Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 154

Search results for: Xiao-yan Jiang

154 Radix Saposhnikoviae Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice by Regulating DCs Activated Th1-Type Cells

Authors: Hailiang Liu, Yan Ni, Jie Zheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Min Hong

Abstract:

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a commonly clinical type IV allergic skin disease, with the pathological features of infiltration by mononuclear cells and tissue necrosis. Traditional Chinese medicine Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS) is traditionally employed to treat exogenous evils, rubella, itching, rheumatism and tetanus. Meanwhile, it is an important component of the commonly used anti-allergy compound. It’s now widely used as an immuno-modulating agent in mixed herbal decoctions to treat inflammation. However, its mechanism of anti-allergy remains unknown. RS was found to reduce ear thickness, as well as the infiltration of eosinophils. The proliferation of T lymphocytes was inhibited significantly by RS, markedly decreased IFN-γ levels in the supernatant of cells cultured and serum were detected with the treatment of RS. RS significantly decreased the amount of DCs in the mouse lymph nodes, and inhibited the expression of CD4 0 and CD86. Meanwhile, T-bet mRNA expression was down remarkably regulated by RS. These results indicate that RS cures Th1-induced allergic skin inflammation by regulating Th1/Th2 balance with decreasing Th1 differentiation, which might be associated with DCs.

Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, Radix saposhnikoviae, dendritic cells, T-bet, GATA-3, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ treg cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
153 Cimifugin Inhibited Th2-Type Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Authors: Xiaoyan Jiang, Huizhu Wang, Lili Gui, Dandan Shen, Xiao Wei, Xi Yu, Hailiang Liu, Min Hong

Abstract:

Objective: Applicate FITC to establish Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis model, and study the effect and mechanism of Cimifugin on Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: The Balb/c mice were sensitized with painting 80 ul of 1.5% FITC onto the shaved abdomen skin at DAY1 and DAY2. The animals were challenged on their right ears with 20 ul of 0.6% FITC, and the left ears were painted with solvent alone at day 6, mice were administered cimifugin for 7 days. 24h later, ear swelling was noted, and the infiltration of eosinophils was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. while part of the ear tissue homogenates prepared for detecting interleukin-4 levels by ELISA .Mice were administered cimifugin In the initial stage of the above model for 5 days(-1DAY—DAY3), ear tissue were homogenized to detect IL-33 levels by ELISA. Results: Cimifugin 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg inhibited mouse ear swelling, ear histopathology showed that mice given Cimifugin has significantly reduced levels of local tissue fluid exudation, congestion, infiltration of lymphocytes, and other inflammatory conditions compared with the model group. At the same time, it has significantly reduce of Th2 cytokines IL-4 in the mouse ear tissue homogenate. Data of the initial stage shows that 12.5mg/kg, 50mg/kg Cimifugin significantly inhibited IL-33 levels. Conclusion: Cimifugin inhibit FITC-induced Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis, and its mechanism may be related to inhibition of IL-33.

Keywords: cimifugin, allergic contact dermatitis, Th1/Th2, IL-33

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
152 Astragaioside IV Inhibits Type2 Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice and the Mechanism Through TLRs-NF-kB Pathway

Authors: Xiao Wei, Dandan Sheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Lili Gui, Huizhu Wang, Xi Yu, Hailiang Liu, Min Hong

Abstract:

