Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 404

Search results for: ichthyofaunal biodiversity

404 Legacy of Islamic Hadith and Biodiversity

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, M. Amouei

Abstract:

Islamic studies are considered in both the Quran and Hadith. Hadith is defined as a set of reports that narrated the words, and behaviors, of infallible persons such as the holy Prophet (pbuh) or the Infallible Imams (as). The issue of biodiversity which is the one of the most important environmental aspects is considered in the field of Hadith. The present paper has investigated biodiversity on the basis of descriptive-analytical methods and with the approach of library-documentary. The household of the Prophet (as) have referred biodiversity that were included diversity of animals, plants, climate etc. In addition to, they also have emphasized on the human need to keep diversity and no damage. It should be noted that they have expressed the rights of the animals and plants for correct using of human, so that human can use these rights in conservation of diversity and their generation.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity, degradation of biodiversity, extinction of biodiversity

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403 Relationship between Legacy of Islamic Hadith and Biodiversity

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, Maryam Amouei

Abstract:

Islamic studies are considered in both the Quran and Hadith. Hadith is defined as a set of reports that narrated the words and behaviors of infallible persons such as the holy Prophet (pbuh) or the Infallible Imams (as). The issue of biodiversity which is the one of the most important environmental aspects is considered in the field of Hadith. The present paper has investigated biodiversity on the basis of descriptive-analytical methods and with the approach of library-documentary. The household of the Prophet (as) have referred biodiversity that were included diversity of animals, plants, climate etc. In addition, they also have emphasized on the human need to keep diversity and no damage. It should be noted that they have expressed the rights of the animals and plants for correct using of human, so that human can use these rights in conservation of diversity and their generation.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity, degradation of biodiversity, extinction of biodiversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
402 Ichthyofauna and Population Status at Indus River Downstream, Sindh-Pakistan

Authors: M. K. Sheikh, Y. M. Laghari., P. K. Lashari., N. T. Narejo

Abstract:

The Indus River is one of the longest important rivers of the world in Asia that flows southward through Pakistan, merges into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh Province, and forms the Indus Delta. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. In fish, healthy nutriments are present which are not found in any other meat source because it have a huge quantity of omega- 3 fatty acids, which are very essential for the human body. Ichthyologic surveys were conducted to explore the diversity of freshwater fishes, distribution, abundance and current status of the fishes at different spatial scale of the downstream, Indus River. Total eight stations were selected namely Railo Miyan (RM), Karokho (Kk), Khanpur (Kp), Mullakatiyar (Mk), Wasi Malook Shah (WMS), Branch Morie (BM), Sujawal (Sj) and Jangseer (JS). The study was carried in the period of January 2016 to December 2019 to identify River and biodiversity threats and to suggest recommendations for conservation. The data were analysed by different population diversity index. Altogether, 124 species were recorded belonging to 12 Orders and 43 Families from the downstream of Indus River. Among 124 species, 29% belong to high commercial value and 35% were trash fishes. 31% of fishes were identified as marine/estuarine origin (migratory) and 05% were exotic fish species. Perciformes is the most predominated order, contributing to 41% of families. Among 43 families, the family Cyprinidae was the richest family from all localities of downstream, represented by 24% of fish species demonstrating a significant dominance in the number of species. A significant difference was observed for species abundance in between all sites, the maximum abundance species were found at first location RM having 115 species and minimum observed at the last station JS 56 genera. In the recorded Ichthyofauna, seven groups were found according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature status (IUCN), where a high species ratio was collected, in Least Concern (LC) having 94 species, 11 were found as not evaluated (NE), whereas 8 was identified as near threatened (NT), 1 was recorded as critically endangered (CR), 11 were collected as data deficient (DD), and while 8 was observed as vulnerable (VU) and 3 endangered (EN) species. Different diversity index has been used extensively in environmental studies to estimate the species richness and abundance of ecosystems outputs of their wellness; a positive environment (biodiversity rich) with species at RM had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 4.566% while a negative control environment (biodiversity poor) on last station JS had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 3.931%. The status of fish biodiversity and river has been found under serious threat. Due to the lower diversity of fishes, it became not only venerable for fish but also risky for fishermen. Necessary steps are recommended to protect the biodiversity by conducting further conservative research in this area.

