Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 814

Search results for: drug-containing serum

814 The Association of IL-17 Serum Levels with Disease Severity and Onset of Symptoms in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz


Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, often leading to joint damage and physical disability. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of serum levels of interleukin 17 and anti-CCP factor with disease severity in RA patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with RA confirmed by clinical and laboratory criteria were recruited. A 5 ml venous blood sample was taken from every patient, its serum was separated. Based on clinical data and severity of symptoms, patients were classified into three groups of those with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms. Serum levels of IL-17 and anti-CCP in all samples were measured using ELISA. Results: Analysis of IL-17 serum levels in different groups showed that its amount was higher in the group with mild clinical symptoms than in other groups. Comparison of IL-17 serum levels between mild and moderate disease severity groups showed a statistically significant relationship. There was also a positive linear relationship between anti-CCP and serum IL-17 levels in different groups of the disease, and serum IL-17 levels were inversely related to the duration of exposure to the disease. Conclusion: Higher IL-17 serum levels in patients with mild symptom severity confirm that this highly specific marker is involved in the pathogenesis of RA and may be effective in initiating patients’ clinical symptoms.

Keywords: IL-17, anti-CCP, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune

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813 Effect of Serum Electrolytes on a QTc Interval and Mortality in Patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Niyada Naksuk


Background: Serum electrolyte abnormalities are a common cause of an acquired prolonged QT syndrome, especially, in the coronary care unit (CCU) setting. Optimal electrolyte ranges among the CCU patients have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We identified 8,498 consecutive CCU patients who were admitted to the CCU at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA, from 2004 through 2013. Association between first serum electrolytes and baseline corrected QT intervals (QTc), as well as in-hospital mortality, was tested using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, ionized calcium (iCa) 4.6-4.8 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0- < 2.2 mg/dL were used as the reference levels. Results: There was a modest level-dependent relationship between hypokalemia ( < 4.0 mEq/L), hypocalcemia ( < 4.4 mg/dL), and a prolonged QTc interval; serum magnesium did not affect the QTc interval. Association between the serum electrolytes and in-hospital mortality included a U-shaped relationship for serum potassium (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 and OR 1.91for serum potassium 4.5- < 5.0 and ≥ 5.0 mEq/L, respectively) and an inverted J-shaped relationship for iCa (adjusted OR 2.79 and OR 2.03 for calcium < 4.4 and 4.4- < 4.6 mg/dL, respectively). For serum magnesium, the mortality was greater only among patients with levels ≥ 2.4 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.40), compared to the reference level. Findings were similar in sensitivity analyses examining the association between mean serum electrolytes and mean QTc intervals, as well as in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, iCa ≥ 4.6 mg/dL, and magnesium < 2.4 mg/dL had a neutral effect on QTc intervals and were associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among the CCU patients.

Keywords: calcium, electrocardiography, long-QT syndrome, magnesium, mortality, potassium

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812 Evaluation of the Relation between Serum and Saliva Levels of Sodium and Glucose in Healthy Referred Patients to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry

Authors: Samaneh Nazemi, Ayla Bahramian, Marzieh Aghazadeh


Saliva is a clear liquid composed of water, electrolytes, glucose, amylase, glycoproteins, and antimicrobial enzymes. The presence of a wide range of molecules and proteins in saliva has made this fluid valuable in screening for some diseases as well as epidemiological studies. Saliva is easier than serum to collect in large populations. Due to the importance of sodium and glucose levels in many biological processes, this study investigates the relationship between sodium and glucose levels in salivary and serum samples of healthy individuals referring to Tabriz Dental School. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 healthy individuals referred to the Oral Diseases Department of Tabriz Dental School. Serum and saliva samples were taken from these patients according to standard protocols. Data were presented as mean (standard deviation) and frequency (percentage) for quantitative and qualitative variables. Pearson test, paired-samples T-test and SPSS 24 software were used to determine the correlation between serum and salivary levels of these biomarkers. In this study, P less than 0.05% is considered significant. Out of 40 participants in this study, 14 (35%) were male, and 26 (65%) were female. According to the results of this study, the mean salivary sodium (127.53 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum sodium (141.2725 ml/dl). In contrast, the mean salivary glucose (4.55 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum glucose (89.7575 ml/dl). The result of paired samples T-test (p-value<0.05) showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of serum sodium and salivary sodium, as well as between the serum glucose and salivary glucose. Pearson correlation test results showed that there is no significant correlation between serum sodium and salivary sodium (p-value >0.05), but here is a positive correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose (p-value<0.001). Both serum sodium and glucose were higher than salivary sodium and glucose.In conclusion, this study found that there was not a statistical relationship between salivary glucose and serum glucose and also salivary sodium and serum sodium of healthy individuals. Perhaps salivary samples can’t be used to measure glucose and sodium in these individuals.