Objective: Mice Type2 allergic contact dermatitis was utilized in this study to explore the effect of AS-IV on Type 2 allergic inflammatory. Methods: The mice were topically sensitized on the shaved abdomens with 1.5% FITC solution on abdominal skin in the day 1 and day 2 and elicited on the right ear with 0.5% FITC solution at day 6. Mice were treated with either AS-IV or normal saline from day 1 to day 5 (induction phase). Auricle swelling was measured 24 h after the elicitation. Ear pathohistological examination was carried out by HE staining. IL-4\IL-13, and IL-9 levels of ear tissue were detected by ELISA. Mice were treated with AS-IV at the initial stage of induction phase, ear tissue was taked at day 3.TSLP level of ear tissue was detected by ELISA and TSLPmRNA\NF-kBmRNA\TLRs(TLR2\TLR3\TLR8\TLR9)mRNA were detected by PCR. Results: AS-IV induction phase evidently inhibited the auricle inflam-mation of the models; pathohistological results indicated that AS-IV induction phase alleviated local edema and angiectasis of mice models and reduced lymphocytic infiltration. AS-IV induction phase markedly decreased IL-4\IL-13, and IL-9 levels in ear tissue. Moreover, at the initial stage of induction pha-se, AS-IV significantly reduced TSLP\TSLPmRNA\NF-kBmRNA\TLR2mRNA\TLR8 mRNA levels in ear tissue. Conclusion: Administration with AS-IV in induction phase could inhibit Type 2 allergic contact dermatitis in mice significantly, and the mechanism may be related with regulating TSLP through TLRs-NF-kB pathway.

Keywords: Astragaioside IV, allergic contact dermatitis, TSLP, interleukin-4, interleukin-13, interleukin-9

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
151 YPFS Attenuating TH2 Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation by Regulating the TSLP Pathway

Authors: Xi Yu, Lili Gu, Huizhu Wang, Xiao Wei, Dandan Sheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Min Hong

Abstract:

Introduction: Hypersensitivity disease is difficult to cure completely because of its recurrence, yupingfengsan (YPFS) is used to treat the diseases with the advantage of reducing the recurrence,but the precise mechanism is not clear. Previous studies of our laboratory have shown that the extract of YPFS can inhibit Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis(ACD) induced by FITC.Besides, thymic stromal lymphopoietin(TSLP) have been proved to be a master switch for allergic inflammation. Based on these studies, we want to establish a mouse model of TSLP production based on Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation to explore the regulating mechanisms of YPFS on TSLP in Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Methods: Th2-type ACD mouse model: The mice were topically sensitized on the abdomens (induction phase) and elicited on its ears skin 6 day later (excitation phase) with FITC solution, and the ear swelling was measured to evaluate the allergic inflammation;A mouse model of TSLP production based on Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation (TSLP production model): the skin of the ear was sensitized on two consecutive days with FITC solution causing the production of TSLP;Mice were treated with YPFS extract,ELISA、Real-time PCR and Western-blotting were using to examine the mRNA and protein levels of TSLP\TSLPR and TLRs ect. Results: YPFS extract can attenuates Th2-type allergic inflammatory in mice;in TSLP production model, YPFS can inhibit the expression of TSLP、 TSLPR、TLRs and MyD88, So we deduce the possible mechanisms of YPFS to play a role of intervention is through TLRs- MyD88 dependent and independent pathway to reduce TSLP production.

Keywords: YPFS, TSLP, TLRs, Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
150 The Evaluation Model for the Quality of Software Based on Open Source Code

Authors: Li Donghong, Peng Fuyang, Yang Guanghua, Su Xiaoyan

Abstract:

Using open source code is a popular method of software development. How to evaluate the quality of software becomes more important. This paper introduces an evaluation model. The model evaluates the quality from four dimensions: technology, production, management, and development. Each dimension includes many indicators. The weight of indicator can be modified according to the purpose of evaluation. The paper also introduces a method of using the model. The evaluating result can provide good advice for evaluating or purchasing the software.

Keywords: evaluation model, software quality, open source code, evaluation indicator

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
149 Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

Abstract:

The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.

