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Search results for: Indus River downstream

1203 Ichthyofauna and Population Status at Indus River Downstream, Sindh-Pakistan

Authors: M. K. Sheikh, Y. M. Laghari., P. K. Lashari., N. T. Narejo


The Indus River is one of the longest important rivers of the world in Asia that flows southward through Pakistan, merges into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh Province, and forms the Indus Delta. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. In fish, healthy nutriments are present which are not found in any other meat source because it have a huge quantity of omega- 3 fatty acids, which are very essential for the human body. Ichthyologic surveys were conducted to explore the diversity of freshwater fishes, distribution, abundance and current status of the fishes at different spatial scale of the downstream, Indus River. Total eight stations were selected namely Railo Miyan (RM), Karokho (Kk), Khanpur (Kp), Mullakatiyar (Mk), Wasi Malook Shah (WMS), Branch Morie (BM), Sujawal (Sj) and Jangseer (JS). The study was carried in the period of January 2016 to December 2019 to identify River and biodiversity threats and to suggest recommendations for conservation. The data were analysed by different population diversity index. Altogether, 124 species were recorded belonging to 12 Orders and 43 Families from the downstream of Indus River. Among 124 species, 29% belong to high commercial value and 35% were trash fishes. 31% of fishes were identified as marine/estuarine origin (migratory) and 05% were exotic fish species. Perciformes is the most predominated order, contributing to 41% of families. Among 43 families, the family Cyprinidae was the richest family from all localities of downstream, represented by 24% of fish species demonstrating a significant dominance in the number of species. A significant difference was observed for species abundance in between all sites, the maximum abundance species were found at first location RM having 115 species and minimum observed at the last station JS 56 genera. In the recorded Ichthyofauna, seven groups were found according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature status (IUCN), where a high species ratio was collected, in Least Concern (LC) having 94 species, 11 were found as not evaluated (NE), whereas 8 was identified as near threatened (NT), 1 was recorded as critically endangered (CR), 11 were collected as data deficient (DD), and while 8 was observed as vulnerable (VU) and 3 endangered (EN) species. Different diversity index has been used extensively in environmental studies to estimate the species richness and abundance of ecosystems outputs of their wellness; a positive environment (biodiversity rich) with species at RM had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 4.566% while a negative control environment (biodiversity poor) on last station JS had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 3.931%. The status of fish biodiversity and river has been found under serious threat. Due to the lower diversity of fishes, it became not only venerable for fish but also risky for fishermen. Necessary steps are recommended to protect the biodiversity by conducting further conservative research in this area.

Keywords: ichthyofaunal biodiversity, threatened species, diversity index, Indus River downstream

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1202 A Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate the Paleo-Discharge of the Lost Saraswati River of North-West India

Authors: Zafar Beg, Kumar Gaurav


The lost Saraswati is described as a large perennial river which was 'lost' in the desert towards the end of the Indus-Saraswati civilisation. It has been proposed earlier that the lost Saraswati flowed in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve, parallel to the present day Indus River. It is believed that one of the earliest known ancient civilizations, the 'Indus-Saraswati civilization' prospered along the course of the Saraswati River. The demise of the Indus civilization is considered to be due to desiccation of the river. Today in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve, we observe an ephemeral river, known as Ghaggar. It is believed that along with the Ghaggar River, two other Himalayan Rivers Sutlej and Yamuna were tributaries of the lost Saraswati and made a significant contribution to its discharge. Presence of a large number of archaeological sites and the occurrence of thick fluvial sand bodies in the subsurface in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve has been used to suggest that the Saraswati River was a large perennial river. Further, the wider course of about 4-7 km recognized from satellite imagery of Ghaggar-Hakra belt in between Suratgarh and Anupgarh strengthens this hypothesis. Here we develop a methodology to estimate the paleo discharge and paleo width of the lost Saraswati River. In doing so, we rely on the hypothesis which suggests that the ancient Saraswati River used to carry the combined flow or some part of the Yamuna, Sutlej and Ghaggar catchments. We first established a regime relationship between the drainage area-channel width and catchment area-discharge of 29 different rivers presently flowing on the Himalayan Foreland from Indus in the west to the Brahmaputra in the East. We found the width and discharge of all the Himalayan rivers scale in a similar way when they are plotted against their corresponding catchment area. Using these regime curves, we calculate the width and discharge of paleochannels originating from the Sutlej, Yamuna and Ghaggar rivers by measuring their corresponding catchment area from satellite images. Finally, we add the discharge and width obtained from each of the individual catchments to estimate the paleo width and paleo discharge respectively of the Saraswati River. Our regime curves provide a first-order estimate of the paleo discharge of the lost Saraswati.