Keywords: glucose, saliva, serum, sodium

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811 Association of Serum Uric Acid Level and Bone Mineral Density of Menopausal Women

Authors: Soyeon Kang, Youn-Jee Chung, Jung Namkung


Objective: This retrospective study investigated the association between uric acid level and bone mineral density (BMD) in the postmenopausal period. Methods: The study included 328 menopausal women (mean age, 57.3 ± 6.5 years; mean serum uric acid level, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL). Patients were divided into three groups by tertile of serum uric acid level. Patients who used hormone treatment (HT), bisphosphonates, or lipid-lowering agents were included. Results: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the upper uric acid tertiles. No significant difference was found in the mean uric acid levels between medication users and non-users. Distinct HT regimens showed different mean serum uric acid levels. In a cross-sectional analysis, higher serum uric acid levels showed a tendency toward increased BMD in the spine and femoral neck. Longitudinal analysis of 186 women who underwent follow-up examination at a mean interval of 14.6 months revealed a trend toward a smaller reduction in femoral neck BMD in women in the upper serum uric acid tertiles. Conclusion: A positive correlation exists between serum uric acid levels and BMD in menopausal women.

Keywords: menopause, antioxidant, uric acid, bone mineral density

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810 Vitamin A Status and Its Correlation with the Dietary Intake of Young Females of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sarah Fatima, Ahmad A. Malik, Saima Sadaf


This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary record and vitamin A status of young females of Lahore. A total sample of 376 consisted of 16 – 20 years of unmarried college going females. Three main tools were adopted: questionnaire, 3-day food diary and serum retinol test. The anthropometric measurements showed that a total of 32.6% of the sample was underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 54.5% had a healthy weight (BMI 18.5 – 22.9). The average Vitamin A intake of the sample was 257.95 µg/day while the RDA for the selected age group was 700 µg/day. The mean energy intake of the adolescents was 1153.64 kcal/ day, whereas the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for this age group was 2368 kcal/day. The mean serum Vitamin A level was 24.81µg/dL. 69.6% of the sample was deficient in serum Vitamin A i.e. serum retinol < 24 µg/dL. 30.4% had serum retinol in normal limit (24 – 84 µg/dL) from which 25.3% lied in lower limit (24 – 44 µg/dL) and only 5.1% had serum retinol in 44 – 64 µg/dL range. A slightly negative correlation (r = - 0.21, 95% confidence interval) was found between dietary intake of Vitamin A and serum Vitamin A It was concluded that the dietary intake of major nutrients and vitamin A is not adequate in the selected group. This is also confirmed by the lower serum retinol levels. Hence, vitamin An intake and status are generally inadequate, and vitamin deficiency is prevalent in the unmarried young females of Lahore.

Keywords: vitamin A, young Females, vitamin deficiency, Lahore

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809 The Relationship between Impared Fasting Glucose and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Level

Authors: Nanhee Cho, Eugene Han, Hanbyul Kim, Hochan Cho


Pre-diabetes includes impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and there is a strong probability that pre-diabetes will lead to diabetes mellitus (DM). Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is known to be increased as a compensatory response to metabolic imbalance under conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and DM. This study aims to identify the relationship of serum FGF-21 with pre-diabetes, and with biomarkers of related metabolic diseases. Fifty five Korea adult patients participated in a cohort study from June 2012 to December 2015. The analysis revealed that BMI, FBS levels, and serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in the IFG group compared to those in the normal group. A multiple regression analysis was conduted on the correlations of serum FGF-21 levels with BMI, and FBS levels, and the result did not show statistical significance. In conclusion, our results revealed that serum FGF-21 level serve as a marker to predict IFG.

Keywords: cytokine, fibroblast growth factor 21, impaired fasting glucose, prediabetes

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808 Preliminary Studies: Relationship between Serum Level of Vitamin D and Symptoms of Schizophrenia Measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in Sumatera Utara

Authors: Novi Prasanty, Mustafa Ma, Elmeida Effendy


Background: Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that most often encountered. Nearly 1% of the world population suffers from schizophrenia during their lifetime. Schizophrenia is a severe form of psychotic disorders, and tend to be chronic. Vitamin D plays crucial roles in neuroprotection and neurodevelopment, and low levels are commonly associated with schizophrenia. Lower vitamin D levels were correlated with more severe positive, negative, and overall symptoms in schizophrenia patient men and women. Methods: 54 schizophrenic patients, male and female, who are diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X. A symptom of schizophrenia was measured by using positive and negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Examination of serum vitamin D using ELFA. Analysis to compare the serum levels of vitamin D male and female with Independent T-test, and the relationship between serum level of vitamin D and symptom with correlation. Results: In this study serum levels in male schizophrenic patients 22.12 (4.16), and 16.54 (2.88) in female schizophrenic patients. There are differences in male schizophrenic patients and women (p < 0.001). The negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D in the PANSS total score in patients with schizophrenic male with r -0.58, p (0,016), and the female schizophrenic patients with r -0.69, p (0.031). Conclusion and Suggestion: There is a negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with a total score of PANSS, the lower the serum levels of vitamin D, the higher the total score of the PANSS.