Keywords: feed-forward neural network, clustering, max-entropy principle, probabilistic models

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148 One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Porous Microspheres by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Welding

Authors: Huiwu Yu, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng

Abstract:

Porous spheres have been widely used in many fields due to their attractive features. In this work, an approach for fabricating porous spheres of nanoparticles was presented, in which the nanoparticles were welded together to form micro spheres by simply irradiating the nanoparticles in liquid medium by a picosecond laser. As an example, anatase titanium dioxide was chosen as a typical material on account of its metastability. The structure and morphologies of the products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that, anatase titanium dioxide micro spheres (2-10 μm) with macroporous (10-100 nm) were prepared from nano-anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10-100 nm). The formation process of polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide microspheres was investigated with different liquid mediums and the input laser fluences. Thus, this facile laser irradiation approach might provide a way for the fabrication of porous microspheres without phase-transition.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, porous microspheres, picosecond laser, nano-welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
147 Margin-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Classifiers

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

Abstract:

Margin-Based Principle has been proposed for a long time, it has been proved that this principle could reduce the structural risk and improve the performance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Meanwhile, feed-forward neural network is a traditional classifier, which is very hot at present with a deeper architecture. However, the training algorithm of feed-forward neural network is developed and generated from Widrow-Hoff Principle that means to minimize the squared error. In this paper, we propose a new training algorithm for feed-forward neural networks based on Margin-Based Principle, which could effectively promote the accuracy and generalization ability of neural network classifiers with less labeled samples and flexible network. We have conducted experiments on four UCI open data sets and achieved good results as expected. In conclusion, our model could handle more sparse labeled and more high-dimension data set in a high accuracy while modification from old ANN method to our method is easy and almost free of work.

Keywords: Max-Margin Principle, Feed-Forward Neural Network, classifier, structural risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
146 The 2017 Shanghai Model Breaking Stalemate in Chinese Education Reform: A Discussion of China’s Scheduled Experiment in Access to Higher Education Between 2017 and 2020

Authors: Ping Chou, Xiaoyan Zhou

Abstract:

Domestically and internationally, the Chinese education has long been criticized for being test-oriented, and in spite of efforts made by the Chinese government, it remains hard to find a solution. This paper intends to look at the situation in a comparatively objective manner and discuss the significance of the Shanghai Model as a newly-scheduled experiment for education reform. As a breakthrough, in addition to comprehensive inner-quality evaluation, a small but important step is to be taken in shifting focus of attention back to students by giving them more freedom in selecting certain courses for aptitude tests for college admission. As the first author of the paper has studied and taught both in Chinese and American colleges and universities, comparisons are made when the situation becomes relevant. The official solution for test-oriented education is to make students well-rounded but the writers of this paper believe that it is even more important to make the system well-rounded so it can accept a spectrum of diverse individuals with different potential.

Keywords: college admission, education reform, Shanghai model, test-oriented education

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
145 Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types

Authors: Chaghoub Soraya, Zhang Xiaoyan

Abstract:

This research presents the first constant approximation algorithm to the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types. This problem was addressed with a single cable type and there is a bifactor approximation algorithm for the problem. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this paper is the first constant approximation algorithm for the p-median network design with multiple cable types. The addressed problem is a combination of two well studied problems which are p-median problem and network design problem. The introduced algorithm is a random sampling approximation algorithm of constant factor which is conceived by using some random sampling techniques form the literature. It is based on a redistribution Lemma from the literature and a steiner tree problem as a subproblem. This algorithm is simple, and it relies on the notions of random sampling and probability. The proposed approach gives an approximation solution with one constant ratio without violating any of the constraints, in contrast to the one proposed in the literature. This paper provides a (21 + 2)-approximation algorithm for the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types using random sampling techniques.

Keywords: approximation algorithms, buy-at-bulk, combinatorial optimization, network design, p-median

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
144 Frequent-Flyer Program: The Connection between Commercial Partners and Spin-off

Authors: Changmin Jiang

Abstract:

In this paper, we build a theoretical model to investigate the relationship between two recent trends in airline frequent-flyer programs (FFPs): the adoption of the “coalition” business model with other commercial partners, and the separation from airlines’ operations. We show that commercial partners benefit from teaming up with FFP, while increasing the number of commercial partners will increase the total profit; it reduces the average profit of the parties involved. Furthermore, we show that the number of commercial partners of an FFP is negatively related with the benefit to keep the FFP in-house.