Keywords: Indus civilization, palaeochannel, regime curve, Saraswati River

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1201 Verification and Application of Finite Element Model Developed for Flood Routing in Rivers

Authors: A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, A. Baloch


Flood wave propagation in river channel flow can be enunciated by nonlinear equations of motion for unsteady flow. However, it is difficult to find analytical solution of these complex non-linear equations. Hence, verification of the numerical model should be carried out against field data and numerical predictions. This paper presents the verification of developed finite element model applying for unsteady flow in the open channels. The results of a proposed model indicate a good matching with both Preissmann scheme and HEC-RAS model for a river reach of 29 km at both sites (15 km from upstream and at downstream end) for discharge hydrographs. It also has an agreeable comparison with the Preissemann scheme for the flow depth (stage) hydrographs. The proposed model has also been applying to forecast daily discharges at 400 km downstream from Sukkur barrage, which demonstrates accurate model predictions with observed daily discharges. Hence, this model may be utilized for predicting and issuing flood warnings about flood hazardous in advance.

Keywords: finite element method, Preissmann scheme, HEC-RAS, flood forecasting, Indus river

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1200 Potential Impacts of Warming Climate on Contributions of Runoff Components from Two Catchments of Upper Indus Basin, Karakoram, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Hammad Ali, Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Ahuti Shrestha, Iram Bano


The hydrology of Upper Indus basin is not recognized well due to the intricacies in the climate and geography, and the scarcity of data above 5000 meters above sea level where most of the precipitation falls in the form of snow. The main objective of this study is to measure the contributions of different components of runoff in Upper Indus basin. To achieve this goal, the Modified positive degree-day model (MPDDM) was used to simulate the runoff and investigate its components in two catchments of Upper Indus basin, Hunza and Gilgit River basins. These two catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. The components of runoff like snow-ice melt and rainfall-base flow were identified by the model. The simulation results show that the MPDDM shows a good agreement between observed and modeled runoff of these two catchments and the effects of snow-ice are mainly reliant on the catchment characteristics and the glaciated area. For Gilgit River basin, the largest contributor to runoff is rain-base flow, whereas large contribution of snow-ice melt observed in Hunza River basin due to its large fraction of glaciated area. This research will not only contribute to the better understanding of the impacts of climate change on the hydrological response in the Upper Indus, but will also provide guidance for the development of hydropower potential, water resources management and offer a possible evaluation of future water quantity and availability in these catchments.

Keywords: future discharge projection, positive degree day, regional climate model, water resource management

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1199 Elemental and Magnetic Properties of Bed Sediment of Siang River, a Major River of Brahmaputra Basin

Authors: Abhishek Dixit, Sandip S. Sathe, Chandan Mahanta


The Siang river originates in Angsi glacier in southern Tibet (there known as the Yarlung Tsangpo). After traveling through Indus-Tsangpo suture zone and deep gorges near Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a south-ward turn and enters India, where it is known as Siang river and becomes a major tributary of the Brahmaputra in Assam plains. In this study, we have analyzed the bed sediment of the Siang river at two locations (one at extreme upstream near the India-China border and one downstream before Siang Brahmaputra confluence). We have also sampled bed sediment at the remote location of Yammeng river, an eastern tributary of Siang. The magnetic hysteresis properties show the combination of paramagnetic and weak ferromagnetic behavior with a multidomain state. Moreover, curie temperature analysis shows titanomagnetite solid solution series, which is causing the weak ferromagnetic signature. Given that the magnetic mineral was in a multidomain state, the presence of Ti, Fe carrying heave mineral, may be inferred. The Chemical index of alteration shows less weathered sediment. However, the Yammeng river sample being close to source shows fresh grains subjected to physical weathering and least chemically alteration. Enriched Ca and K and depleted Na and Mg with respect to upper continental crust concentration also points toward the less intense chemical weathering along with the dominance of calcite weathering.

Keywords: bed sediment, magnetic properties, Siang, weathering

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1198 Role of the Marshes in the Natural Decontamination of Surface Water: A Case of the Redjla Marsh, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, S. Mahdid, F. Zahi


The marsh is the impermeable depression. It is not very deep and presents the stagnant water. Their water level varies according to the contributions of water (rain, groundwater, stream etc.), when this last reaches the maximum level of the marsh, it flows towards the downstream through the discharge system. The marsh accumulates all the liquid and solid contributions of upstream part. In the North-East Algerian, the Redjla marsh is located on the course of the Tassift river. Its contributions of water come from the upstream part of the river, often characterized by the presence of several pollutants in water related to the urban effluents, and its discharge system supply the downstream part of the river. In order to determine the effect of the marsh on the water quality of the river this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and water chemistry of the river were carried out, before and after the marsh, during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that the marsh plays the role of a natural purifier of water of Tassift river, present by drops of conductivity and concentration of the pollutants (ammonium, phosphate, iron, chlorides and bicarbonates) between the upstream part and downstream of the marsh. That indicates that these pollutants are transformed with other chemical forms (case of ammonium towards nitrate), precipitated in complex forms or/and adsorbed by the sediments of the marsh. This storage of the pollutants in the ground of the marsh will be later on a source of pollution for the plants and river water.