Keywords: PANSS, schizophrenia, serum levels of vitamin D, severity illness

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807 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit


Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

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806 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki


30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: albumin, amylase, cholesterol, crack, HDL, LDL, lipase, protein, rat, triglycerides, VLDL

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805 Simultaneous Analysis of 25 Trace Elements in Micro Volume of Human Serum by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Siok-Fong Chin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Rahman Jamal


In recent years, trace elements have gained importance as biomarkers in many chronic diseases. Unfortunately, the requirement for sample volume increases according to the extent of investigation for diagnosis or elucidating the mechanism of the disease. Here, we describe the method development and validation for simultaneous determination of 25 trace elements (lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), caesium (Cs), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), uranium (U)) using just 20 µL of human serum. Serum samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (ratio 1:1, v/v) and analysed using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seronorm®, a human-derived serum control material was used as quality control samples. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were consistently < 15% for all elements. The validated method was later applied to 30 human serum samples to evaluate its suitability. In conclusion, we have successfully developed and validated a precise and accurate analytical method for determining 25 trace elements requiring very low volume of human serum.

Keywords: acid digestion, ICP-MS, trace element, serum

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804 Assessment of Sex Differences in Serum Urea and Creatinine Level in Response to Spinal Cord Injury Using Albino Rat Models

Authors: Waziri B. I., Elkhashab M. M.


Background: One of the most serious consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) is progressive deterioration of renal function mostly as a result of urine stasis and ascending infection of the paralyzed bladder. This necessitates for investigation of early changes in serum urea and creatinine and associated sex related differences in response to SCI. Methods: A total of 24 adult albino rats weighing above 150g were divided equally into two groups, a control and experimental group (n = 12) each containing an equal number of male and female rats. The experimental group animals were paralyzed by complete transection of spinal cord below T4 level after deep anesthesia with ketamine 75mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from both groups five days post SCI for analysis. Mean values of serum urea (mmol/L) and creatinine (µmol/L) for both groups were compared. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of serum urea and creatinine in the male SCI models with mean values of 92.12 ± 0.98 and 2573 ± 70.97 respectively compared with their controls where the mean values for serum urea and creatinine were 6.31 ± 1.48 and 476. 95 ± 4.67 respectively. In the female SCI models, serum urea 13.11 ± 0.81 and creatinine 519.88 ± 31.13 were not significantly different from that of female controls with serum urea and creatinine levels of 11.71 ± 1.43 and 493.69 ± 17.10 respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal cord injury caused a significant increase in serum Urea and Creatinine levels in the male models compared to the females. This indicated that males might have higher risk of renal dysfunction following SCI.

Keywords: albino rats, creatinine, spinal cord injury (SCI), urea

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803 Serum MicroRNA and Inflammatory Mediators: Diagnostic Biomarkers for Endometritis in Arabian Mares

Authors: Sally Ibrahim, Mohamed Hedia, Mohamed Taqi, Mohamed Derbala, Karima Mahmoud, Youssef Ahmed, Sayed Ismail, Mohamed El-Belely


The identification and quantification of serum microRNA (miRNA) from mares with endometritis might serve as useful and implementable clinical biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometiritis. Aims of the current study were (I) to study the expression pattern of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205, and (II) to determine the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), prostaglandins (PGF₂α and PGE₂), in the serum of Arabian mares with healthy and abnormal uterine status (endometritis). This study was conducted on 80 Arabian mares (4-14 years old). Mares were divided into 48 sub-fertile mares suspected of endometritis and 32 fertile at stud farms. The criteria for mares to be enrolled in the endometritis group were that they had been bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the breeding season or had a history of more than one year of reproductive failure. In addition, two or more of the following criteria on a checklist were present: abnormal clinical findings, transrectal ultrasonographic uterine examination showed abnormal fluid in the uterus (echogenic or ≥2 cm in diameter), positive endometrial cytology; and bacterial and/or fungal growth. Serum samples were collected for measuring IL-6, PGF₂α, and PGE₂ concentrations, as well as serum miRNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR. Serum concentrations of IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α were higher (P ≤ 0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control healthy ones. The expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 increased (P≤0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that revealed that serum miRNA and serum inflammatory mediators (IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α) could be used as non-invasive gold standard biomarkers, and therefore might be served as an important additional diagnostic tool for endometritis in Arabian mares. Moreover, estimation of the serum concentrations of serum miRNA, IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α is a promising recommended tool during the breeding soundness examination in mares.