Keywords: frequent flyer program, coalition, commercial partners, spin-off

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
143 How Is a Machine-Translated Literary Text Organized in Coherence? An Analysis Based upon Theme-Rheme Structure

Authors: Jiang Niu, Yue Jiang

Abstract:

With the ultimate goal to automatically generate translated texts with high quality, machine translation has made tremendous improvements. However, its translations of literary works are still plagued with problems in coherence, esp. the translation between distant language pairs. One of the causes of the problems is probably the lack of linguistic knowledge to be incorporated into the training of machine translation systems. In order to enable readers to better understand the problems of machine translation in coherence, to seek out the potential knowledge to be incorporated, and thus to improve the quality of machine translation products, this study applies Theme-Rheme structure to examine how a machine-translated literary text is organized and developed in terms of coherence. Theme-Rheme structure in Systemic Functional Linguistics is a useful tool for analysis of textual coherence. Theme is the departure point of a clause and Rheme is the rest of the clause. In a text, as Themes and Rhemes may be connected with each other in meaning, they form thematic and rhematic progressions throughout the text. Based on this structure, we can look into how a text is organized and developed in terms of coherence. Methodologically, we chose Chinese and English as the language pair to be studied. Specifically, we built a comparable corpus with two modes of English translations, viz. machine translation (MT) and human translation (HT) of one Chinese literary source text. The translated texts were annotated with Themes, Rhemes and their progressions throughout the texts. The annotated texts were analyzed from two respects, the different types of Themes functioning differently in achieving coherence, and the different types of thematic and rhematic progressions functioning differently in constructing texts. By analyzing and contrasting the two modes of translations, it is found that compared with the HT, 1) the MT features “pseudo-coherence”, with lots of ill-connected fragments of information using “and”; 2) the MT system produces a static and less interconnected text that reads like a list; these two points, in turn, lead to the less coherent organization and development of the MT than that of the HT; 3) novel to traditional and previous studies, Rhemes do contribute to textual connection and coherence though less than Themes do and thus are worthy of notice in further studies. Hence, the findings suggest that Theme-Rheme structure be applied to measuring and assessing the coherence of machine translation, to being incorporated into the training of the machine translation system, and Rheme be taken into account when studying the textual coherence of both MT and HT.

Keywords: coherence, corpus-based, literary translation, machine translation, Theme-Rheme structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
142 Performance of Nine Different Types of PV Modules in the Tropical Region

Authors: Jiang Fan

Abstract:

With growth of PV market in tropical region, it is necessary to investigate the performance of different types of PV technology under the tropical weather conditions. Singapore Polytechnic was funded by Economic Development Board (EDB) to set up a solar PV test-bed for the research on performance of different types of PV modules in the country. The PV test-bed installed the nine different types of PV systems that are integrated to power utility grid for monitoring and analyzing their operating performances. This paper presents the 12 months operational data of nine different PV systems and analyses on performances of installed PV systems using energy yield and performance ratio. The nine types of PV systems under test have shown their energy yields ranging from 2.67 to 3.36 kWh/kWp and their performance ratios (PRs) ranging from 70% to 88%.

Keywords: monocrystalline, multicrystalline, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, thin film PV

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
141 Investigation of Enhanced Geothermal System with CO2 as Working Fluid

Authors: Ruina Xu, Peixue Jiang, Feng Luo

Abstract:

The novel concept of enhanced geothermal system with CO2 instead of water as working fluid (CO2-EGS) has attracted wide attention due to additional benefit of CO2 geological storage during the power generation process. In this research, numerical investigation on a doublet CO2-EGS system is performed, focusing on the influence of the injection/production well perforation location in the targeted geothermal reservoir. Three different reservoir inlet and outlet boundary conditions are used in simulations since the well constrains are different in reality. The results show that CO2-EGS system performance of power generation and power cost vary greatly among cases of different wells perforation locations, and the optimum options under different boundary conditions are also different.

