Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Truong V. Vu

20 3D Model of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Inclined Cable

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Rain–wind induced vibration of inclined cable is a special aerodynamic phenomenon because it is easily influenced by many factors, especially the distribution of rivulet and wind velocity. This paper proposes a new 3D model of inclined cable, based on single degree-of-freedom model. Aerodynamic forces are firstly established and verified with the existing results from a 2D model. The 3D model of inclined cable is developed. The 3D model is then applied to assess the effects of wind velocity distribution and the continuity of rivulets on the cable. Finally, an inclined cable model with small sag is investigated.

Keywords: 3D model, rain - wind induced vibration, rivulet, analytical model

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19 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao

Abstract:

Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

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18 Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System

Authors: Le Hieu Giang, Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Linh

Abstract:

In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: ideal decoupler, IMC-PID controller, multivariable smith predictor, Padé approximation

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17 A Robust Software for Advanced Analysis of Space Steel Frames

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust software package for practical advanced analysis of space steel framed structures. The pre- and post-processors of the presented software package are coded in the C++ programming language while the solver is written by using the FORTRAN programming language. A user-friendly graphical interface of the presented software is developed to facilitate the modeling process and result interpretation of the problem. The solver employs the stability functions for capturing the second-order effects to minimize modeling and computational time. Both the plastic-hinge and fiber-hinge beam-column elements are available in the presented software. The generalized displacement control method is adopted to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations.

Keywords: advanced analysis, beam-column, fiber-hinge, plastic hinge, steel frame

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16 Comparison between Continuous Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization for Distribution Network Reconfiguration

Authors: Linh Nguyen Tung, Anh Truong Viet, Nghien Nguyen Ba, Chuong Trinh Trong

Abstract:

This paper proposes a reconfiguration methodology based on a continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for minimizing active power loss and minimizing voltage deviation. Both algorithms are adapted using graph theory to generate feasible individuals, and the modified crossover is used for continuous variable of CGA. To demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed methods, a comparative analysis of CGA with PSO for network reconfiguration, on 33-node and 119-bus radial distribution system is presented. The simulation results have shown that both CGA and PSO can be used in the distribution network reconfiguration and CGA outperformed PSO with significant success rate in finding optimal distribution network configuration.

Keywords: distribution network reconfiguration, particle swarm optimization, continuous genetic algorithm, power loss reduction, voltage deviation

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15 Fractional-Order PI Controller Tuning Rules for Cascade Control System

Authors: Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang, Le Linh

Abstract:

The fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller tuning rules based on the fractional calculus for the cascade control system are systematically proposed in this paper. Accordingly, the ideal controller is obtained by using internal model control (IMC) approach for both the inner and outer loops, which gives the desired closed-loop responses. On the basis of the fractional calculus, the analytical tuning rules of FOPI controller for the inner loop can be established in the frequency domain. Besides, the outer loop is tuned by using any integer PI/PID controller tuning rules in the literature. The simulation study is considered for the stable process model and the results demonstrate the simplicity, flexibility, and effectiveness of the proposed method for the cascade control system in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: Bode’s ideal transfer function, fractional calculus, fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller, cascade control system

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14 Fabrication of Hollow Germanium Spheres by Dropping Method

Authors: Kunal D. Bhagat, Truong V. Vu, John C. Wells, Hideyuki Takakura, Yu Kawano, Fumio Ogawa

Abstract:

Hollow germanium alloy quasi-spheres of diameters 1 to 2 mm with a relatively smooth inner and outer surface have been produced. The germanium was first melted at around 1273 K and then exuded from a coaxial nozzle into an inert atmosphere by argon gas supplied to the inner nozzle. The falling spheres were cooled by water spray and collected in a bucket. The spheres had a horn type of structure on the outer surface, which might be caused by volume expansion induced by the density difference between solid and gas phase. The frequency of the sphere formation was determined from the videos to be about 133 Hz. The outer diameter varied in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 mm with a wall thickness in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Solid silicon spheres are used for spherical silicon solar cells (S₃CS), which have various attractive features. Hollow S₃CS promise substantially higher energy conversion efficiency if their wall thickness can be kept to 0.1–0.2 mm and the inner surface can be passivated. Our production of hollow germanium spheres is a significant step towards the production of hollow S₃CS with, we hope, higher efficiency and lower material cost than solid S₃CS.