Keywords: marsh, natural purification, urban pollution, nitrogen

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1197 Heavy Metal of Soil in Wastewater, Irrigated Agricultural Soil in a Surrounding Area of the Nhue River, Vietnam

Authors: Thi Lan Huong Nguyen, Motohei Kanayama, Takahiro Higashi, Van Chinh Le, Thu Ha Doan, Anh Daochu


Waste from industrial sources, serves as sources of water for irrigating farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals in the soils. Soil samples were collected from the different locations from upstream to downstream of the Nhue River to evaluate heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals in the soil samples in the farmland area were much higher than the background level in that area (1.2-2.6 mg/kg for Cd, 42-60 mg/kg for Cr, 22-62mg/kg for Cu, 30-86 mg/kg for Pb, 119-245 mg/kg for Zn, and 26-57 mg/kg for Ni), and exceeded the level of Vietnamese standard for agricultural soil for all heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn except soil samples at upstream and downstream of the Nhue River.

Keywords: heavy metal, soil, Nhue River, wastewater irrigation

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1196 River Analysis System Model for Proposed Weirs at Downstream of Large Dam, Thailand

Authors: S. Chuenchooklin


This research was conducted in the Lower Ping River Basin downstream of the Bhumibol Dam and the Lower Wang River Basin in Tak Province, Thailand. Most of the tributary streams of the Ping can be considered as ungauged catchments. There are 10- pumping station installation at both river banks of the Ping in Tak Province. Recently, most of them could not fully operate due to the water amount in the river below the level that would be pumping, even though included water from the natural river and released flow from the Bhumibol Dam. The aim of this research was to increase the performance of those pumping stations using weir projects in the Ping. Therefore, the river analysis system model (HEC-RAS) was applied to study the hydraulic behavior of water surface profiles in the Ping River with both cases of existing conditions and proposed weirs during the violent flood in 2011 and severe drought in 2013. Moreover, the hydrologic modeling system (HMS) was applied to simulate lateral streamflow hydrograph from ungauged catchments of the Ping. The results of HEC-RAS model calibration with existing conditions in 2011 showed best trial roughness coefficient for the main channel of 0.026. The simulated water surface levels fitted to observation data with R2 of 0.8175. The model was applied to 3 proposed cascade weirs with 2.35 m in height and found surcharge water level only 0.27 m higher than the existing condition in 2011. Moreover, those weirs could maintain river water levels and increase of those pumping performances during less river flow in 2013.

Keywords: HEC-RAS, HMS, pumping stations, cascade weirs

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1195 Simulation of Flood Inundation in Kedukan River Using HEC-RAS and GIS

Authors: Reini S. Ilmiaty, Muhammad B. Al Amin, Sarino, Muzamil Jariski


Kedukan River is an artificial river which serves as a Watershed Boang drainage channel in Palembang. The river has upstream and downstream connected to Musi River, that often overflowing and flooding caused by the huge runoff discharge and high tide water level of Musi River. This study aimed to analyze the flood water surface profile on Kedukan River continued with flood inundation simulation to determine flooding prone areas in research area. The analysis starts from the peak runoff discharge calculations using rational method followed by water surface profile analysis using HEC-RAS program controlled by manual calculations using standard stages. The analysis followed by running flood inundation simulation using ArcGIS program that has been integrated with HEC-GeoRAS. Flood inundation simulation on Kedukan River creates inundation characteristic maps with depth, area, and circumference of inundation as the parameters. The inundation maps are very useful in providing an overview of flood prone areas in Kedukan River.

Keywords: flood modelling, HEC-GeoRAS, HEC-RAS, inundation map

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1194 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination and Assessment of the Suitability of Water for Irrigation: A Case Study of the Sand River, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Ngonidzashe Moyo, Mmaditshaba Rapatsa


The primary objective of this study was to determine heavy metal contamination in the water, sediment, grass and fish in Sand River, South Africa. This river passes through an urban area and sewage effluent is discharged into it. Water from the Sand river is subsequently used for irrigation downstream of the sewage treatment works. The suitability of this water and the surrounding boreholes for irrigation was determined. This study was undertaken between January, 2014 and January, 2015. Monthly samples were taken from four sites. Sites 1 was upstream of the Polokwane Wastewater Treatment Plant, sites 2, 3 and 4 were downstream. Ten boreholes in the vicinity of the Sand River were randomly selected and the water was tested for heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in Sand River water followed the order Mn>Fe>Pb>Cu≥Zn≥Cd. Manganese concentration averaged 0.34 mg/L. Heavy metal concentration in the sediment, grass and fish followed the order Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. The bioaccumulation factor from grass to fish was highest in manganese (19.25), followed by zinc (16.39) and iron (14.14). Soil permeability index (PI) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) were used to determine the suitability of Sand River and borehole water for irrigation. The PI index for Sand River water was 75.1% and this indicates that Sand River water is suitable for irrigation of crops. The PI index for the borehole water ranged from 65.8-72.8% and again this indicates suitability of borehole water for crop irrigation. The sodium adsorption ratio also indicated that both Sand River and borehole water were suitable for irrigation. A risk assessment study is recommended to determine the suitability of the fish for human consumption.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, bioavailability, heavy metals, sodium adsorption ratio

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1193 Northern Westerrn Ghats of India Possess an Indigenous Fish Fauna: A Survey from Kudali River

Authors: R. A. Jamdade, Rokade A. C., Deshpande V. Y.