Keywords: Arabian Mares, endometritis, inflammatory mediators, serum miRNA

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802 Evaluation of Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor A (TNF-A) Changes in Synovial Fluid and Serum in Dogs with Osteoarthritis; An Experimental Study

Authors: Behrooz Nikahval, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Sakineh Behroozpoor, Saeed Nazifi


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative condition of the articular cartilage and other joints’ structures. It is essential to diagnose this condition as early as possible. The present research was performed to measure the Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in synovial fluid and blood serum of dogs with surgically transected cruciate ligament as a model of OA, to evaluate if measuring of these parameters can be used as a way of early diagnosis of OA. In the present study, four mature, clinically healthy dogs were selected to investigate the effect of experimental OA, on OPG and TNF-α as a way of early detection of OA. OPG and TNF-α were measured in synovial fluid and blood serum on days 0, 14, 28, 90 and 180 after surgical transaction of cranial cruciate ligament in one stifle joint. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a significant increase in TNF-α in both synovial fluid and blood serum. OPG showed a decrease two weeks after OA induction. However, it fluctuated afterward. In conclusion, TNF-α could be used in both synovial fluid and blood serum as a way of early detection of OA; however, further research still needs to be conducted on OPG values in OA detection.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, osteoprotegrin, tumor necrosis factor α, synovial fluid, serum, dog

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801 Effects of Turmeric Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Authors: Maryam Rafraf, Aida Ghaffari


Objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dyslipidemia contributes to the enhanced risk of CVD in persons with NAFLD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on serum lipids levels in patients with NAFLD. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 46 NAFLD patients (21 males and 25 females; age range, 20 – 60 years) were randomly assigned in the two groups. The intervention and control groups received 3g of turmeric (n = 23) and placebo (n = 23), daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results: Turmeric supplementation significantly increased serum levels of HDL-C compared with the placebo group at the end of the study (by 12.73%, P < 0.05). Serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced within turmeric group at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Turmeric consumption had beneficial effects on serum lipids levels of subjects and may be useful in controlling of CVD risk factors in NAFLD patients.

Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver, serum lipids, supplementation, turmeric

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800 The Influence of Training on the Special Aerial Gymnastics Instruments on Selected C-Reactive Proteins in Cadets’ Serum

Authors: Z. Wochyński, K. A. Sobiech, Z. Kobos


To C-Reactive Proteins include ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin- metalloproteins. The study aimed at assessing an effect of training on the Special Aerial Gymnastics Instruments (SAGI) on changes of serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin and cadets’ physical fitness in comparison with a control group. Fifty-five cadets in the mean age 20 years were included into this study. They were divided into two groups: Group A (N=41) trained on SAGI and Group B (N=14) trained according the standard program of physical education (control group). In both groups, blood was a material for assays. Samples were collected twice before and after training at the start of the program (training I), during (training II), and after education program completion (training III). Commercially available kits were used to assay blood serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin. Cadets’ physical fitness was evaluated with exercise tests before and after education program completion. In Group A, serum post-exercise ferritin decreased statistically insignificantly in training I and II and increased in training III in comparison with pre-exercise values. In Group B, post-exercise serum ferritin decreased statistically insignificantly in training I and III and significantly increased in training II in comparison with the pre-exercise values. In Group A, serum transferrin decreased statistically insignificantly in training I, and significantly increased in training II, whereas in training III it increased insignificantly in comparison with pre-exercise values. In Group B, post-exercise serum transferrin increased statistically significantly in training I, II, and III in comparison with pre-exercise values. I n Group A, serum ceruloplasmin decreased in all three series in comparison with pre-exercise values. In Group B, serum ceruloplasmin increased significantly in training II. It was showed that the training on SAGI significantly decreased serum ceruloplasmin in Group A in all three series of assays and did not produce significant changes in serum ferritin also was showed significant increase in serum transferrin.

Keywords: special aerial gymnastics instruments, ferritin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin

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799 Admission C-Reactive Protein Serum Levels and In-Hospital Mortality in the Elderly Admitted to the Acute Geriatrics Department

Authors: Anjelika Kremer, Irina Nachimov, Dan Justo


Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels are commonly measured in hospitalized patients. Elevated admission CRP serum levels and in-hospital mortality has been seldom studied in the general population of elderly patients admitted to the acute Geriatrics department. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center. Included were all elderly patients (age 65 years or more) admitted to a single acute Geriatrics department from the emergency room between April 2014 and January 2015. CRP serum levels were measured routinely in all patients upon the first 24 hours of admission. A logistic regression analysis was used to study if admission CRP serum levels were associated with in-hospital mortality independent of age, gender, functional status, and co-morbidities. Results: Overall, 498 elderly patients were included in the analysis: 306 (61.4%) female patients and 192 (38.6%) male patients. The mean age was 84.8±7.0 years (median: 85 years; IQR: 80-90 years). The mean admission CRP serum levels was 43.2±67.1 mg/l (median: 13.1 mg/l; IQR: 2.8-51.7 mg/l). Overall, 33 (6.6%) elderly patients died during the hospitalization. A logistic regression analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was independently associated with history of stroke (p < 0.0001), heart failure (p < 0.0001), and admission CRP serum levels (p < 0.0001) – and to a lesser extent with age (p = 0.042), collagen vascular disease (p=0.011), and recent venous thromboembolism (p=0.037). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that admission CRP serum levels predict in-hospital mortality fairly with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.694 (p < 0.0001). Cut-off value with maximal sensitivity and specificity was 19.7 mg/L. Conclusions: Admission CRP serum levels may be used to predict in-hospital mortality in the general population of elderly patients admitted to the acute Geriatrics department.