Keywords: ichthyofaunal biodiversity, threatened species, diversity index, Indus River downstream

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401 Biodiversity Conservation: A Path to a Healthy Afghanistan

Authors: Nadir Sidiqi

Abstract:

Biodiversity conservation is humanity’s building block to sustain lives - ultimately allowing all living and nonliving creatures to interact in a balanced proportion. Humanity’s challenge in the 21st century is to maintain biodiversity without harming the natural habitat of plants, animals and beneficial microorganisms. There are many good reasons to consider why biodiversity is important to every nation around the world, especially for a nation like Afghanistan. One of the major values of biodiversity is its economic value: biodiversity provides goods and services to the Afghan nation directly through links and components such as the maintenance of traditional crops, medicine, fruits, animals, grazing, fuel, timber, harvesting, fishing, hunting and related supplies. Biodiversity is the variety of the living components, such as humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms, and nonliving components interaction, including air, water, sunlight, soil, humidity and environmental factors in an area. There are many ways of gauging the value of biodiversity. As an ecosystem, biodiversity includes such benefits as soil fertility, erosion control, crop pollination, crop rotation, and pest control. The conservation of biodiversity is crucial for these benefits, which would be impossible to replace. Biodiversity conservation also has heritage values; this wealth of genetic diversity provides backup to rural people living close together.

Keywords: Afghanistan, biodiversity, conservation, economy, environment

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400 Valuing Non-Market Environmental Benefits of the Biodiversity Conservation Project

Authors: Huynh Viet Khai, Mitsuyasu Yabe

Abstract:

The study investigated the economic value of biodiversity attributes that could provide policy-makers reliable information to estimate welfare losses due to biodiversity reductions and analyse the trade-off between biodiversity and economics. In order to obtain the non-market benefits of biodiversity conservation, an indirect utility function and willingness to pay for biodiversity attributes were applied using the approach of choice modelling with the analysis of conditional logit model. The study found that Mekong Delta residents accepted their willingness to pay for VND 913 monthly for a one percent increase in healthy vegetation, VND 360 for an additional mammal species and VND 2,440 to avoid the welfare losses of 100 local farmers.

Keywords: choice modelling, genetic resources, wetland conservation, marginal willingness to pay

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399 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: mountain, ecosystems, conservation, Morocco

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398 ARCS Model for Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation in Learning Biodiversity Subjects: A Case Study of Tertiary Level Students in Malaysia

Authors: Nadia Nisha Musa, Nur Atirah Hasmi, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz

Abstract:

In Malaysian Education System, subject related to biodiversity has started in the curriculum from Foundation Study until tertiary education. Biodiversity become the focus of attention due to awareness on global warming which potentially leads to a loss of biodiversity. A loss in biodiversity means a loss in medicinal discoveries and reduces food supply. It is of great important to ensure that young generations become aware of biodiversity conservation. The more interactive approaches are needed to build society with a high awareness for biodiversity conservation. To address this challenge, the goal of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation of biological students via ARCS model of instruction. Self-access learning materials such as tutorial, module and fieldwork were designed with ARCS elements to a sample size of 70 university students from the beginning of the semester. Both paper and online surveys were used to collect data from the respondents. The results showed that elements of attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation of students and their academic performance.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, ARCS model of instruction, biodiversity, self-access learning

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397 Developing Local Wisdom to Integrate Etnobiology and Biodiversity Conservation in Mount Ungaran, Central Java Indonesia

Authors: Margareta Rahayuningsih, Nur Rahayu Utami, Tsabit A. M., Muh. Abdullah

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Mount Ungaran is one area that has remaining natural forest in Central Java, Indonesia. Mount Ungaran consists of several habitats that supporting appropriate areas for flora, fauna, and microorganisms biodiversity, particularly of it is protected by government law and IUCN red list data. Therefore, Mount Ungaran also settled up as AZE (Alliance for Zero Extinction) and IBA (Important Bird Area). The land use for agriculture and plantation reduces forest covered areas. It is serious threat to the existence of biodiversity in Moun Ungaran. This research has been identified community local wisdom that possible to be integrated as ethno-biological research and biodiversity conservation. The result showed at least four local wisdom that possible to be integrated to ethno-biological and biodiversity conservation were Wit Weh Woh (a ceremony of life-giving tree), Grebeg Alas Susuk Wangan (a ceremony for forest protection), Iriban (a ceremony of clean water resource protection), and tingkep tandur (a ceremony for ready-harvested plant protection). It is needed ethno-biological researches of local wisdom-contained values, which essential to be developed as a strategy for biodiversity conservation in Mount Ungaran.

Keywords: Mount Ungaran, local wisdom, biodiversity, fragmentation

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396 Quantifying Product Impacts on Biodiversity: The Product Biodiversity Footprint

Authors: Leveque Benjamin, Rabaud Suzanne, Anest Hugo, Catalan Caroline, Neveux Guillaume

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Human products consumption is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss. However, few pertinent ecological indicators regarding product life cycle impact on species and ecosystems have been built. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies are well under way to conceive standardized methods to assess this impact, by taking already partially into account three of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment pressures (land use, pollutions, climate change). Coupling LCA and ecological data and methods is an emerging challenge to develop a product biodiversity footprint. This approach was tested on three case studies from food processing, textile, and cosmetic industries. It allowed first to improve the environmental relevance of the Potential Disappeared Fraction of species, end-point indicator typically used in life cycle analysis methods, and second to introduce new indicators on overexploitation and invasive species. This type of footprint is a major step in helping companies to identify their impacts on biodiversity and to propose potential improvements.