The freshwater fish fauna of Kudali River, a northern right bank tributary of the Krishna River Western Ghats of India was studied. It is one of the smallest tributary of Krishna river and never been explored for fish fauna assessment. It extends over 23 Kms having 22 fish species belonging to 15 genera and 7 families, of these 3 species are endemic to Western Ghats, 2 are globaly endangered and 2 near to be threatened. Downstream the Kudal locality, the river is under the influence of anthropogenic activities and over fishing, where conservation action plans are needed to be undertaken for conservation of endangered and near to be threatened fish fauna.

Keywords: freshwater, fish, fauna, western Ghats, anthropogenic activity, conservation

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1192 Application of Hydrological Model in Support of Streamflow Allocation in Arid Watersheds in Northwestern China

Authors: Chansheng He, Lanhui Zhang, Baoqing Zhang


Spatial heterogeneity of landscape significantly affects watershed hydrological processes, particularly in high elevation and cold mountainous watersheds such as the inland river (terminal lake) basins in Northwest China, where the upper reach mountainous areas are the main source of streamflow for the downstream agricultural oases and desert ecosystems. Thus, it is essential to take into account spatial variations of hydrological processes in streamflow allocation at the watershed scale. This paper adapts the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM) to the Heihe River Watershed, the second largest inland river with a drainage area of about 128,000 km2 in Northwest China, for understanding the transfer and partitioning mechanism among the glacier and snowmelt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge among the upper, middle, and lower reaches in the study area. Results indicate that the upper reach Qilian Mountain area is the main source of streamflow for the middle reach agricultural oasis and downstream desert areas. Large withdrawals for agricultural irrigation in the middle reach had significantly depleted river flow for the lower reach desert ecosystems. Innovative conservation and enforcement programs need to be undertaken to ensure the successful implementation of water allocation plan of delivering 0.95 x 109 m3 of water downstream annually by the State Council in the Heihe River Watershed.

Keywords: DLBRM, Northwestern China, spatial variation, water allocation

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1191 Periodicity Analysis of Long-Term Waterquality Data Series of the Hungarian Section of the River Tisza Using Morlet Wavelet Spectrum Estimation

Authors: Péter Tanos, József Kovács, Angéla Anda, Gábor Várbíró, Sándor Molnár, István Gábor Hatvani


The River Tisza is the second largest river in Central Europe. In this study, Morlet wavelet spectrum (periodicity) analysis was used with chemical, biological and physical water quality data for the Hungarian section of the River Tisza. In the research 15, water quality parameters measured at 14 sampling sites in the River Tisza and 4 sampling sites in the main artificial changes were assessed for the time period 1993 - 2005. Results show that annual periodicity was not always to be found in the water quality parameters, at least at certain sampling sites. Periodicity was found to vary over space and time, but in general, an increase was observed in the company of higher trophic states of the river heading downstream.

Keywords: annual periodicity water quality, spatiotemporal variability of periodic behavior, Morlet wavelet spectrum analysis, River Tisza

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1190 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas


In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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1189 Hydrodynamic and Morphological Simulation of Karnafuli River Using CCHE2D Model

Authors: Shah Md. Imran Kabir, Md. Mostafa Ali


Karnafuli is one of the most important rivers of Bangladesh which is playing a vital role in our national economy. The major sea port of Bangladesh is the Chittagong port located on the right bank of Karnafuli River Bangladesh. Karnafuli river port is considered as the lifeline of the economic activities of the country. Therefore, it is always necessary to keep the river active and live in terms of its navigability. Due to man-made intervention, the river flow becomes interrupted and thereby may cause the change in the river morphology. The specific objective of this study is the application of 2D model to assess different hydrodynamic and morphological characteristics of the river due to normal flow condition and sea level rise condition. The model has been set with the recent bathymetry data collected from CPA hydrography division. For model setup, the river reach is selected between Kalurghat and Khal no-18. Time series discharge and water level data are used as boundary condition at upstream and downstream. Calibration and validation have been carried out with the recent water level data at Khal no-10 and Sadarghat. The total reach length of the river has been divided into four parts to determine different hydrodynamic and morphological assessments like variation of velocity, sediment erosion and deposition and bed level changes also have been studied. This model has been used for the assessment of river response due sediment transport and sea level rise. Model result shows slight increase in velocity. It also changes the rate of erosion and deposition at some location of the selected reach. It is hoped that the result of the model simulation will be helpful to suggest the effect of possible future development work to be implemented on this river.