Keywords: Enhanced Geothermal System, supercritical CO2, heat transfer, CO2-EGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
140 The Strategies to Improve the Pedestrian System in the Context of Old Aging

Authors: Yuxiao Jiang, Dong Ma, Mengyu Zhan, Yingxia Yun

Abstract:

China now is entering the phase of old aging and the aging speed is on acceleration. The proportion of the aged citizens in the urban areas is getting larger. Traveling on foot is one of the main travel methods for the old, but the bad walking environment and unsystematic pedestrian system cause inconvenience to the old who travel on foot. The paper analyzes the behavioral characteristics and the spatial preferences of the elderly group as well as the new traffic demands of them, finding out that some problems exist in the current pedestrian system. Thus, the paper proposes strategies in the areas of planning and design, and engineering technology so as to promote the traffic environment and perfect the pedestrian system for the old people.

Keywords: old aging, pedestrian system, perfection strategies, travel characteristics, future demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
139 Synthesis and Properties of Sulfonate Gemini Surfactants with Amide Groups

Authors: Rui Wang, Shanfa Tang, Yuanwu Dong, Siyao Wang, Zhaowen Jiang, Di Han

Abstract:

A sulfonate Gemini surfactant sodium N,N`-bis(tetradecanoyl) propanediamine dipropyl sulfonate (GNS-14) was synthesized from 1,3-propanediamine, tetradecanoyl chloride, and1,3-propanesulfonic lactone. GNS-14 was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR. The surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsification properties of GNS-14 solution were systematically studied. The critical micelle concentration (CCMC) of GNS-14 surfactant was 0.056 mmol/L, and the surface tension (γCMC) was 18.2 mN/m; at 50℃, 0.5% GNS-14 solution can reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to 6.5×10−2 mN/m. GNS-14 has excellent surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsifying properties.

Keywords: gemini surfactants, surface tension, low interfacial tension, emulsifying properties

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138 Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass in the East China Sea Based on MODIS Data

Authors: Yumei Wu, Xiaoyan Dang, Shenglong Yang, Shengmao Zhang

Abstract:

The East China Sea is one of four main seas in China, where there are many fishery resources. Some important fishing grounds, such as Zhousan fishing ground important to society. But the eco-environment is destroyed seriously due to the rapid developing of industry and economy these years. In this paper, about twenty-year satellite data from MODIS and the statistical information of marine environment from the China marine environmental quality bulletin were applied to do the research. The chlorophyll-a concentration data from MODIS were dealt with in the East China Sea and then used to analyze the features and variations of plankton biomass in recent years. The statistics method was used to obtain their spatial and temporal features. The plankton biomass in the Yangtze River estuary and the Taizhou region were highest. The high phytoplankton biomass usually appeared between the 88th day to the 240th day (end-March - August). In the peak time of phytoplankton blooms, the Taizhou islands was the earliest, and the South China Sea was the latest. The intensity and period of phytoplankton blooms were connected with the global climate change. This work give us confidence to use satellite data to do more researches about the China Sea, and it also provides some help for us to know about the eco-environmental variation of the East China Sea and regional effect from global climate change.

Keywords: the East China Sea, phytoplankton biomass, temporal and spatial variation, phytoplankton bloom

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
137 Surface Modification of SUS-304 Using Nitriding Treatment for Application of Bipolar Plates of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Wei-Ru Chang, Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Zen-Ting Hsiao, Shu-Feng Lee

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are widely used in electrical systems as an economical, low-polluting energy source. This study investigates the effects of PEMFC gas nitriding treatment on metal bipolar plates. The test material was SUS304 stainless steel. The study explored five different pretreatment processes, varying the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity conditions. The most effective process was industrial acid washing, followed by heating to 500 °C. Under the condition, the corrosion current density was 8.695 μA, significantly lower than that of the untreated pretreatment sample flakes, which was measured as 38.351 μA.