Keywords: biodiversity, companies, footprint, life cycle assessment, products

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395 Impacts of Tillage on Biodiversity of Microarthropod Communities in Two Different Crop Systems

Authors: Leila Ramezani, Mohammad Saeid Mossadegh

Abstract:

Different uses of land by humans alter the physico chemical characteristics of the soil and affect the soil microhabitat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tillage in three different human land uses on microarthropods biodiversity in Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. Three microhabitats including a permanent grassland with old Date-Palms around and no till system, and two wheat fields, one with conservative agricultural practices and low till system and the other with conventional agricultural practices (deep tillage), were compared for the biodiversity of the two main groups of soil microarthropods (Oribatida and Collembola). Soil samples were collected from the top to a depth of 15 cm bimonthly during a period of two years. Significant differences in the biodiversity index of microarthropods were observed between the different tillage systems (F = 36.748, P =0.000). Indeed, analysis of species diversity showed that the diversity index at the conservative field with low till (2.58 ± 0.01) was higher (p < 0.05) than the conventional tilled field (2.45 ± 0.08) and the diversity of natural grassland was the highest (2.79 ± 0.19, p < 0.05). Indeed, the index of biodiversity and population abundance differed significantly in different seasons (p < 0.00).

Keywords: biodiversity, Collembola, microarthropods, Oribatida

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394 Impacts of Environmental Science in Biodiversity Conservation

Authors: S. O. Ekpo

Abstract:

Environmental science deals with everyday challenges such as a cell for call for good and safe quality air, water, food and healthy leaving condition which include destruction of biodiversity and how to conserve these natural resources for sustainable development. Biodiversity or species richness is the sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms leaving on earth and variety of habitats in which they leave. Human beings leave on plants and animals on daily basis for food, clothing, medicine, housing, research and trade or commerce; besides this, biodiversity serves to purify the air, water and land of contaminant, and recycle useful materials for continual use of man. However, man continual incessant exploitation and exploration has affected biodiversity negatively in many ways such habitant fragmentation and destruction, introduction of invasive species, pollution, overharvesting, prediction and pest control amongst others. Measures such as recycling material, establishing natural parks, sperm bank, limiting the exploitation of renewable resources to sustainable yield and urban and industrial development as well as prohibiting hunting endangered species and release of non native live forms into an area will go a long way towards conserving biodiversity for continues profitable yield.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, exploitation and exploration sustainable yield, recycling of materials

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393 Using Collaborative Planning to Develop a Guideline for Integrating Biodiversity into Land Use Schemes

Authors: Sagwata A. Manyike, Hulisani Magada

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The South African National Biodiversity Institute is in the process of developing a guideline which sets out how biodiversity can be incorporated into land use (zoning) schemes. South Africa promulgated its Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act in 2015 and the act seeks, amongst other things, to bridge the gap between spatial planning and land use management within the country. In addition, the act requires local governments to develop wall-to-wall land use schemes for their entire jurisdictions as they had previously only developed them for their urban areas. At the same time, South Africa has a rich history of systematic conservation planning whereby Critical Biodiversity Areas and Ecological Support Areas have been spatially delineated at a scale appropriate for spatial planning and land use management at the scale of local government. South Africa is also in the process of spatially delineating ecological infrastructure which is defined as naturally occurring ecosystems which provide valuable services to people such as water and climate regulation, soil formation, disaster risk reduction, etc. The Biodiversity and Land Use Project, which is funded by the Global Environmental Facility through the United Nations Development Programme is seeking to explore ways in which biodiversity information and ecological infrastructure can be incorporated into the spatial planning and land use management systems of local governments. Towards this end, the Biodiversity and Land Use Project have developed a guideline which sets out how local governments can integrate biodiversity into their land-use schemes as a way of not only ensuring sustainable development but also as a way helping them prepare for climate change. In addition, by incorporating biodiversity into land-use schemes, the project is exploring new ways of protecting biodiversity through land use schemes. The Guideline for Incorporating Biodiversity into Land Use Schemes was developed as a response to the fact that the National Land Use Scheme Guidelines only indicates that local governments needed to incorporate biodiversity without explaining how this could be achieved. The Natioanl Guideline also failed to specify which biodiversity-related layers are compatible with which land uses or what the benefits of incorporating biodiversity into the schemes will be for that local government. The guideline, therefore, sets out an argument for why biodiversity is important in land management processes and proceeds to provide a step by step guideline for how schemes can integrate priority biodiversity layers. This guideline will further be added as an addendum to the National Land Use Guidelines. Although the planning act calls for local government to have wall to wall schemes within 5 years of its enactment, many municipalities will not meet this deadline and so this guideline will support them in the development of their new schemes.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, land use schemes, local government

