of SCC-25 cells on the substrates coated with low FN. In contrast, GO6976, a PKC inhibitor, up-regulated the development of ECJ of SCC-25 cells with the activation of RhoA on the substrates coated with high FN. In conclusion, in the present study, we demonstrated unexpected results that the activation of RhoA promotes the development of ECJ, whereas the inhibition of RhoA retards the development of ECJ in SCC-25 cells.

Keywords: E-cadherin junction, oral squamous cell carcinoma, PKC, RhoA, SCC-25

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2605 Circadian Regulations in Epithelial Barrier Functions

Authors: Kanami Orihara, Agnia Vibriani, Jayshree Low Jit Sze, Manitahina Mizan, Yao Du

Abstract:

Peripheral clocks are suggested to influence many aspects of keeping our health. However, the circadian profile of epithelial barrier functions is yet to be elucidated. We investigated the circadian profile of gene expressions of epithelial barriers using quantitative PCR in vitro study with human cell lines. The study found that four tight junction molecule gene expressions (CLDN1, CLDN4, OCLN, ZO1), as well as DEFB1 in skin keratinocytes, demonstrated circadian variations. These results suggest that the peripheral clock is taking an important role in keeping the homeostasis of epithelial barrier functions.

Keywords: chronobiology, barrier function, innate immunity, homeostasis

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2604 Update on Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), Types, Origin, Molecular Pathogenesis, and Biomarkers

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddick

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to the lack of highly sensitive and specific screening tools for detection of early-stage disease. The OSE provides the progenitor cells for 90% of human ovarian cancers. Recent morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies have led to the development of a new paradigm for the pathogenesis and origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) based on a ualistic model of carcinogenesis that divides EOC into two broad categories designated Types I and II which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, CTNNB1, PTEN PIK3CA, ARID1A, and PPPR1A, which target specific cell signaling pathways. Type 1 tumors rarely harbor TP53. type I tumors are relatively genetically stable and typically display a variety of somatic sequence mutations that include KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, PIK3CA CTNNB1 (the gene encoding beta catenin), ARID1A and PPP2R1A but very rarely TP53 . The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that the tumorigenic potential of CSCs is confined to a very small subset of tumor cells and is defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate leading to the formation of a tumor mass. Potential protein biomarker miRNA, are promising biomarkers as they are remarkably stable to allow isolation and analysis from tissues and from blood in which they can be found as free circulating nucleic acids and in mononuclear cells. Recently, genomic anaylsis have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer namely, FGF18 which plays an active role in controlling migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes update information on epithelial ovarian cancers and point out to the most recent ongoing research.

Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancers, somatic sequence mutations, cancer stem cell (CSC), potential protein, biomarker, genomic analysis, FGF18 biomarker

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2603 Quercetin and INT3 Inhibits Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: S. Pradhan, D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy

Abstract:

Anti-estrogen treatment resistant is a noteworthy reason for disease relapse and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast cancers. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal increases the dependance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 signaling. Here, we researched the contribution of Quercetin and INT3 signaling in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine therapies resistant (ETR-) breast cancer: tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) and long term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the migratory and invasive limit of these cells by Transwell assay. Expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Besides, we tried in vitro anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT reversal therapeutic agents. At last, we created stable Quercetin over expessing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT features and response to tamoxifen. Results:We found that ETR cells acquired an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we detected higher level of INT3 however lower levels of INT31 and INT32 proposing a switch to targeting through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were effective in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 axis and in part inhibiting the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell migration and invasion were weakened and the stem cell like population was considerably decreased. Genetic hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. Finally, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to tamoxifen by INT3 activation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives invasive conduct. Anti-Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen expression of EMT molecules decreasing cellular invasiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and/or INT3 warrants further clinical assessment as substantial therapeutic methodologies in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Keywords: quercetin, INT3, mesenchymal transition, MCF7 breast cancer cells

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2602 The Using of Hybrid Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- Graphene Oxide Functionalized Surface with Collagen, to Target the Cancer Stem Cell

Authors: Ahmed Khalaf Reyad Raslan

Abstract:

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) describe a class of pluripotent cancer cells that behave analogously to normal stem cells in their ability to differentiate into the spectrum of cell types observed in tumors. The de-differentiation processes, such as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), are known to enhance cellular plasticity. Here, we demonstrate a new hypothesis to use hybrid superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- graphene oxide functionalized surface with Collagen to target the cancer stem cell as an early detection tool for cancer. We think that with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the new hybrid system would be possible to track the cancer stem cells.