Keywords: hollow spheres, semiconductor, compound jet, dropping method

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13 Analytical Design of Fractional-Order PI Controller for Decoupling Control System

Authors: Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang, Le Linh

Abstract:

The FOPI controller is proposed based on the main properties of the decoupling control scheme, as well as the fractional calculus. By using the simplified decoupling technique, the transfer function of decoupled apparent process is firstly separated into a set of n equivalent independent processes in terms of a ratio of the diagonal elements of original open-loop transfer function to those of dynamic relative gain array and the fraction – order PI controller is then developed for each control loops due to the Bode’s ideal transfer function that gives the desired fractional closed-loop response in the frequency domain. The simulation studies were carried out to evaluate the proposed design approach in a fair compared with the other existing methods in accordance with the structured singular value (SSV) theory that used to measure the robust stability of control systems under multiplicative output uncertainty. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method consistently performs well with fast and well-balanced closed-loop time responses.

Keywords: ideal transfer function of bode, fractional calculus, fractional order proportional integral (FOPI) controller, decoupling control system

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12 Design of IMC-PID Controller Cascaded Filter for Simplified Decoupling Control System

Authors: Le Linh, Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang

Abstract:

In this work, the IMC-PID controller cascaded filter based on Internal Model Control (IMC) scheme is systematically proposed for the simplified decoupling control system. The simplified decoupling is firstly introduced for multivariable processes by using coefficient matching to obtain a stable, proper, and causal simplified decoupler. Accordingly, transfer functions of decoupled apparent processes can be expressed as a set of n equivalent independent processes and then derived as a ratio of the original open-loop transfer function to the diagonal element of the dynamic relative gain array. The IMC-PID controller in series with filter is then directly employed to enhance the overall performance of the decoupling control system while avoiding difficulties arising from properties inherent to simplified decoupling. Some simulation studies are considered to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulations were conducted by tuning various controllers of the multivariate processes with multiple time delays. The results indicate that the proposed method consistently performs well with fast and well-balanced closed-loop time responses.

Keywords: coefficient matching method, internal model control (IMC) scheme, PID controller cascaded filter, simplified decoupler

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11 Online Battery Equivalent Circuit Model Estimation on Continuous-Time Domain Using Linear Integral Filter Method

Authors: Cheng Zhang, James Marco, Walid Allafi, Truong Q. Dinh, W. D. Widanage

Abstract:

Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used in battery management systems in electric vehicles and other battery energy storage systems. The battery dynamics and the model parameters vary under different working conditions, such as different temperature and state of charge (SOC) levels, and therefore online parameter identification can improve the modelling accuracy. This paper presents a way of online ECM parameter identification using a continuous time (CT) estimation method. The CT estimation method has several advantages over discrete time (DT) estimation methods for ECM parameter identification due to the widely separated battery dynamic modes and fast sampling. The presented method can be used for online SOC estimation. Test data are collected using a lithium ion cell, and the experimental results show that the presented CT method achieves better modelling accuracy compared with the conventional DT recursive least square method. The effectiveness of the presented method for online SOC estimation is also verified on test data.

Keywords: electric circuit model, continuous time domain estimation, linear integral filter method, parameter and SOC estimation, recursive least square

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10 Phylogenetic Relationships of Common Reef Fish Species in Vietnam

Authors: Dang Thuy Binh, Truong Thi Oanh, Le Phan Khanh Hung, Luong thi Tuong Vy

Abstract:

One of the greatest environmental challenges facing Asia is the management and conservation of the marine biodiversity threaten by fisheries overexploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. To date, a few molecular taxonomical studies has been conducted on marine fauna in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to clarify the phylogeny of economic and ecological reef fish species in Vietnam Reef fish species covering Labridae, Scaridae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae, Acanthuridae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Mullidae, Balistidae, Pseudochromidae, Pinguipedidae, Fistulariidae, Holocentridae, Synodontidae, and Pomacentridae representing 28 genera were collected from South and Center, Vietnam. Combine with Genbank sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 16S gene of mitochondrial DNA using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The phylogram showed the well-resolved clades at genus and family level. Perciformes is the major order of reef fish species in Vietnam. The monophyly of Perciformes is not strongly supported as it was clustered in the same clade with Tetraodontiformes syngnathiformes and Beryciformes. Continue sampling of commercial fish species and classification based on morphology and genetics to build DNA barcoding of fish species in Vietnam is really necessary.