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392 Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity Loss in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

The study aimed at inventorying the threatened biodiversity of Bangladesh and assessing the rate of loss of biodiversity caused due to environmental degradation for conservation management. The impact assessment of environmental depletion and rate of biodiversity loss determination have been made by a long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens and survey of relevant floristic literature following the IUCN’s threatened criteria of assessing Red List Plants under the Flora Bangladesh Project. Biodiversity of Bangladesh, as evaluated, has been affected to a large extent during the last four and half decades due to spontaneous environmental degradation caused by frequent occurrence of cyclonic storms and tidal bores since 1970 and flooding, draught, unilateral diversion of trans-boundary waters by operating Farakka Barrage since 1975, indiscriminate destruction and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned development and industrialization, overpopulation etc. Depletion of world’s largest mangrove biodiversity in Sundarbans, coastal and island biodiversity in southern part, agro-biodiversity and agro-fisheries all over the country, Haor and wetland biodiversity of plain lands, terrestrial and forest biodiversity in central and eastern hilly part of Bangladesh, as assessed, have greatly been occurred at a higher rate due to environmental degradation which in turn affect directly or indirectly the economy, food security and environmental health of the country. Complete inventory of 30 plant families resulted in the recognition of 45.18% species of Bangladesh as threatened environmentally and 13.23% species as possibly extinct from the flora since these have neither been reported or could be traced in the field for more than 100 years. The rate of extinction is determined to be 2.65% per 20 years. Hence the study indicates that the loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation in Bangladesh occurring at an alarming rate. The study focuses on the issues of environment, the extent of loss of different plant biodiversities in Bangladesh, prioritizing and implementing national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the environment.

Keywords: Bangladesh, biodiversity, conservation, environmental management

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391 Management and Conservation of Crop Biodiversity in Karnali Mountains of Nepal

Authors: Chhabi Paudel

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The food and nutrition security of the people of the mountain of Karnali province of Nepal is dependent on traditional crop biodiversity. The altitude range of the study area is 1800 meters to 2700 meters above sea level. The climate is temperate to alpine. Farmers are adopting subsistent oriented diversified farming systems and selected crop species, cultivars, and local production systems by their own long adaptation mechanism. The major crop species are finger millet, proso millet, foxtail millet, potato, barley, wheat, mountain rice, buckwheat, Amaranths, medicinal plants, and many vegetable species. The genetic and varietal diversity of those underutilized indigenous crops is also very high, which has sustained farming even in uneven climatic events. Biodiversity provides production synergy, inputs, and other agro-ecological services for self-sustainability. But increase in human population and urban accessibility are seen as threats to biodiversity conservation. So integrated conservation measures are suggested, including agro-tourism and other monetary benefits to the farmers who conserve the local biodiversity.

Keywords: crop biodiversity, climate change, in-situ conservation, resilience, sustainability, agrotourism

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390 Defining Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation to Support for Zoning Protected Areas: A Case Study from Vietnam

Authors: Xuan Dinh Vu, Elmar Csaplovics

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There has been an increasing need for methods to define priority areas for biodiversity conservation since the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in protected areas largely depends on the availability of material resources. The identification of priority areas requires the integration of biodiversity data together with social data on human pressures and responses. However, the deficit of comprehensive data and reliable methods becomes a key challenge in zoning where the demand for conservation is most urgent and where the outcomes of conservation strategies can be maximized. In order to fill this gap, the study applied an environmental model Condition–Pressure–Response to suggest a set of criteria to identify priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Our empirical data has been compiled from 185 respondents, categorizing into three main groups: governmental administration, research institutions, and protected areas in Vietnam by using a well - designed questionnaire. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) theory was used to identify the weight of all criteria. Our results have shown that priority level for biodiversity conservation could be identified by three main indicators: condition, pressure, and response with the value of the weight of 26%, 41%, and 33%, respectively. Based on the three indicators, 7 criteria and 15 sub-criteria were developed to support for defining priority areas for biodiversity conservation and zoning protected areas. In addition, our study also revealed that the groups of governmental administration and protected areas put a focus on the 'Pressure' indicator while the group of Research Institutions emphasized the importance of 'Response' indicator in the evaluation process. Our results provided recommendations to apply the developed criteria for identifying priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Vietnam.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, condition–pressure–response model, criteria, priority areas, protected areas

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389 The Study of Biodiversity of Thirty Two Families of Useful Plants Existed in Georgia

Authors: Kacharava Tamar, Korakhashvili Avtandil, Epitashvili Tinatin

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The article deals with the database, which was created by the authors, related to biodiversity of some families of useful plants (medicinal, aromatic, spices, dye and poisonous) existing in Georgia considering important taxonomy. Our country is also rich with endemic genera. The results of monitoring of the phytogenetic resources to reveal perspective species and situation of endemic species and resources are also discussed in this paper. To get some new medicinal and preventive treatments using plant raw material in the phytomedicine, phytocosmetics and phytoculinary, the unique phytogenetic resources should be protected because the application of useful plants is becoming irreversible. This can be observed along with intensification and sustainable use of ethnobotanical traditions and promotion of phytoproduction based on the international requirements on biodiversity (Convention on Biological Diversity - CBD). Though Georgian phytopharmacy has the centuries-old traditions, today it is becoming the main concern.