Keywords: CCHE 2D, hydrodynamic, morphology, sea level rise

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1188 Spatial Heterogeneity of Urban Land Use in the Yangtze River Economic Belt Based on DMSP/OLS Data

Authors: Liang Zhou, Qinke Sun


Taking the Yangtze River Economic Belt as an example, using long-term nighttime lighting data from DMSP/OLS from 1992 to 2012, support vector machine classification (SVM) was used to quantitatively extract urban built-up areas of economic belts, and spatial analysis of expansion intensity index, standard deviation ellipse, etc. was introduced. The model conducts detailed and in-depth discussions on the strength, direction, and type of the expansion of the middle and lower reaches of the economic belt and the key node cities. The results show that: (1) From 1992 to 2012, the built-up areas of the major cities in the Yangtze River Valley showed a rapid expansion trend. The built-up area expanded by 60,392 km², and the average annual expansion rate was 31%, that is, from 9615 km² in 1992 to 70007 km² in 2012. The spatial gradient analysis of the watershed shows that the expansion of urban built-up areas in the middle and lower reaches of the river basin takes Shanghai as the leading force, and the 'bottom-up' model shows an expanding pattern of 'upstream-downstream-middle-range' declines. The average annual rate of expansion is 36% and 35%, respectively. 17% of which the midstream expansion rate is about 50% of the upstream and downstream. (2) The analysis of expansion intensity shows that the urban expansion intensity in the Yangtze River Basin has generally shown an upward trend, the downstream region has continued to rise, and the upper and middle reaches have experienced different amplitude fluctuations. To further analyze the strength of urban expansion at key nodes, Chengdu, Chongqing, and Wuhan in the upper and middle reaches maintain a high degree of consistency with the intensity of regional expansion. Node cities with Shanghai as the core downstream continue to maintain a high level of expansion. (3) The standard deviation ellipse analysis shows that the overall center of gravity of the Yangtze River basin city is located in Anqing City, Anhui Province, and it showed a phenomenon of reciprocating movement from 1992 to 2012. The nighttime standard deviation ellipse distribution range increased from 61.96 km² to 76.52 km². The growth of the major axis of the ellipse was significantly larger than that of the minor axis. It had obvious east-west axiality, in which the nighttime lights in the downstream area occupied in the entire luminosity scale urban system leading position.

Keywords: urban space, support vector machine, spatial characteristics, night lights, Yangtze River Economic Belt

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1187 Dealing with Neighbors: River Water Sharing between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Authors: Ashutosh Pujari


The sharing of natural resources is one of the most important aspects of relations between two neighboring countries, especially when it is a resource that has a presence in both the countries in question. River water is an important resource that is shared between India and its neighbors, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh. India shares Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum rivers with Pakistan, while with Bangladesh, it shares Ganges and Brahmaputra. However, it is interesting to note how does India deals with her sharing of water with these two countries. Although water sharing with both the countries has been dotted by irritants over the years, relations with Bangladesh is undoubtedly better in this respect. Given the common history of the region, this paper analyses the reasons behind this difference in the relationship between India and her neighbors and its implications for the present times. Through critical analysis of literature and the official policy of all the governments involved and the narratives present, this paper tries to present understand how India’s relations with its neighbors are a function of geopolitics, culture, and perceptions on both sides.

Keywords: geopolitics, river water sharing, India-Pakistan relations, India-Bangladesh relations

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1186 Satellite Derived Snow Cover Status and Trends in the Indus Basin Reservoir

Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Afzal, Muhammad Arslan, Mirza Muhammad Waqar


Snow constitutes an important component of the cryosphere, characterized by high temporal and spatial variability. Because of the contribution of snow melt to water availability, snow is an important focus for research on climate change and adaptation. MODIS satellite data have been used to identify spatial-temporal trends in snow cover in the upper Indus basin. For this research MODIS satellite 8 day composite data of medium resolution (250m) have been analysed from 2001-2005.Pixel based supervised classification have been performed and extent of snow have been calculated of all the images. Results show large variation in snow cover between years while an increasing trend from west to east is observed. Temperature data for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analysed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 2001-2005 and calibrated with the results acquired by the research. From the analysis it is concluded that there are indications that regional warming is one of the factor that is affecting the hydrology of the upper Indus basin due to accelerated glacial melting during the simulation period, stream flow in the upper Indus basin can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. This conclusion is also supported by the research of ICIMOD in which there is an observation that the average annual precipitation over a five year period is less than the observed stream flow and supported by positive temperature trends in all seasons.