Keywords: reef fish, 16s rDNA, Vietnam, phylogeny

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9 Utilizing the RhlR/RhlI Quorum Sensing System to Express the ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene by Using the N-Butanoyl Homoserine Lactone and N-Hexanoyl Homoserine Lactone

Authors: Ngoc Tu Truong, Nuong T. Bui, Ben Rao, Ya L. Shen

Abstract:

Quorum sensing is a phenomenon present in many gram-negative bacteria that allows bacterial communication and controlled expression of a large suite of genes through quorum sensing signals - N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In order to investigate the ability of the rhlR/rhlI quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene, an engineered E. coli strain EpHL02, was genetically engineered. This engineered E. coli strain EpHL02 responded to the presence of the N-butanoyl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone to express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene at a concentration limit of 5x10⁻⁸ M. This was also found to be comparable to AHLs extraction from Serratia marcescens H31. Moreover, we examined this ability of this engineered E. coli strain for respond of AHLs from extractions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The results demonstrated that the rhlR/rhlI quorum sensing system can express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene by using the N-butanoyl homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone and AHLs from extractions of Serratia marcescens H31 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027 in the engineered E. coli strain EpHL02.

Keywords: N-butanoyl homoserine lactone, C4-HSL, N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone, C6-HSL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing, Serratia marcescens, ß-galactosidase reporter gene

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8 Prenatal Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Intermedia in Vietnamese Family: Case Report

Authors: Ha T. T. Ly, Truc B. Truc, Hai N. Truong, Mai P. T. Nguyen, Ngoc D. Ngo, Khanh V. Tran, Hai T. Le

Abstract:

Beta thalassemia is one of the most common inherited blood disorders, which is characterized by decreased or absent in beta globin expression. Patients with Beta thalassemia whose anemia is not so severe as to necessitate transfusions are said to have thalassemia intermedia. Objective: The goal of this study is prenatal diagnosis for pregnancy woman with Beta thalassemia intermedia and her husband with Beta thalassemia carrier at high risk of Beta thalassemia major in Northern of Vietnam. Material and method: The family has a 6 years-old compound heterozygous thalassemia major for CD71/72(+A) and Hbb:c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) male child. The father was heterozygous for CD71/72(+A) mutation which is Beta plus type and the mother was compound heterozygosity of two different variants, namely, Hbb: c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) and CD26(A-G) HbE. Prenatal Beta thalassemia mutation detection in fetal DNA was carried out using multiplex Amplification-refractory mutation system ARMS-PCR and confirmed by direct Sanger-sequencing Hbb gene. Prenatal diagnoses were perfomed by amniotic fluid sampling from pregnant woman in the 16-18th week of pregnancy after the genotypes of parents of the probands were identified. Result: When amniotic fluid sample was analyzed for Beta globin gene (Hbb), we found that the genotype is heterozygous for CD71/72(+A) and CD26(A-G) HbE. This genotype is different from the 1st child of this family. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis helps the parents to know the genotype and the thalassemia status of the fetus, so they can have early decision on their pregnancy. Genetic diagnosis provided a useful method in diagnosis for familial members in pedigree, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

Keywords: beta thalassemia intermedia, Hbb gene, pedigree, prenatal diagnosis

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7 Quality Assessment of New Zealand Manuka Honeys Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Deep Learning

Authors: Hien Thi Dieu Truong, Pullanagari Reddy, Marlon M. Reis, Richard Archer

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New Zealand mānuka honey is a honeybee product derived mainly from Leptospermum scoparium nectar. The potent antibacterial activity of mānuka honey derives principally from methylglyoxal (MGO), in addition to the hydrogen peroxide and other lesser activities present in all honeys. MGO is formed from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) unique to L. scoparium nectar. Mānuka honey also has an idiosyncratic phenolic profile useful as a chemical maker. Authentic mānuka honey is highly valuable, but almost all honeys are formed from natural mixtures of nectars harvested by a hive over a time period. Once diluted by other nectars, mānuka honey irrevocably loses value. We aimed to apply hyperspectral imaging to honey frames before bulk extraction to minimisedilution of genuine mānuka by other honeys andensure authenticity at the source. This technology is non-destructive and suitable for an industrial setting. Chemometrics usingPartial Least Squares (PLS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) showed limited efficacy in interpreting chemical footprints due to large non-linear relationships between predictor and predictand in a large sample set, likely due to honey quality variability across geographic regions. Therefore, an advanced modeling approach, one-dimensional convolutional neural networks (1D-CNN), was investigated for analysinghyperspectral data for extraction of biochemical information from honeys. The 1D-CNN model showed superior prediction of honey quality(R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.201) to PLS (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 2.607) and SVM (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 2.559). Classification of mono-floral manuka honeys from multi-floral and non-manuka honeys exceeded 90 % accuracy for all models tried. This study reveals the potential of 1D-CNN modeling for evaluating honey authenticity.