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, poisonous, spicy, dye plants, endemic biodiversity, endemic, ELISA, GIS

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388 Establishing Community-Based Pro-Biodiversity Enterprise in the Philippines: A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy towards Agro-Biodiversity Conservation and Local Green Economic Development

Authors: Dina Magnaye

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In the Philippines, the performance of the agricultural sector is gauged through crop productivity and returns from farm production rather than the biodiversity in the agricultural ecosystem. Agricultural development hinges on the overall goal of increasing productivity through intensive agriculture, monoculture system, utilization of high yielding varieties in plants, and genetic upgrading in animals. This merits an analysis of the role of agro-biodiversity in terms of increasing productivity, food security and economic returns from community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises. These enterprises conserve biodiversity while equitably sharing production income in the utilization of biological resources. The study aims to determine how community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises become instrumental in local climate change adaptation and agro-biodiversity conservation as input to local green economic development planning. It also involves an assessment of the role of agrobiodiversity in terms of increasing productivity, food security and economic returns from community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises. The perceptions of the local community members both in urban and upland rural areas on community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises were evaluated. These served as a basis in developing a planning modality that can be mainstreamed in the management of local green economic enterprises to benefit the environment, provide local income opportunities, conserve species diversity, and sustain environment-friendly farming systems and practices. The interviews conducted with organic farmer-owners, entrepreneur-organic farmers, and organic farm workers revealed that pro-biodiversity enterprise such as organic farming involved the cyclic use of natural resources within the carrying capacity of a farm; recognition of the value of tradition and culture especially in the upland rural area; enhancement of socio-economic capacity; conservation of ecosystems in harmony with nature; and climate change mitigation. The suggested planning modality for community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises for a green economy encompasses four (4) phases to include community resource or capital asset profiling; stakeholder vision development; strategy formulation for sustained enterprises; and monitoring and evaluation.

Keywords: agro-biodiversity, agro-biodiversity conservation, local green economy, organic farming, pro-biodiversity enterprise

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387 Biodiversity of the National Production through Companion Plants Analysis

Authors: Astrid Rivera, Diego Villatoro

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The world population increases at an accelerated pace, and it is essential to find solutions to feed the population. Nevertheless, crop diversity has significantly decreased in the last years, and the increase in food production is not the optimal solution. It is essential to consider the origin of the food, the nutriment contributions, among other dimensions. In this regard, biodiversity plays an indispensable role when designing an effective strategy to face the actual food security problems. Consequently, the purpose of this work is to analyze biodiversity in the Mexican national food production and suggest a proper crop selection based on companion plants, for which empirical and experimental knowledge shows a better scenery than current efforts. As a result, we get a set of crop recommendations to increase production in sustainable and nutritive planning. It is essential to explore more feasible options to advance sustainable development goals beyond an economic aspect.

Keywords: biodiversity, food security, companion plats, nutrition

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386 Biodiversity of Aphid Species (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Hyderabad District, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Mahpara Pirzada, Mansoor Ali Shah, Saima Pthan, Kamal Khan, Faiza

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Present study based on biodiversity of aphid in different crops of Hyderabad district and its, surrounding area to observe the biodiversity of aphids, host plant range of the aphids in Hyderabad and their population also infestation and yield loss aphid on different crops. We have surveyed different fields of Hyderabad, Jamshoro, and collected the aphids from various parts of plants, grasses, and herb with the help of camel brush. They have been brought to the laboratory into plastic jars and preserved in Glycerin (Glycerol). As a result, 383 individuals belonging to 3 species were identified. These identified species were Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae, and Brevicoryne brassicae. Out of the 3 habitats the maximum richness, evenness, and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops followed by flowering vegetables and minimum in fodder crops. The most abundant specie is Myzus persicae.

Keywords: aphid species, biodiversity, Homoptera:Aphididae, Pakistan

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385 Urban and Rural Children’s Knowledge on Biodiversity in Bizkaia: Tree Identification Skills and Animal and Plant Listing

Authors: Joserra Díez, Ainhoa Meñika, Iñaki Sanz-Azkue, Arritokieta Ortuzar

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Biodiversity provides humans with a great range of ecosystemic services; it is therefore an indispensable resource and a legacy to coming generations. However, in the last decades, the increasing exploitation of the Planet has caused a great loss of biodiversity and its acquaintance has decreased remarkably; especially in urbanized areas, due to the decreasing attachment of humans to nature. Yet, the Primary Education curriculum primes the identification of flora and fauna to guarantee the knowledge of children on their surroundings, so that they care for the environment as well as for themselves. In order to produce effective didactic material that meets the needs of both teachers and pupils, it is fundamental to diagnose the current situation. In the present work, the knowledge on biodiversity of 3rd cycle Primary Education students in Biscay (n=98) and its relation to the size of the town/city of their school is discussed. Two tests have been used with such aim: one for tree identification and the other one so that the students enumerated the species of trees and animals they knew. Results reveal that knowledge of students on tree identification is scarce regardless the size of the city/town and of their school. On the other hand, animal species are better known than tree species.