Keywords: c-reactive protein, elderly, mortality, prediction

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798 Effects of Cinnamon, Garlic, and Yucca Extracts on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

Authors: Anguo Chen, Huajie Chen, Caimei Yang, Qihua Hong, Jun Feng


The experiment was conducted with 360 one-day-old Avian commercial broilers to study the effects of dietary cinnamon extract (CE), garlic extract (GE) and yucca extract (YE) on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers. The chickens were randomly divided equally into 4 treatment groups, each group with 3 replications, and received the same basal corn-bean diets included a starter from 1 d to 21 d and then a grower until 42 d, added with recommended dose 250 mg/kg CE, 25 mg/kg GE and 10 mg/kg YE to relevant group, respectively. The birds were kept in a stainless steel net coop each replication with 24 h light and were fed and drunk ad libitum. At 21 d and 42 d of age, 6 chicks were respectively picked out from every group and were bled to collect serum samples and intestinal samples for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADG) of CE, GE and YE group were increased by 7.20% (P<0.05), 3.43% (P>0.05) and 4.89% (P>0.05), feed gain ratio (F/G) was improved by 9.71% (P<0.05), 3.40% (P>0.05) and 3.40% (P>0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 21 d of age, the content of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum uric acid (SUA) and the activity of serum xanthine oxidase (SXO) in CE group were reduced by 35.17% (P<0.01), 13.73% (P<0.01) and 16.33% (P<0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 42 d of age, SUN and SUA level and SXO activity were lowered by 24.35% (P<0.01), 15.49% (P<0.05) and 23.09% (P<0.01), respectively. The SXO activity in CE group was decreased by 14.86% (P<0.01) and 15.34%(P<0.01) compare with GE and YE group, respectively. Also, adding CE, GE and YE into broiler diets resulted in lower UN and UA level of intestinal contents. It is clear that CE was more significantly decreased the SXO activity and SUA levels than GE and YE, especially at the latter period, thereby it may play a more important role in improving the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: cinnamon extract, broiler, growth performance, serum uric acid, serum xanthine oxidase

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797 Estimation of Serum Levels of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Safa Safdar


Breast cancer is a type of cancer which is developed by the formation of a tumor on the breast. This tumor invades and causes different electrolyte imbalance. The present study was designed to measure the serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels and to check the frequency of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in breast cancer patients. Serum calcium and phosphorous levels of fifty breast cancer women of 18-70 years of age group and fifty healthy women of same age group were measured by using semi-automated chemistry analyzer ( Humalyzer 3000, Human, Germany ). Significant variation in these levels was observed. The mean calcium value in BC patients was higher 9.398 mg/dl as compared to controls which were 8.694 mg/dl. Whereas the mean value of inorganic phosphorus level was lower 4.060 mg/dl in BC patients as compared to controls having 4.456 mg/dl. In this study, the frequency of hypercalcemia in Breast cancer patients was 10% i.e. only 10 out of 50 Breast cancer patients were suffering from hypercalcemia. Whereas the frequency of hypophosphatemia in this study was only 2 % i.e. only 1 out of 50 patients was suffering from hypophosphatemia. Thus it is concluded that there is a significant change in serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients as the disease progresses. So, this study will be helpful for the clinicians to maintain serum calcium and phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients and also preventing them from further complications.

Keywords: serum analysis, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, hpercalcemia hypophosphatemia

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796 Correlation of Serum Ferritin and Left Ventricular Function in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients with Increased Transfusion Dependence

Authors: Amna Imtiaz


Aims: To correlate serum ferritin with left ventricular function in beta thalassemia major patients with increased transfusion dependence and to find out whether echocardiography can be used to assess pre clinical cardiac disease in these patients. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. 60 patients of beta thalassemia major with increased transfusion dependence were enrolled in this study. Serum ferritin levels of all patients were measured by using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Echocardiography was performed on all patients by a consultant cardiologist by linking conventional echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging. Ejection fraction and E/A ratio were measured in all patients to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Results: On the basis of serum ferritin level, patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients having serum ferritin level equal to or less than 2500 ng/ml. A total of 25 patients were placed in this group. Group II included patients having serum ferritin level between 2500 to 5000 ng/ml. A total of 22 patients were placed in this group. Group III included patients having serum ferritin level more than 5000 ng/ml. This group consisted of 13 patients. All patients having serum ferritin below 2500ng/ml had normal systolic function, and only 16% of the patients in this group had diastolic dysfunction as reflected by abnormal E/A ratio. In group II, 27% of the patients had systolic dysfunction reflected by subnormal ejection fraction while 40% of the patients had diastolic dysfunction. In group III, 62% of the patients had abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Pearson correlation was used to find a correlation between serum ferritin and left ventricular function. A strong negative correlation was found which is reflected by a p value of less than 0.05 which is significant. Chi square test is used to correlate serum ferritin with E/A ratio. P value came out to be less than 0.05 which is significant.