Keywords: nitriding, bipolar, 304, corrosion, resistance, pretreatment

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136 High Quality Gallium Oxide Microstructures by Catalyst-Free Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Jiang-Bei Qin, Rui-Xia Miao, Wei Ren

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In this study, high crystalline gallium oxide microstructures (wires, belts, and sheets) were synthesized by catalyst-free thermal oxidation. Structural studies such as X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations on the microstructures showed monoclinic phase of gallium oxide and single crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that a huge super microsheet even grows up to 450 µm in length and 206 µm in width. Gallium oxide microstructures exhibit high crystallinity along (002) and (401), respectively. The PL spectrum of these microstructures excites a blue light band centered at 441 and 489nm. The growth mechanism of gallium oxide microstructures is discussed. These gallium oxide microstructures have great potential in functional devices.

Keywords: catalyst-free, gallium oxide, microstructures, thermal oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
135 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

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According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

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134 Degradation of Acetaminophen with Fe3O4 and Fe2+ as Activator of Peroxymonosulfate

Authors: Chaoqun Tan, Naiyun Gao, Xiaoyan Xin

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Perxymonosulfate (PMS)-based oxidation processes, as an alternative of hydrogen peroxide-based oxidation processes, are more and more popular because of reactive radical species (SO4-•, OH•) produced in systems. Magnetic nano-scaled particles Fe3O4 and ferrous anion (Fe2+) were studied for the activation of PMS for degradation of acetaminophen (APAP) in water. The Fe3O4 MNPs were found to effectively catalyze PMS for APAP and the reactions well followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern (R2 > 0.95), while the degradation of APAP in PMS-Fe2+ system proceeds through two stages: a fast stage and a much slower stage. Within 5 min, approximately 7% and 18% of 10 ppm APAP was accomplished by 0.2 mM PMS in Fe3O4 (0.8g/L) and Fe2+ (0.1mM) activation process. However, as reaction proceed to 120 min, approximately 75% and 35% of APAP was removed in Fe3O4 activation process and Fe2+ activation process, respectively. Within 120 min, the mineralization of APAP was about 7.5% and 5.0% (initial APAP of 10 ppm and [PMS]0 of 0.2 mM) in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, while the mineralization could be greatly increased to about 31% and 40% as [PMS]0 increased to 2.0 mM in in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, respectively. At last, the production of reactive radical species were validated directly from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR) tests with 0.1 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO). Plausible mechanisms on the radical generation from Fe3O4 and Fe2+ activation of PMS are proposed on the results of radial identification tests. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 MNPs activated PMS and Fe2+ anion activated PMS systems are promising technologies for water pollution caused by contaminants such as pharmaceutical. Fe3O4-PMS system is more suitable for slowly remediation, while Fe2+-PMS system is more suitable for fast remediation.

Keywords: acetaminophen, peroxymonosulfate, radicals, Fe3O4

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133 Behavior Consistency Analysis for Workflow Nets Based on Branching Processes

Authors: Wang Mimi, Jiang Changjun, Liu Guanjun, Fang Xianwen

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Loop structure often appears in the business process modeling, analyzing the consistency of corresponding workflow net models containing loop structure is a problem, the existing behavior consistency methods cannot analyze effectively the process models with the loop structure. In the paper, by analyzing five kinds of behavior relations of transitions, a three-dimensional figure and two-dimensional behavior relation matrix are proposed. Based on this, analysis method of behavior consistency of business process based on Petri net branching processes is proposed. Finally, an example is given out, which shows the method is effective.

Keywords: workflow net, behavior consistency measures, loop, branching process

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
132 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay, Jiang Fan

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Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
131 Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu

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Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.

Keywords: compact city development, environmental sustainability, residential area, Hangzhou

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130 A Green Analytical Curriculum for Renewable STEM Education

Authors: Mian Jiang, Zhenyi Wu

Abstract:

We have incorporated green components into existing analytical chemistry curriculum with the aims to present a more environment benign approach in both teaching laboratory and undergraduate research. These include the use of cheap, sustainable, and market-available material; minimized waste disposal, replacement of non-aqueous media; and scale-down in sample/reagent consumption. Model incorporations have covered topics in quantitative chemistry as well as instrumental analysis, lower division as well as upper level, and research in traditional titration, spectroscopy, electrochemical analysis, and chromatography. The green embedding has made chemistry more daily life relevance, and application focus. Our approach has the potential to expand into all STEM fields to make renewable, high-impact education experience for undergraduate students.