Keywords: biodiversity, population, tree identification, animal identification

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384 Conservation Importance of Independent Smallholdings in Safeguarding Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Arzyana Sunkar, Yanto Santosa

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The expansions of independent smallholdings in Indonesia are feared to increase the negative ecological impacts of oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Hence, research is required to identify the conservation importance of independent smallholder oil palm plantations on biodiversity. This paper discussed the role of independent smallholdings in the conservation of biodiversity in oil palm plantations and to compare it with High Conservation Value Forest as a conservation standard of RSPO. The research was conducted from March to April 2016. Data on biodiversity were collected on 16 plantations and 8 private oil palm plantations in the Districts of Kampar, Pelalawan, Kuantan, Singingi and Siak of Riau Province, Indonesia. In addition, data on community environmental perceptions of both smallholder plantation and High Conservation Value (HCV) Forest were also collected. Species that were observed were birds and earthworms. Data on birds were collected using transect method, while identification of earthworm was determine by taking some soil samples and counting the number of individual earthworm found for each worm species. The research used direct interview with oil palm owners and community members, as well as direct observation to examine the environmental conditions of each plantation. In general, field observation and measurement have found that birds species richness was higher in the forested HCV Forest. Nevertheless, if compared to non-forested HCV, bird’s species richness was higher in the independent smallholdings. On the other hand, different results were observed for earthworm, where the density was higher in the independent smallholdings than in the HCV. It can be concluded from this research that managing independent smallholder oil palm plantations and forested HCV forest could enhance biodiversity conservation. The results of this study justified the importance of retaining forested area to safeguard biodiversity in oil palm plantation.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, high conservation value forest, independent smallholdings, oil palm plantations

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383 Evaluation of a Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation Education Camp in Thailand

Authors: Ms. Patamasuda Intuprapa , Professor Dr. Nancy Longnecker

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This research examines the impact of biodiversity and wildlife conservation messages on school children. It was designed to document science communication activities that relate to biodiversity and wildlife conservation in a residential camp held at Research Station X in Thailand. This research is one of the case studies in a PhD research project. The objectives of this research are to examine environmental program and ultimately develop a model of communicating biodiversity and wildlife conservation issues to Thai children. Observations and report of the surveys were used to examine the residential camp at Research Station X. There were 49 children and five camp leaders agreed to participate in this study. The results of the study show that the children enjoyed their stay at the camp and have positive attitudes toward wildlife and environment but not actually related them with their own well-being. The camp leaders were well prepared and enthusiastic on leading the camp but fail in related contents with the activities.

Keywords: informal education, environmental education, wildlife conservation, residential camp, excursion, Thailand

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382 Conservation and Restoration of Biodiversity in Khagrachari

Authors: Anima Ashraf

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Over the past few decades biodiversity has become the issue of global concern for its rapid reduction worldwide. Bangladesh is no exception. The country is exceptionally endowed with a vast variety of flora and fauna, but due to tremendous population pressure, rural poverty and unemployment it has been decreased alarmingly. Since, both biodiversity and sustainable development are the part of human life in modern era and both work together to make our life safer and comfortable therefore balance should be kept in development and biodiversity conservation and priority should be given to alternative and sustainable development paths. This paper is based on study of two projects undertaken by Arannayk Foundation jointly with its local NGO partners. The aim was to understand previous, current and future scenarios for the hilly biodiversity of Khagrachari in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh. It is also observed how alternative income generating activities (AIGA) improve livelihood of the tribal inhabitants of the area, decrease their dependency on forest resources and also aid conservation activities. Intensive field visits were made and interviews were conducted with key informants to see the progress and achievements of local NGOs working with the tribal community for the past seven years to restore the denuded hills of Khagrachari. The paper also covers the impacts and interventions of the projects and the methods used to aid conservation activities. Raising awareness among the villagers has reduced extraction of forests resources by 47% and granting funds and access to microcredit to adopt AIGAs have increased their average annual income by 25%. Finally, the paper concludes that effective community-based conservation practices are fundamental to ensure biodiversity conservation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. In order to conserve biodiversity and restore the forests of CHT, livelihood development of the villagers has to be considered as the main component of the projects undertaken by all NGOs and the Government.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forests, livelihood