Keywords: beta thalassemia major, left ventricular function, serum ferritin, transfusion dependence

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795 Cardiotrophin-1 and Leptin in Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Authors: Isil Cakir, Mustafa Uluhan


Elevated serum Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and leptin levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been reported to increase the risk of CVDs, too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum CT-1 and leptin in these patients and whether their possible association with the disease severity. Fifty newly diagnosed patients with OSAS and thirty nonapneic snoring subjects were participated in this study. The mean ages of patients and control groups were 47.40±13.30 and 43.23±10.50 years, respectively (P=0.128). Fasting serum triglyseride, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, also CT-1 and leptin levels were evaluated. A significant difference was found in the serum CT-1 and leptin levels between the patients and the controls:serum median CT-1 levels in patients and control groups, respectively, were 19.47 and 8.23 pg/mL (P < 0.001) and leptin levels were 2.07 and 1.29 ng/mL (P < 0.001). In severe patients group (n=39), serum median CT-1 level was found statistically significantly higher than the median level in mild/moderate patients (n=11) group. Patients CT-1 concentrations were not associated with lipoprotein levels and there was no correlation between patients’ leptin and lipid profile parameters. Two risk factors for CVDs, CT-1 and leptin, have significantly elevated and they were associated with OSAS. Furthermore, CT-1 was associated with the severity of disease. We recommend the use of increased serum CT-1 and leptin concentrations as markers of the presence and severity of OSAS.They can be used as early markers in male OSAS patients without known CVDs.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cardiotrophin-1, leptin, cardiovascular disease

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794 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek


Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential, albumin

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793 MMP-2 Gene Polymorphism and Its Influence on Serum MMP-2 Levels in Pre-Eclampsia in Indian Population

Authors: Ankush Kalra, Mirza Masroor, Usha Manaktala, B. C. Koner, T. K. Mishra


Introduction: Pre-eclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies worldwide and increases maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Reduced placental perfusion induces the release of biomolecules by the placenta into maternal circulation causing endothelial dysfunction. Zinc dependent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) may be up-regulated and interact with circulating factors of oxidative stress and inflammation to produce endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia. Aim: To study the functional genetic polymorphism of MMP-2 gene (g-1306 C>T) in pre-eclampsia and its effect on serum MMP-2 levels in these patients. Method: Hundred pre-eclampsia patients and hundred age and gestation period matched healthy pregnant women with their consent were recruited in the study. Serum MMP-2 levels in all subjects were estimated using standard ELISA kits. MMP-2 gene (g.- 1306 C>T) SNPs were genotyped using whole blood by ASO-PCR. Result: The pre-eclampsia patients had higher serum levels of MMP-2 compared to the healthy pregnant (p < 0.05). Also the MMP-2 genotype was associated with significant alteration in the serum MMP-2 concentration in these patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study results suggest an association of MMP-2 genetic polymorphism and serum levels of MMP-2 to the path physiology of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

Keywords: allele specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), pre-eclampsia

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792 Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alprazolam with ACE Inhibitors in Bulk, Respective Pharmaceutical Products and Human Serum

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne, Amtul Qayoom


Present study describes a simple and a fast liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet detector for simultaneous determination of anxiety relief medicine alprazolam with ACE inhibitors i.e; lisinopril, captopril and enalapril employing purospher star C18 (25 cm, 0.46 cm, 5 µm). Separation was achieved within 5 min at ambient temperature via methanol: water (8:2 v/v) with pH adjusted to 2.9, monitoring the detector response at 220 nm. Optimum parameters were set up as per ICH (2006) guidelines. Calibration range was found out to be 0.312-10 µg mL-1 for alprazolam and 0.625-20 µg mL-1 for all the ACE inhibitors with correlation coefficients > 0.998 and detection limits 85, 37, 68 and 32 ng mL-1 for lisinopril, captopril, enalapril and alprazolam respectively. Intra-day, inter-day precision and accuracy of the assay were in acceptable range of 0.05-1.62% RSD and 98.85-100.76% recovery. Method was determined to be robust and effectively useful for the estimation of studied drugs in dosage formulations and human serum without obstruction of excipients or serum components.

Keywords: alprazolam, ACE inhibitors, RP HPLC, serum

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791 Use of Serum Creatinine as an Incentive to Increase Prep Uptake Among Key Population Groups in South-South Nigeria