Keywords: indus basin, MODIS, remote sensing, snow cover

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1185 Assessment of Water Pollution in the River Nile (Egypt) by Applying Blood Biomarkers in Two Excellent Model Species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Abd-El –Baset M. Abd El Reheem, Khaled Y. Abouelfadl, Usama M. Mahmoud, Mohsen A. Moustafa


This study aimed to explore new sites of biomarker research and to establish the use of blood parameters in wild fish populations. Four hundred and twenty fish samples were collected from six sites along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. The mean values of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, and mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the blood of Nile tilapia and African catfish collected from downstream (contaminated) compared to upstream sites. In contrast, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood of both fish species significantly increased from upstream to downstream river Nile. The leukocytes count was significantly decreased in contaminated sites compared to upstream area. Hematological variables in the peripheral blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus exhibited significant (p<0.05) correlation with nearly all the detected chemical and physical parameters along the Nile course. In the present study, lower cellular and nuclear areas and cellular and nuclear shape factor were recorded in the erythrocytes of fish collected from downstream compared to those caught from upstream sites. This was confirmed by higher immature ratios of red cells in the blood of fish sampled from downstream river Nile. Karyorrhetic and enucleated erythrocytes were significantly correlated with physiochemical parameters in water samples collected from the same sites is being higher in the blood of fish collected from downstream sites. To see if there was any correlation between fish altered physiological fitness and environmental stress, we measured serum biochemical variables namely; total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, chlorides, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid activity, creatinine, and serum glucose. The level of all the selected biochemical variables in the blood of O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus were recorded to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in downstream sites. According to the present results, nearly all the detected haematological and blood biochemical variables are suitable indicators of contaminant exposure in O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus. Also the detected erythrocytes malformations in blood collected from Nile tilapia and African catfish were proven to be suitable for bio-monitoring aquatic pollution. The results revealed species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to African catfish.

Keywords: biomarkers, water pollution, blood parameters, river nile, african catfish, nile tilapia

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1184 Flood-Induced River Disruption: Geomorphic Imprints and Topographic Effects in Kelantan River Catchment from Kemubu to Kuala Besar, Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamad Muqtada Ali Khan, Nor Ashikin Shaari, Donny Adriansyah bin Nazaruddin, Hafzan Eva Bt Mansoor


Floods play a key role in landform evolution of an area. This process is likely to alter the topography of the earth’s surface. The present study area, Kota Bharu is very prone to floods extends from upstream of Kelantan River near Kemubu to the downstream area near Kuala Besar. These flood events which occur every year in the study area exhibit a strong bearing on river morphological set-up. In the present study, three satellite imageries of different time periods have been used to manifest the post-flood landform changes. The pre-processing of the images such as subset, geometric corrections and atmospheric corrections were carried-out using ENVI 4.5 followed by the analysis processes. Twenty sets of cross sections were plotted using software Erdas 9.2, ERDAS and ArcGis 10 for the all three images. The results show a significant change in the length of the cross section which suggest that the geomorphological processes play a key role in carving and shaping the river banks during the floods.

Keywords: flood induced, geomorphic imprints, Kelantan river, Malaysia

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1183 Agricultural Water Consumption Estimation in the Helmand Basin

Authors: Mahdi Akbari, Ali Torabi Haghighi


Hamun Lakes, located in the Helmand Basin, consisting of four water bodies, were the greatest (>8500 km2) freshwater bodies in Iran plateau but have almost entirely desiccated over the last 20 years. The desiccation of the lakes caused dust storm in the region which has huge economic and health consequences on the inhabitants. The flow of the Hirmand (or Helmand) River, the most important feeding river, has decreased from 4 to 1.9 km3 downstream due to anthropogenic activities. In this basin, water is mainly consumed for farming. Due to the lack of in-situ data in the basin, this research utilizes remote-sensing data to show how croplands and consequently consumed water in the agricultural sector have changed. Based on Landsat NDVI, we suggest using a threshold of around 0.35-0.4 to detect croplands in the basin. Croplands of this basin has doubled since 1990, especially in the downstream of the Kajaki Dam (the biggest dam of the basin). Using PML V2 Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) data and considering irrigation efficiency (≈0.3), we estimate that the consumed water (CW) for farming. We found that CW has increased from 2.5 to over 7.5 km3 from 2002 to 2017 in this basin. Also, the annual average Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) of the basin has had a negative trend in the recent years, although the AET over croplands has an increasing trend. In this research, using remote sensing data, we covered lack of data in the studied area and highlighted anthropogenic activities in the upstream which led to the lakes desiccation in the downstream.

Keywords: Afghanistan-Iran transboundary Basin, Iran-Afghanistan water treaty, water use, lake desiccation

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1182 Accessing the 'No-Harm' Principle of Protection of the Mekong River’s Environment

Authors: Hang Thuy Tran, Hanh Hong Pham, Ha Thanh Hoa


From 2009 up to now, the water quantity and water quality of the Mekong River, located in the South of Vietnam, have been significantly reduced. The phenomenon happened as a result of climate change and human activities. The Mekong River is an international source of water, flowing across the borders of 6 countries, with Vietnam downstream. Activities to block the flow or build dams to construct hydroelectricity or diversion in upstream countries are either the direct cause or the risk of further deterioration of the water quality and quantity of the Mekong River, as evidenced by two phenomena which are a saline intrusion and transboundary water pollution. The protection of the crucial source of water is done through bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms, notably the Mekong River Commission, established by members of the Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin 1995. In this document, under Article 7, the 'no-harm' principle requires member states to take appropriate measures to prevent causing substantial damage to other member states. This principle has been practiced through the work of a number of committees established by the commission. However, the content of the rules is undetailed, lacks an implementation monitoring mechanism, and has an unreasonable dispute solution. With such difficulties, the provisions in the principle of no-harm are not adequate to protect the Mekong River's water resources in the current context.