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381 Ecorium: The Ecological Project in Montevideo Uruguay

Authors: Chettou Souhaila, Soufi Omar, Roumia Mohammed Ammar

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Protecting the environment is to preserve the survival and future of humanity. Indeed, the environment is our source of food and drinking water, the air is our source of oxygen, the climate allows our survival and biodiversity are a potential drug reservoir. Preserving the environment is, therefore, a matter of survival. The objective of this project is to familiarize the general public with environmental problems not only with the theme of environmental protection, but also with the concept of biodiversity in different ecosystems. For it, the aim of our project was to create the Ecorium which is a place that preserves many species of plants of different ecosystems, schools, malls, buildings, offices, ecological transports, gardens, and many familial activities that participated in the ecosystems development, strategic biodiversity and sustainable development.

Keywords: ecological system, ecorium, environment, sustainable development

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380 Entomofauna Biodiversity of a Citrus Orchard in Baraki, Algeria

Authors: Ahlem Guerzou, Salheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

Orchards and minimally processed with surrounding hedges form a significant source of biodiversity. These orchards are an entire ecosystem, home to a rich insect fauna associated with the presence of a large diversity of plant species. The values of the richness and diversity rise when the intensity of the chemical protection is reduced emphasizing the importance of such orchard in the conservation of biodiversity. To show the interest hedges fauna perspective, we conducted a study in an orange grove located Baraki surrounded by hedges and windbreaks consist of several plant species. With the sweep net there were the invertebrate fauna of the herbaceous and after a year of inventory was collected consists of a 2177 individuals distributed among 156 species grouped into five classes and 15 orders fauna. Hymenoptera and Diptera are in first place with 34 species (AR% = 19.3%), followed by Coleoptera with 27 species (AR% = 15.3%), Homoptera dominate in the workforce with 735 individuals (AR% = 34.1%). The Shannon-Weaver index calculated reflects a great diversity of population sampled equal to 5.2 bits. The equitability is 0.7, showing a strong trend of balance between the numbers of species present.

Keywords: biodiversity, citrus orchard, reaps net, hedges, Baraki

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
379 Utilization of Biodiversity of Peaces Herbals Used as Food and Treat the Path of Economic Phu Sing District in Sisaket Province Thailand

Authors: Nopparet Thammasaranyakun

Abstract:

This research objects are: 1: To study the biodiversity of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 2: To study the use of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 3: To provide a database of information on biodiversity for food and medicinal plants and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 4: Learn to create a biodiversity of medicinal plants used as food and treatment by Journeys economic Phu Sing district Sisaket province Boundaries used in this study was the Phu Sing district. Population and Agricultural Development Center, rayong Mun due to the initiative for youth Local, Government Health officials, community leaders, teachers, students, schools, the local people and tourists. Sage wisdom to know the herbs and women's groups, OTOP Phu Sing district in SiisaKet province. By selecting the specific data that way. The process of participatory action research (PAR) is a community-based research. The method of collecting qualitative data. (Qualitative) tool is used from context, Community areas, interview and Taped recordings. Observation and focus group data was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (Descriptive Statistics). The results findings: 1- A study of the biodiversity of plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. Were used in the dry season and the rainy season find the medicinal plants of 251 species 41 types of drugs. 2- The study utilized medicinal plants used as food and the treatment of indigenous Phu Sing Sisaket province. Found 251 species have medicinal properties that are used for food and medicinal purposes 41 types of drugs. 3- Of the database technology of biodiversity for food and medicinal plants used by local treatment Phu Sing district Sisaket province. A data base of 251 medicinal species 41 types of drugs is used for food and medicinal properties Sisaket province. 4- learning the biodiversity of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province.

Keywords: utilization of biodiversity, peaces herbals, used as Food, Sing district, sisaket

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
378 Educational Fieldworks towards Urban Biodiversity Preservation: Case Study of Japanese Gardens Management of Kanazawa City, Japan

Authors: Aida Mammadova, Juan Pastor Ivars

Abstract:

Japanese gardens can be considered as the unique hubs to preserve urban biodiversity, as they provide the habitat for the diverse network of living organisms, facilitating to the movement of the rare species around the urban landscape, became the refuge for the moss and many endangered species. For the centuries, Japanese gardens were considered as ecologically sustainable and well-organized ecosystems, due to the skilled maintenances and management. However, unfortunately, due to the depopulations and ageing in Japanese societies, gardens are becoming more abandoned, and there is an urgent need to increase the awareness about the importance of the Japanese gardens to preserve the urban biodiversity. In this study, we have conducted the participatory educational field trips for 12 students into the to the five gardens protected by Kanazawa City and learned about the preservation activities conducted at the governmental, municipal, and local levels. After the courses, students have found a strong linkage between the gardens with the traditional culture. Kanazawa City, for more than 400 years is famous with traditional craft makings and tea ceremonies, and it was noticed that the cultural diversity of the city was strongly supported by the biodiversity of the gardens, and loss of the gardens would bring to the loss of the traditional culture. Using the experiential approach during the fieldworks, it was observed by the students that the linkage between the bio-cultural diversity strongly depends on humans’ activities. The continuous management and maintenance of the gardens are the contributing factor for the preservation of urban diversity. However, garden management is very time and capital consuming process, and it was also noticed that there is a big need to attract all levels of the society to preserve the urban biodiversity through the participatory urbanism.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, educational fieldwork, Japanese gardens