Authors: Akhigbe Mark, Abang Roger, Mwoltu Nanaribet, Edet Blessing


Introduction.: The introduction of pre- exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a biomedical prevention method for HIV/AIDS has been around for more than a decade since the first confirmed evidence of its effectiveness when used daily as an oral pill. It is now a very valuable addition for people who are at higher risk of contracting HIV. Although globalacceptanceof PrEP hasincreased, PrEP is still highly concentrated in a small number of countries and within a small sub-population, with Kenya and South Africa accounting for only 19% of people who have received PrEP in Africa region, there is still a significant regionGap in PrEP availability and use, with only 28% of the target of 3 million in low-and middle countries currently using PrEP. Description: The purpose of this study is to find out if serum creatinine could be used as an incentive to improve PrEP uptake among Key population.Numerous approaches to increasing the uptake ofPrEP as a prevention mechanism for HIV in KPs has beenemployed, and one of them is serum creatinine. This approach is a biomarker of renal function, which was used in study as an incentive to increase PrEP uptake among key population groups (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, persons who inject drugs, transgender) in 3 states from South-South Nigeria. Whole blood samples are collected from clients, analysis of the samples is done using the clinical chemistry analyzer before they are initiated onto PrEP. Lessons learned and Recommendations: Secondary data was extracted from 3 states of HALG Implementing facilities in Southern part of Nigeria, PrEP uptake before and afterthe introduction of serum creatinine between March 2020 and August 2020 among key populationsin Nigeria. A total of 5664 patients were initiated on PrEP before, and after the introduction of serum creatinine, the PrEP uptake rate before (March 2020 to May 2020) introduction of serum creatinine accounted for only 5% of the total onset, and after (June 2020 to August 2020) introduction of serum creatinine, the uptake rate accounted for 95% of the total onset. These finding shows that increased uptake of PrEP before/after serum creatineindicates that serum creatine may be an effective stimulus for promoting PrEP in key populations.

Keywords: serum creatinine, incentives, PrEP, key populations, Nigeria

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790 Changes in Serum Hepcidin Levels in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

Authors: Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Michaela Spenerova, Dagmar Pospisilova


Background: Hepcidin is the central regulator of iron metabolism. Its production is mainly affected by an iron deficiency and the presence of inflammatory activity in the body. The aim of this study was to compare serum hepcidin levels in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and hepcidin levels during maintenance therapy, correlate changes of serum hepcidin levels with selected markers of iron metabolism and inflammation and type of provided treatment. Methods: Children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in this prospective study. Blood and stool samples were collected before treatment (baseline). Serum hepcidin, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL 6), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptors, and fecal calprotectin were assessed. The same parameters were measured and compared with the baseline levels in the follow-up period, during maintenance therapy (average of 39 months after diagnosis). Results: Patients with CD (n=30) had higher serum hepcidin levels (expressed as a median and interquartile range) at diagnosis than subjects with UC (n=13). These levels significantly decreased during the follow-up (from 36.5 (11.5-79.6) ng/ml to 2.1 (0.9-6.7) ng/ml). Contrarily, no significant serum hepcidin level changes were observed in UC (from 5.4 (3.4-16.6) ng/ml to 4.8 (0.9-8.1) ng/ml). While in children with CD hepcidin level dynamics correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP), an only correlation with serum iron levels was observed in patients with UC. Conclusion: Children with CD had higher serum hepcidin levels at diagnosis compared to subjects with UC. Decrease of serum hepcidin in the CD group during anti-inflammatory therapy has been observed, whereas low hepcidin levels in children with UC have remained unchanged. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by grant MH CZ–DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: children, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anaemia, hepcidin

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789 Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohamed F. Ahmed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabha


This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days) , group 3: treated with L‐carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the above-mentioned parameters as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of the kidney associated with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: gentamicin, nephrotoxicity, L‐carnitine, kidney disease

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788 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sung Yong Kim, Byung Joo Song


Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels has been considered to be inversely related to breast cancer development, recurrence risk, and mortality. Mean vitamin D levels in Korean population is lower than western countries due to higher incidence of lactose intolerance and lower exposure to sunlight. The purpose of this study was to assess incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and after adjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate the correlation serum 25(OH)D levels with clinicopathologic features. Methods: From December 2011 to October 2012, 280 breast cancer patients seen at a single tertiary cancer center were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at the time of surgery and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses used chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D was 18.5 ng/ml. The 25(OH)D levels were deficient (<20 ng/ml) in 190 patients (67.9%), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml) in 51 patients(18.2%), and sufficient (30-150 ng/ml) in 39 patients(13.9%). A notable decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was observed(p<0.001) after chemotherapy but was not related to chemotherapy regimens. It was found significant lower 25(OH)D levels at winter season(from October to March, p=0.030). Subjects with invasive carcinoma (IDC or ILC) had significantly lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than those with ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) (p=0.010). Patients with larger tumor size tends to have lower serum 25(OH)D but there were no statistical significance. Conclusions: Most of the breast cancer patients showed deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in invasive carcinoma than DCIS. Serum 25(OH)D levels were decreased after chemotherapy. Consideration should be given to the supplement of vitamin D to those patients.