Keywords: no-harm principle, transboundary water pollution, Mekong Commission, international source of water

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1181 Hydrodynamics of Shear Layers at River Confluences by Formation of Secondary Circulation

Authors: Ali Aghazadegan, Ali Shokri, Julia Mullarney


River confluences are areas where there is a lot of mixing, which is often caused by the formation of shear layers and helical motions. The hydrodynamics of secondary circulation at river confluences with low flow discharge ratios and a 90° junction angle are investigated in this study. The analysis is based on Delft 3D modelling, which includes a three-dimensional time-averaged velocity field, turbulence, and water surface levels that have been validated using laboratory data. Confluence structure was characterized by shear layer, secondary circulation, and mixing at the junction and post confluence channel. This study analysis formation of the shear layer by generation of secondary circulations in variation discharge ratios. The values of streamwise, cross-wise, and vertical components are used to estimate the secondary circulation observed within and downstream of the tributary mouth. These variables are estimated for three horizontal planes at Z = [0.14; 0.07; 0.02] and for eight cross-sections at X = [-0.1; 0.00; 0.10; 0.2; 0.30; 0.4; 0.5; 0.6] within a range of 0.05 Y 0.30.

Keywords: river confluence, shear layer, secondary circulation, hydrodynamics

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1180 Sustainable Transboundary Water Management: Challenges and Good Practices of Cooperation in International River Basin Districts

Authors: Aleksandra Ibragimow, Moritz Albrecht, Eerika Albrecht


Close international cooperation between all countries within a river basin has become one of the key aspects of sustainable cross-border water management. This is due to the fact that water does not stop at administrative or political boundaries. Therefore, the preferred mode to protect and manage transnational water bodies is close cooperation between all countries and stakeholders within the natural hydrological unit of the river basin. However, past practices have demonstrated that combining interests of different countries and stakeholders with differing political systems and management approaches to environmental issues upstream as well as downstream can be challenging. The study focuses on particular problems and challenges of water management in international river basin districts by the example of the International Oder River Basin District. The Oder River is one of the largest cross-border rivers of the Baltic Sea basin passing through Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. Attention is directed towards the activities and the actions that were carried out during the Districts' first management cycle of transnational river basin management (2009-2015). The results show that actions of individual countries have been focused on the National Water Management Plans while a common appointment about identified supra-regional water management problems has not been solved, and conducted actions can be considered as preliminary and merely a basis for future management. This present state raises the question whether the achievement of main objectives of Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) can be a realistic task.

Keywords: International River Basin Districts, water management, water frameworkdirective, water management plans

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1179 Bathymetric Change of Brahmaputra River and Its Influence on Flooding Scenario

Authors: Arup Kumar Sarma, Rohan Kar


The development of physical model of River like Brahmaputra, which finds its origin in the Chema Yundung glacier of Tibet and flows through India and Bangladesh, is always expensive and very much time consuming. With the advancement of computational technique, mathematical modeling has found wide application. MIKE 21C is one such commercial software, developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), with the depth-averaged approach and a two-dimensional curvilinear finite-difference model, which is capable of modeling hydrodynamic and morphological processes with some limitations. The main purpose of this study are to generate bathymetry of the River Brahmaputra starting from “Sadia” at upstream to “Dhubri,” at downstream stretching a distance of approximately 695 km, for four different years: 1957, 1971, 1977, and 1981 over the grid generated in the MIKE 21C and to carry out the hydrodynamic simulation for these years to analyze the effect of bathymetry change on the surface water elevation. The study has established that bathymetric change can influence the flood level significantly in some of the river reaches and therefore the modification or updating of regular bathymetry is very much essential for the reliable flood routing in alluvial rivers.

Keywords: bathymetry, brahmaputra river, hydrodynamic model, surface water elevation

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1178 Flood Control Structures in the River Göta Älv to Protect Gothenburg City (Sweden) during the 21st Century: Preliminary Evaluation

Authors: M. Irannezhad, E. H. N. Gashti, U. Moback, B. Kløve


Climate change because of increases in concentration level of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere will result in mean sea level rise about +1 m by 2100. To prevent coastal floods resulted from the sea level rising, different flood control structures have been built, e.g. the Thames barrier on the Thames River in London (UK), with acceptable protection levels at least so far. Gothenburg located on the southwest coast of Sweden, with the River Göta älv running through it, is one of vulnerable cities to the accelerated rises in mean sea level. Developing a water level model by MATLAB, we evaluated using a sea barrage in the Göta älv River as the flood control structure for protecting the Gothenburg city during this century. Considering three operational scenarios for two barriers in upstream and downstream, the highest sea level was estimated to + 2.95 m above the current mean sea level by 2100. To verify flood protection against such high sea levels, both barriers have to be closed. To prevent high water level in the River Göta älv reservoir, the barriers would be open when the sea level is low. The suggested flood control structures would successfully protect the city from flooding events during this century.