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
377 The Impact of Biodiversity and Urban Ecosystem Services in Real Estate

Authors: Carmen Cantuarias-Villessuzanne, Jeffrey Blain, Radmila Pineau

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Our research project aims at analyzing the sensitiveness of French households to urban biodiversity and urban ecosystem services (UES). Opinion surveys show that the French population is sensitive to biodiversity and ecosystem services loss, but the value given to these issues within urban fabric and real estate market lacks evidence. Using GIS data and economic evaluation, by hedonic price methods, weassess the isolated contribution of the explanatory variables of biodiversityand UES on the price of residential real estate. We analyze the variation of the valuefor three urban ecosystem services - flood control, proximity to green spaces, and refreshment - on the price of real estate whena property changes ownership. Our modeling and mapping focus on the price at theIRIS scale (statistical information unit) from 2014 to 2019. The main variables are internal characteristics of housing (area, kind of housing, heating), external characteristics(accessibility and infrastructure, economic, social, and physical environmentsuch as air pollution, noise), and biodiversity indicators and urban ecosystemservices for the Ile-de-France region. Moreover, we compare environmental values on the enhancement of greenspaces and their impact on residential choices. These studies are very useful for real estate developers because they enable them to promote green spaces, and municipalities to become more attractive.

Keywords: urban ecosystem services, sustainable real estate, urban biodiversity perception, hedonic price, environmental values

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376 Building Biodiversity Conservation Plans Robust to Human Land Use Uncertainty

Authors: Yingxiao Ye, Christopher Doehring, Angelos Georghiou, Hugh Robinson, Phebe Vayanos

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Human development is a threat to biodiversity, and conservation organizations (COs) are purchasing land to protect areas for biodiversity preservation. However, COs have limited budgets and thus face hard prioritization decisions that are confounded by uncertainty in future human land use. This research proposes a data-driven sequential planning model to help COs choose land parcels that minimize the uncertain human impact on biodiversity. The proposed model is robust to uncertain development, and the sequential decision-making process is adaptive, allowing land purchase decisions to adapt to human land use as it unfolds. The cellular automata model is leveraged to simulate land use development based on climate data, land characteristics, and development threat index from NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center. This simulation is used to model uncertainty in the problem. This research leverages state-of-the-art techniques in the robust optimization literature to propose a computationally tractable reformulation of the model, which can be solved routinely by off-the-shelf solvers like Gurobi or CPLEX. Numerical results based on real data from the Jaguar in Central and South America show that the proposed method reduces conservation loss by 19.46% on average compared to standard approaches such as MARXAN used in practice for biodiversity conservation. Our method may better help guide the decision process in land acquisition and thereby allow conservation organizations to maximize the impact of limited resources.

Keywords: data-driven robust optimization, biodiversity conservation, uncertainty simulation, adaptive sequential planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
375 Modelling the Effect of Biomass Appropriation for Human Use on Global Biodiversity

Authors: Karina Reiter, Stefan Dullinger, Christoph Plutzar, Dietmar Moser

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Due to population growth and changing patterns of production and consumption, the demand for natural resources and, as a result, the pressure on Earth’s ecosystems are growing. Biodiversity mapping can be a useful tool for assessing species endangerment or detecting hotspots of extinction risks. This paper explores the benefits of using the change in trophic energy flows as a consequence of the human alteration of the biosphere in biodiversity mapping. To this end, multiple linear regression models were developed to explain species richness in areas where there is no human influence (i.e. wilderness) for three taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, amphibians). The models were then applied to predict (I) potential global species richness using potential natural vegetation (NPPpot) and (II) global ‘actual’ species richness after biomass appropriation using NPP remaining in ecosystems after harvest (NPPeco). By calculating the difference between predicted potential and predicted actual species numbers, maps of estimated species richness loss were generated. Results show that biomass appropriation for human use can indeed be linked to biodiversity loss. Areas for which the models predicted high species loss coincide with areas where species endangerment and extinctions are recorded to be particularly high by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Furthermore, the analysis revealed that while the species distribution maps of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species used for this research can determine hotspots of biodiversity loss in large parts of the world, the classification system for threatened and extinct species needs to be revised to better reflect local risks of extinction.

Keywords: biodiversity loss, biomass harvest, human appropriation of net primary production, species richness

Procedia PDF Downloads 63