Keywords: green analytical chemistry, pencil lead, mercury, renewable

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
129 Thoughts on the Degree of Openness for Opening Residential District from the Perspective of Landscape Design

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu, Siyu Bu

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The development of opening residential district is the inevitable trend in China. The landscape resources in opening districts are the main resource for their sharing. However, there is a certain contradiction between the ideal of urban development and the reality of constraints. How to find a balance, to ensure a reasonable open ‘degree’ is particularly important. The opening residential district landscape design should reflect the relative independence of living space, taking into account the basic needs of residents; but also the integration of space, resource sharing, to ensure that the order of daily life on the basis of social interaction and adapt to the dynamic development of the city changes. And ultimately to achieve a reasonable degree of openness to settlements.

Keywords: degree of openness, landscape design, opening residential district, urban design

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
128 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

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Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
127 Hybrid Multipath Congestion Control

Authors: Akshit Singhal, Xuan Wang, Zhijun Wang, Hao Che, Hong Jiang

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Multiple Path Transmission Control Protocols (MPTCPs) allow flows to explore path diversity to improve the throughput, reliability and network resource utilization. However, the existing solutions may discourage users to adopt the solutions in the face of multipath scenario where different paths are charged based on different pricing structures, e.g., WiFi vs cellular connections, widely available for mobile phones. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid MPTCP (H-MPTCP) with a built-in mechanism to incentivize users to use multiple paths with different pricing structures. In the meantime, H-MPTCP preserves the nice properties enjoyed by the state-of-the-art MPTCP solutions. Extensive real Linux implementation results verify that H-MPTCP can indeed achieve the design objectives.

Keywords: network, TCP, WiFi, cellular, congestion control

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126 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

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125 Radical Degradation of Acetaminophen with Peroxymonosulfate-Based Oxidation Processes

Authors: Chaoqun Tan, Naiyun Gao, Xiaoyan Xin

Abstract:

Perxymonosulfate (PMS)-based oxidation processes, as an alternative of hydrogen peroxide-based oxidation processes, are more and more popular because of reactive radical species (SO4-•, OH•) produced in systems. Magnetic nano-scaled particles Fe3O4 and ferrous anion (Fe2+) were studied for the activation of PMS for degradation of acetaminophen (APAP) in water. The Fe3O4 MNPs were found to effectively catalyze PMS for APAP and the reactions well followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern (R2>0.95). While the degradation of APAP in PMS-Fe2+ system proceeds through two stages: a fast stage and a much slower stage. Within 5 min, approximately 7% and 18% of 10 ppm APAP was accomplished by 0.2 mM PMS in Fe3O4 (0.8g/L) and Fe2+ (0.1mM) activation process. However, as reaction proceed to 120 min, approximately 75% and 35% of APAP was removed in Fe3O4 activation process and Fe2+ activation process, respectively. Within 120 min, the mineralization of APAP was about 7.5% and 5.0% (initial APAP of 10 ppm and [PMS]0 of 0.2 mM) in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, while the mineralization could be greatly increased to about 31% and 40% as [PMS]0 increased to 2.0 mM in in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, respectively. At last, the production of reactive radical species were validated directly from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR) tests with 0.1 M 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO). Plausible mechanisms on the radical generation from Fe3O4 and Fe2+ activation of PMS are proposed on the results of radial identification tests. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 MNPs activated PMS and Fe2+ anion activated PMS systems are promising technologies for water pollution caused by contaminants such as pharmaceutical. Fe3O4-PMS system is more suitable for slowly remediation, while Fe2+-PMS system is more suitable for fast remediation.

Keywords: acetaminophen, peroxymonosulfate, radicals, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 273