Keywords: hydrogel, alginate, reduced graphene oxide, collagen

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2601 The MicroRNA-2110 Suppressed Cell Proliferation and Migration Capacity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

Authors: Pelin Balcik Ercin

Abstract:

Introduction: ZEB transcription factor family member ZEB2, has a role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition during development and metastasis. The altered circulating extracellular miRNAs expression is observed in diseases, and extracellular miRNAs have an important role in cancer cell microenvironment. In ChIP-Seq study, the expression of miR-2110 was found to be regulated by ZEB2. In this study, the effects of miR2110 on cell proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were examined. Material and Methods: SNU398 cells transfected with mimic miR2110 (20nM) (HMI0375, Sigma-Aldrich) and negative control miR (HMC0002, Sigma-Aldrich). MicroRNA isolation was accomplished with miRVANA isolation kit according to manufacturer instructions. cDNA synthesis was performed expression, respectively, and calibrated with Ct of controls. The real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) reaction was performed using the TaqMan Fast Advanced Master Mix (Thermo Sci.). Ct values of miR2110 were normalized to miR-186-5p and miR16-5p for the intracellular gene. Cell proliferation analysis was analyzed with the xCELLigence RTCA System. Wound healing assay was analyzed with the ImageJ program and relative fold change calculated. Results: The mimic-miR-2110 transfected SNU398 cells nearly nine-fold (log2) more miR-2110 expressed compared to negative control transfected cells. The mimic-miR-2110 transfected HCC cell proliferation significantly inhibited compared to the negative control cells. Furthermore, miR-2110-SNU398 cell migration capacity was relatively four-fold decreased compared to negative control-miR-SNU398 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest the miR-2110 inhibited cell proliferation and also miR-2110 negatively affect cell migration compared to control groups in HCC cells. These data suggest the complexity of microRNA EMT transcription factors regulation. These initial results are pointed out the predictive biomarker capacity of miR-2110 in HCC.

Keywords: epithelial to mesenchymal transition, EMT, hepatocellular carcinoma cells, micro-RNA-2110, ZEB2

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2600 Assessment of Cellular Metabolites and Impedance for Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer among Habitual Smokers

Authors: Ripon Sarkar, Kabita Chaterjee, Ananya Barui

Abstract:

Smoking is one of the leading causes of oral cancer. Cigarette smoke affects various cellular parameters and alters molecular metabolism of cells. Epithelial cells losses their cytoskeleton structure, membrane integrity, cellular polarity that subsequently initiates the process of epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition due to long exposure of cigarette smoking. It changes the normal cellular metabolic activity which induces oxidative stress and enhances the reactive oxygen spices (ROS) formation. Excessive ROS and associated oxidative stress are considered to be a driving force in alteration in cellular phenotypes, polarity distribution and mitochondrial metabolism. Noninvasive assessment of such parameters plays essential role in development of routine screening system for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is one of such method applied for detection of cellular membrane impedance which can be correlated to cell membrane integrity. Present study intends to explore the alteration in cellular impedance along with the expression of cellular polarity molecules and cytoskeleton distributions in oral epithelial cells of habitual smokers and to correlate the outcome to that of clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Total 80 subjects were categorized into four study groups: nonsmoker (NS), cigarette smoker (CS), oral leukoplakia (OLPK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cytoskeleton distribution was analyzed by staining of actin filament and generation of ROS was measured using assay kit using standard protocol. Cell impedance was measured through ECIS method at different frequencies. Expression of E-cadherin and protease-activated receptor (PAR) proteins were observed through immune-fluorescence method. Distribution of actin filament is well organized in NS group however; distribution pattern was grossly varied in CS, OLPK and OSCC. Generation of ROS was low in NS which subsequently increased towards OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin and change in cellular electrical impedance in different study groups indicated the hallmark of cancer progression from NS to OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin, PAR protein, and cell impedance were decreased from NS to CS and farther OSCC. Generally, the oral epithelial cells exhibit apico-basal polarity however with cancer progression these cells lose their characteristic polarity distribution. In this study expression of polarity molecule and ECIS observation indicates such altered pattern of polarity among smoker group. Overall the present study monitored the alterations in intracellular ROS generation and cell metabolic function, membrane integrity in oral epithelial cells in cigarette smokers. Present study thus has clinical significance, and it may help in developing a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer amongst susceptible individuals.

Keywords: cigarette smoking, early oral cancer detection, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, noninvasive screening

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2599 Mycophenolate Mofetil Increases Mucin Expression in Primary Cultures of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for Application in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

Authors: Sandeep Kumar Agrawal, Aditi Bhattacharya, Janvie Manhas, Krushna Bhatt, Yatin Kholakiya, Nupur Khera, Ajoy Roychoudhury, Sudip Sen

Abstract:

Autologous cultured explants of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMEC) are a potential therapeutic modality for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Injury or inflammation of the ocular surface in the form of burns, chemicals, Stevens Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid etc. can lead to destruction and deficiency of limbal stem cells. LSCD manifests in the form of severe ocular surface diseases (OSD) characterized by persistent and recurrent epithelial defects, conjuntivalisation and neovascularisation of the corneal surface, scarring and ultimately opacity and blindness. Most of the cases of OSD are associated with severe dry eye pertaining to diminished mucin and aqueous secretion. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been shown to upregulate the mucin expression in conjunctival goblet cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MMF on mucin expression in primary cultures of oral mucosal epithelial cells. With institutional ethics committee approval and written informed consent, thirty oral mucosal epithelial tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing oral surgery for non-malignant conditions. OMEC were grown on human amniotic membrane (HAM, obtained from expecting mothers undergoing elective caesarean section) scaffold for 2 weeks in growth media containing DMEM & Ham’s F12 (1:1) with 10% FBS and growth factors. In vitro dosage of MMF was standardised by MTT assay. Analysis of stem cell markers was done using RT-PCR while mucin mRNA expression was quantified using RT-PCR and q-PCR before and after treating cultured OMEC with graded concentrations of MMF for 24 hours. Protein expression was validated using immunocytochemistry. Morphological studies revealed a confluent sheet of proliferating, stratified oral mucosal epithelial cells growing over the surface of HAM scaffold. The presence of progenitor stem cell markers (p63, p75, β1-Integrin and ABCG2) and cell surface associated mucins (MUC1, MUC15 and MUC16) were elucidated by RT-PCR. The mucin mRNA expression was found to be upregulated in MMF treated primary cultures of OMEC, compared to untreated controls as quantified by q-PCR with β-actin as internal reference gene. Increased MUC1 protein expression was validated by immunocytochemistry on representative samples. Our findings conclude that OMEC have the ability to form a multi-layered confluent sheet on the surface of HAM similar to a cornea, which is important for the reconstruction of the damaged ocular surface. Cultured OMEC has stem cell properties as demonstrated by stem cell markers. MMF can be a novel enhancer of mucin production in OMEC. It has the potential to improve dry eye in patients undergoing OMEC transplantation for bilateral OSD. Further clinical trials are required to establish the role of MMF in patients undergoing OMEC transplantation.

Keywords: limbal stem cell deficiency, mycophenolate mofetil, mucin, ocular surface disease

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2598 Rumen Epithelium Development of Bovine Fetuses and Newborn Calves

Authors: Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão, Letícia Palmeira Pinto, Francisco Palma Rennó, Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

Abstract:

The ruminant stomach is a complex and multi-chambered organ. Although the true stomach (abomasum) is fully differentiated and functional at birth, the same does not occur with the rumen chamber. At this moment, rumen papillae are small or nonexistent. The papillae only fully develop after weaning and during calf growth. Papillae development and ruminal epithelium specialization during the fetus growth and at birth must be two interdependent processes that will prepare the rumen to adapt to ruminant adult feeding. The microscopic study of rumen epithelium at these early phases of life is important to understand how this structure prepares the rumen to deal with the following weaning processes and its functional activation. Samples of ruminal mucosa of bovine fetuses (110- and 150 day-old) and newborn calves were collected (dorsal and ventral portions) and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The basal cell layer of the stratified pavimentous epithelium present in different ruminal portions of the fetuses was thicker than the same portions of newborn calves. The superficial and intermediate epithelial layers of 150 day-old fetuses were thicker than those found in the other 2 studied ages. At this age (150 days), dermal papillae begin to invade the intermediate epithelial layer which gradually disappears in newborn calves. At birth, the ruminal papillae project from the epithelial surface, probably by regression of the epithelial cells (transitory cells) surrounding the dermal papillae. The PCNA cell proliferation index (%) was calculated for all epithelial samples. Fetuses 150 day-old showed increased cell proliferation in basal cell layer (Dorsal Portion: 84.2%; Ventral Portion: 89.8%) compared to other ages studied. Newborn calves showed an intermediate index (Dorsal Portion: 65.1%; Ventral Portion: 48.9%), whereas 110 day-old fetuses had the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.2%; Ventral Portion: 20.6%). Regarding the transitory epithelium, 110 day-old fetuses showed the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 44.6%; Ventral Portion: 20.1%), 150 day-old fetuses showed an intermediate proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.5%; Ventral Portion: 71.1%) and newborn calves presented a higher proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 75.1%; Ventral Portion: 19.6%). Under TEM, the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses presented thicker and poorly organized basal cell layer, with large nuclei and dense cytoplasm. In newborn calves, the basal cell layer was more organized and with fewer layers, but typically similar in both regions of the rumen. For the transitory epithelium, fetuses displayed larger cells than those found in newborn calves with less electrondense cytoplasm than that found in the basal cells. The ruminal dorsal portion has an overall higher cell proliferation rate than the ventral portion. Thus we can infer that the dorsal portion may have a higher cell activity than the ventral portion during ruminal development. Moreover, the basal cell layer is thicker in the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses than in the newborn calves. The transitory epithelium, which is much reduced, at birth may have a structural support function of the developing dermal papillae. When it regresses or is sheared off, the papillae are “carved out” from the surrounding epithelial layer.

Keywords: bovine, calf, epithelium, fetus, hematoxylin-eosin, immunohistochemistry, TEM, Rumen

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