Keywords: breast neoplasms, vitamin D, Korean population, breast cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
787 Investigation of Suspected Viral Hepatitis Outbreaks in North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Manasi Majumdar, Kapil Goyal, Pvm Lakshmi, Deepak Bhatia, Radha Kanta Ratho


India is endemic for Hepatitis E virus and frequent water borne outbreaks are reported. The conventional diagnosis rests on the detection of serum anti-HEV IgM antibodies which may take 7-10 days to develop. Early diagnosis in such a situation is desirable for the initiation of prompt control measures. The present study compared three diagnostic methods in 60 samples collected during two suspected HEV outbreaks in the vicinity of Chandigarh, India. The anti-HEV IgM, HEV antigen and HEV-RNA could be detected in serum samples of 52 (86.66%), 16 (26.66%) and 18 (30%) patients respectively. The suitability of saliva samples for antibody detection was also evaluated in 21 paired serum- saliva samples. A total of 15 serum samples showed the presence of anti HEV IgM antibodies, out of which 10 (10/15; 66.6%) were also positive for these antibodies in saliva samples (χ2 = 7.636, p < 0.0057), thus showing a concordance of 76.91%. The positivity of reverse transcriptase PCR and HEV antigen detection was 100% within one week of illness which declined to 5-10% thereafter. The outbreak was attributed to HEV Genotype 1, Subtype 1a and the clinical and environmental strains clustered together. HEV antigen and RNA were found to be an early diagnostic marker with 96.66% concordance. The results indicate that the saliva samples can be used as an alternative to serum samples in an outbreak situation.

Keywords: HEV-antigen, outbreak, phylogenetic analysis, saliva

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786 Concomitant Exposure of Bacoside A and Bromelain Relieves Dichlorvos Toxicity in Mice Serum

Authors: Sonam Agarwal, Renu Bist


Current study emphasizes the toxic effects of dichlorvos on serum in terms of oxidative stress. Meanwhile, a protective action of bacoside A and bromelain was investigated against the biochemical alterations in serum. The experimental design included six groups of mice: saline was given as a vehicle to the control mice (group I). Mice belonging to groups II, III and IV, were administered with dichlorvos (40 mg/kg b.w.), bromelain and bacoside A, respectively. The fifth group received a combination of bromelain and bacoside A. In group VI, Bacoside A, and bromelain were administered 20 minutes prior to exposure of dichlorvos. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were used as biochemical test of toxic action for dichlorvos intoxication. Significantly increased TBARS and PCC level in second group suggests that dichlorvos enhances the production of free radicals in serum of mice (p< 0.05). Antioxidants treatment significantly decreased the levels of TBARS and PCC (p< 0.05). Dichlorvos administration causes a significant reduction in the level of CAT, SOD, GPx and GSH (p< 0.05) which was restored significantly by co-administration of bromelain and Bacoside A in dichlorvos exposed mice (p< 0.05). Treatment of bromelain and Bacoside A in combination served as better scavengers of toxicity induced by dichlorvos.

Keywords: bacoside A, bromelain, dichlorvos, serum

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785 Effects of Ig Y Supplementation to Colostrum Having Insufficient Antibodies on Calves Metabolism and Costs

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, Eyup Eren Gultepe, Mustafa Kabu, Hacı Ahmet Celik


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of orally Immunoglobulin (Ig) Y treatments to calves were fed with colostrum having insufficient antibodies before first suckling. A total of 28 Holstein calves were fed assigned into control and treatment groups. The calves were fed fresh colostrum from their respective mother for the first 4 days. The treatment group calves were orally administered IgLock (10 g/d/calf) immediately before the first colostrum feeding and IgLock was administered just one time in treatment group calves. Then, the calves were offered normal milk until weaning. After weaning, all calves kept same paddock and were fed same ration. Diarrhea and respiratoric diseases were recorded for one year. Blood was collected from all calves in the study on birth day (0 day) before vaccination and IgLock administration, then, collected for the following 2 days in all groups. Albumin (ALB), Total Protein (TP), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotrasferase (ALT), Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), Haptoglobin (HPT) and Ig G analyses were performed on all samples. Although serum ALB, ALT, GGT and Ig G levels were not shown a time dependent-change within control group; serum TP, AST, HPT and SAA levels were significantly changed by the time within mentioned group. Serum TP level was steady at first 2 days, then, it was increased significantly at 3rd day. Also, serum AST level was significantly increased at 2nd day, then it was descended to first day levels again at 3rd day. Although serum HPT levels were shown a significant gradually decreasing within control group, serum SAA levels were decreased rapidly after first day and there were no significance differences between 2nd and 3rd day in SAA levels. Serum ALB, ALT, HPT and SAA levels were not shown a time dependent-change within treatmet group. After first day Serum TP, GGT, AST and Ig G levels were shown an significant increasing at 2nd day. Serum TP, GGT and Ig G levels were higher as compared to 1st day within treatment group at 3rd day. But, serum AST level was less significantly 3rd day as compared to 2nd day values. The total numbers of calves suffered from diarrhea were significantly less in treatment group as compared to control group (p < 0,05). The pneumonia reappear ratio in calves suffered the diseases is 33,3% in control group and 11,11% in treatment group. Total cost of diseases and additives was 2339,36 $ for control and 1276,4 $ for treatment. As a conclusion, the immunity enhancers like IgLock are important and cost-effective to boost up immunity status in the early age which would be having positive effects on calves were received colostrum included insufficient antibodies.

Keywords: dairy calves, Ig Y, pneumonia, scours

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