Keywords: authenticity, 1D-CNN, mānuka honey, quality

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6 Clay Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Controlled Small Molecule Release

Authors: Xiaolin Li, Terence Turney, John Forsythe, Bryce Feltis, Paul Wright, Vinh Truong, Will Gates

Abstract:

Clay-hydrogel nanocomposites have attracted great attention recently, mainly because of their enhanced mechanical properties and ease of fabrication. Moreover, the unique platelet structure of clay nanoparticles enables the incorporation of bioactive molecules, such as proteins or drugs, through ion exchange, adsorption or intercalation. This study seeks to improve the mechanical and rheological properties of a novel hydrogel system, copolymerized from a tetrapodal polyethylene glycol (PEG) thiol and a linear, triblock PEG-PPG-PEG (PPG: polypropylene glycol) α,ω-bispropynoate polymer, with the simultaneous incorporation of various amounts of Na-saturated, montmorillonite clay (MMT) platelets (av. lateral dimension = 200 nm), to form a bioactive three-dimensional network. Although the parent hydrogel has controlled swelling ability and its PEG groups have good affinity for the clay platelets, it suffers from poor mechanical stability and is currently unsuitable for potential applications. Nanocomposite hydrogels containing 4wt% MMT showed a twelve-fold enhancement in compressive strength, reaching 0.75MPa, and also a three-fold acceleration in gelation time, when compared with the parent hydrogel. Interestingly, clay nanoplatelet incorporation into the hydrogel slowed down the rate of its dehydration in air. Preliminary results showed that protein binding by the MMT varied with the nature of the protein, as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was more strongly bound than bovine serum albumin. The HRP was no longer active when bound, presumably as a result of extensive structural refolding. Further work is being undertaken to assess protein binding behaviour within the nanocomposite hydrogel for potential diabetic wound healing applications.

Keywords: hydrogel, nanocomposite, small molecule, wound healing

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5 Applying EzRAD Method for SNPs Discovery in Population Genetics of Freshwater and Marine Fish in the South of Vietnam

Authors: Quyen Vu Dang Ha, Oanh Truong Thi, Thuoc Tran Linh, Kent Carpenter, Thinh Doan Vu, Binh Dang Thuy

Abstract:

Enzyme restriction site associated DNA (EzRAD) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring fish genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. This is a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms and applied for SNPs discovery in the population genetics of freshwater and marine fish in the South of Vietnam. The observations of regional-scale differentiation of commercial freshwater fish (smallscale croakers Boesemania microlepis) and marine fish (emperor Lethrinus lentjan) are clarified. Samples were collected along Hau River and coastal area in the south and center Vietnam. 52 DNA samples from Tra Vinh, An Giang Province for Boesemania microlepis and 34 DNA samples of Lethrinus lentjan from Phu Quoc, Nha Trang, Da Nang Province were used to prepare EzRAD libraries from genomic DNA digested with MboI and Sau3AI. A pooled sample of regional EzRAD libraries was sequenced using the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform. For Boesemania microlepis, the small scale population different from upstream to downstream of Hau river were detected, An Giang population exhibited less genetic diversity (SNPs per individual from 14 to 926), in comparison to Tra Vinh population (from 11 to 2172). For Lethrinus lentjan, the result showed the minor difference between populations in the Northern and the Southern Mekong River. The numbers of contigs and SNPs vary from 1315 to 2455 and from 7122 to 8594, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). The current preliminary study reveals regional scale population disconnection probably reflecting environmental changing. Additional sampling and EzRad libraries need to be implemented for resource management in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Boesemania microlepis, EzRAD, Lethrinus lentjan, SNPs

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4 Effects of Self-Management Programs on Blood Pressure Control, Self-Efficacy, Medication Adherence, and Body Mass Index among Older Adult Patients with Hypertension: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Van Truong Pham

Abstract:

Background: Self-management was described as a potential strategy for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. However, the effects of self-management interventions on blood pressure, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and body mass index (BMI) in older adults with hypertension have not been systematically evaluated. We evaluated the effects of self-management interventions on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), self-efficacy, medication adherence, and BMI in hypertensive older adults. Methods: We followed the recommended guidelines of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches in electronic databases including CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid-Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and other sources were performed to include all relevant studies up to April 2019. Studies selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. We summarized intervention effects as Hedges' g values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software 2.0. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed that self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, whereas the effect of self-management on BMI was not significant in older adult patients with hypertension. The following Hedges' g (effect size) values were obtained: SBP, -0.34 (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.17, p < 0.001); DBP, -0.18 (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.05, p < 0.001); self-efficacy, 0.93 (95%CI, 0.50 to 1.36, p < 0.001); medication adherence, 1.72 (95%CI, 0.44 to 3.00, p=0.008); and BMI, -0.57 (95%CI, -1.62 to 0.48, p = 0.286). Conclusions: Self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. However, the effects of self-management on obesity control were not supported by the evidence. Healthcare providers should implement self-management interventions to strengthen patients' role in managing their health care.

Keywords: self-management, meta-analysis, blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, body mass index

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3 New Insights for Soft Skills Development in Vietnamese Business Schools: Defining Essential Soft Skills for Maximizing Graduates’ Career Success

Authors: Hang T. T. Truong, Ronald S. Laura, Kylie Shaw

Abstract:

Within Vietnam's system of higher education, its schools of business play a vital role in supporting the country’s economic objectives. However, the crucial contribution of soft skills for maximal success within the business sector has to date not been adequately recognized by its business schools. This being so, the development of the business school curriculum in Vietnam has not been able to 'catch up', so to say, with the burgeoning need of students for a comprehensive soft skills program designed to meet the national and global business objectives of their potential employers. The burden of the present paper is first to reveal the results of our survey in Vietnam which make explicit the extent to which major Vietnamese industrial employers’ value the potential role that soft skill competencies can play in maximizing business success. Our final task will be to determine which soft skills employers discern as best serving to maximize the economic interests of Vietnam within the global marketplace. Semi-structured telephone interviews have been conducted with the 15 representative Head Employers of Vietnam's reputedly largest and most successful of the diverse business enterprises across Vietnam. The findings of the study indicate that all respondents highly value the increasing importance of soft skills in business success. Our critical analysis of respondent data reveals that 19 essential soft skills are deemed by employers as integral to business workplace efficacy and should thus be integrated into the formal business curriculum. We are confident that our study represents the first comprehensive and specific survey yet undertaken within the business sector in Vietnam which accesses and analyses the opinions of representative employers from major companies across the country in regard to the growing importance of 19 specific soft skills essential for maximizing overall business success. Our research findings also reveal that the integration into business school curriculums nationwide of the soft skills we have identified is of paramount importance to advance the national and global economic interests of Vietnam.

Keywords: business curriculum, business graduates, employers’ perception, soft skills

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2 Understanding Language Teachers’ Motivations towards Research Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study of Vietnamese Tertiary English Teachers

Authors: My T. Truong

Abstract:

Among various professional development (PD) options available for English as a second language (ESL) teachers, especially those at the tertiary level, research engagement has been recently recommended as an innovative model with a transformative force for both individual teachers’ PD and wider school improvement. Teachers who conduct research themselves tend to develop critical and analytical thinking about their instructional practices, and enhance their ability to make autonomous pedagogical judgments and decisions. With such capabilities, teacher researchers are thus more likely to contribute to curriculum innovation of their schools and improvement of the whole educational process. The extent to which ESL teachers are engaged in research, however, depends largely on their research motivation, which can not only decide teachers’ choice of a PD activity to pursue but also affect the degree and duration of effort they are willing to invest in pursuing it. To understand language teachers’ research practices, and to inform educational authorities about ways to promote research culture among their ESL teaching staff, it is therefore vital to investigate teachers’ research motivation. Despite its importance as such, this individual difference construct has not been paid due attention especially in the ESL contexts. To fill this gap, this study aims to explore Vietnamese tertiary ESL teachers’ motivations towards research. Guided by the self-determination theory and the process model of motivation, it investigates teachers’ initial motivations for conducting research, and the factors that sustained or degraded their motivation during the research engagement process. Adopting a qualitative case-study approach, the study collected longitudinal data via semi-structured interviews and guided diary entries from three ESL tertiary teachers who were conducting their own research project. The respondents attended two semi-structured interviews (one at the beginning of their project, and the other one three months afterwards); and wrote six guided diary entries between the two interviews. The results confirm the significant role motivation plays in driving teachers to initiate and maintain their participation in research, and challenge some common assumptions in teacher motivation literature. For instance, the quality of the past and actual research experience unsurprisingly emerged as an important factor that both motivated and demotivated teachers in their research engagement process. Unlike general suggestions in the motivation literature however, external demand was found in this study to be a critical motivation sustaining factor while intrinsic research interest actually did not suffice to help a teacher fulfil his research endeavor. With such findings, the study is expected to widen the motivational perspective in understanding language teacher research practice given the paucity of related studies. Practically, it is hoped to enable teacher educators, PD program designers and educational policy makers in Vietnam and similar contexts to approach the question of whether and how to promote research activities among ESL teachers feasibly. For practicing and in-service teachers, the findings may elucidate to them the motivational conditions in which they can be research engaged, and the motivational factors that might hinder or encourage them in so doing.