Keywords: climate change, flood control structures, gothenburg, sea level rising, water level mode

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1177 River's Bed Level Changing Pattern Due to Sedimentation, Case Study: Gash River, Kassala, Sudan

Authors: Faisal Ali, Hasssan Saad Mohammed Hilmi, Mustafa Mohamed, Shamseddin Musa


The Gash rivers an ephemeral river, it usually flows from July to September, it has a braided pattern with high sediment content, of 15200 ppm in suspension, and 360 kg/sec as bed load. The Gash river bed has an average slope of 1.3 m/Km. The objectives of this study were: assessing the Gash River bed level patterns; quantifying the annual variations in Gash bed level; and recommending a suitable method to reduce the sediment accumulation on the Gash River bed. The study covered temporally the period 1905-2013 using datasets included the Gash river flows, and the cross sections. The results showed that there is an increasing trend in the river bed of 5 cm3 per year. This is resulted in changing the behavior of the flood routing and consequently the flood hazard is tremendously increased in Kassala city.

Keywords: bed level, cross section, gash river, sedimentation

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1176 Impact of Urbanization on Natural Drainage Pattern in District of Larkana, Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi


During past few years, several floods have adversely affected the areas along lower Indus River. Besides other climate related anomalies, rapidly increasing urbanization and blockage of natural drains due to siltation or encroachments are two other critical causes that may be responsible for these disasters. Due to flat topography of river Indus plains and blockage of natural waterways, drainage of storm water takes time adversely affecting the crop health and soil properties of the area. Government of Sindh is taking a keen interest in revival of natural drainage network in the province and has initiated this work under Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority. In this paper, geospatial techniques are used to analyze landuse/land-cover changes of Larkana district over the past three decades (1980-present) and their impact on natural drainage system. Satellite derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and topographic sheets (recent and 1950) are used to delineate natural drainage pattern of the district. The urban landuse map developed in this study is further overlaid on drainage line layer to identify the critical areas where the natural floodwater flows are being inhibited by urbanization. Rainfall and flow data are utilized to identify areas of heavy flow, whereas, satellite data including Landsat 7 and Google Earth are used to map previous floods extent and landuse/cover of the study area. Alternatives to natural drainage systems are also suggested wherever possible. The output maps of natural drainage pattern can be used to develop a decision support system for urban planners, Sindh development authorities and flood mitigation and management agencies.

Keywords: geospatial techniques, satellite data, natural drainage, flood, urbanization

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1175 The Analysis of Priority Flood Control Management Using Analysis Hierarchy Process

Authors: Pravira Rizki Suwarno, Fanny Aliza Savitri, Priseyola Ayunda Prima, Pipin Surahman, Mahelga Levina Amran, Khoirunisa Ulya Nur Utari, Nora Permatasari


The Bogowonto River or commonly called the Bhagawanta River, is one of the rivers on Java Island. It is located in Central Java, Indonesia. Its watershed area is 35 km² with 57 km long. This river covers three regencies, namely Wonosobo Regency and Magelang Regency in the upstream and Purworejo Regency in the south and downstream. The Bogowonto River experiences channel narrowing and silting. It is caused by garbage along the river that comes from livestock and household waste. The narrowing channel and siltation cause a capacity reduction of the river to drain flood discharge. Comprehensive and sustainable actions are needed in dealing with current and future floods. Based on these current conditions, a priority scale is required. Therefore, this study aims to determine the priority scale of flood management in Purworejo Regency using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. This method will determine the appropriate actions based on the rating. In addition, there will be field observations through distributing questionnaires to several parties, including the stakeholders and the community. The results of this study will be in 2 (two) forms of actions, both structurally covering water structures and non-structural, including social, environmental, and law enforcement.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, bogowonto, flood control, management

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1174 Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dumpsite in North Central of Nigeria

Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Folami, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, Feroz Mohomed Swalaha


Water is a vital resource that is important in ensuring the growth and development of any country. To sustain the basic human needs and the demands for agriculture, industry, conservational and ecosystem, enough quality and quantity water is needed. Contamination of water resources is now a global and public health concern. Hence, this study assessed the water quality of Ndawuse River by measuring the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations of the river using standard methods. In total, 16 surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river, from upstream to downstream as well as samples from the dumpsite. The results obtained were compared with the standard limits set by both the World Health Organization and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for domestic purposes. The results of the measured parameters indicated that biological oxygen demand (85.88 mg/L), turbidity (44.51 NTU), Iron (0.014 - 3.511 mg /L) and chromium (0.078 - 0.14 mg /L) were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on this river as their primary source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem and to avoid long term cumulative exposure risk that heavy metals may pose on human health.

Keywords: Abuja, contaminants, heavy metals, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface water

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