Keywords: teacher motivation, teacher professional development, teacher research engagement, English as a second language (ESL)

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1 The Role of Serum Fructosamine as a Monitoring Tool in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Treatment in Vietnam

Authors: Truong H. Le, Ngoc M. To, Quang N. Tran, Luu T. Cao, Chi V. Le

Abstract:

Introduction: In Vietnam, the current monitoring and treatment for ordinary diabetic patient mostly based on glucose monitoring with HbA1c test for every three months (recommended goal is HbA1c < 6.5%~7%). For diabetes in pregnant women or Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), glycemic control until the time of delivery is extremly important because it could reduce significantly medical implications for both the mother and the child. Besides, GDM requires continuos glucose monitoring at least every two weeks and therefore an alternative marker of glycemia for short-term control is considering a potential tool for the healthcare providers. There are published studies have indicated that the glycosylated serum protein is a better indicator than glycosylated hemoglobin in GDM monitoring. Based on the actual practice in Vietnam, this study was designed to evaluate the role of serum fructosamine as a monitoring tool in GDM treament and its correlations with fasting blood glucose (G0), 2-hour postprandial glucose (G2) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: A cohort study on pregnant women diagnosed with GDM by the 75-gram oralglucose tolerance test was conducted at Endocrinology Department, Cho Ray hospital, Vietnam from June 2014 to March 2015. Cho Ray hospital is the final destination for GDM patient in the southern of Vietnam, the study population has many sources from other pronvinces and therefore researchers belive that this demographic characteristic can help to provide the study result as a reflection for the whole area. In this study, diabetic patients received a continuos glucose monitoring method which consists of bi-weekly on-site visit every 2 weeks with glycosylated serum protein test, fasting blood glucose test and 2-hour postprandial glucose test; HbA1c test for every 3 months; and nutritious consultance for daily diet program. The subjects still received routine treatment at the hospital, with tight follow-up from their healthcare providers. Researchers recorded bi-weekly health conditions, serum fructosamine level and delivery outcome from the pregnant women, using Stata 13 programme for the analysis. Results: A total of 500 pregnant women was enrolled and follow-up in this study. Serum fructosamine level was found to have a light correlation with G0 ( r=0.3458, p < 0.001) and HbA1c ( r=0.3544, p < 0.001), and moderately correlated with G2 ( r=0.4379, p < 0.001). During study timeline, the delivery outcome of 287 women were recorded with the average age of 38.5 ± 1.5 weeks, 9% of them have macrosomia, 2.8% have premature birth before week 35th and 9.8% have premature birth before week 37th; 64.8% of cesarean section and none of them have perinatal or neonatal mortality. The study provides a reference interval of serum fructosamine for GDM patient was 112.9 ± 20.7 μmol/dL. Conclusion: The present results suggests that serum fructosamine is as effective as HbA1c as a reflection of blood glucose control in GDM patient, with a positive result in delivery outcome (0% perinatal or neonatal mortality). The reference value of serum fructosamine measurement provided a potential monitoring utility in GDM treatment for hospitals in Vietnam. Healthcare providers in Cho Ray hospital is considering to conduct more studies to test this reference as a target value in their GDM treatment and monitoring.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, monitoring tool, serum fructosamine, Vietnam

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