Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3333

Search results for: short fiber

3333 Fiber Orientation Measurements in Reinforced Thermoplastics

Authors: Ihsane Modhaffar


Fiber orientation is essential for the physical properties of composite materials. The theoretical parameters of a given reinforcement are usually known and widely used to predict the behavior of the material. In this work, we propose an image processing approach to estimate true principal directions and fiber orientation during injection molding processes of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics. Generally, a group of fibers are described in terms of probability distribution function or orientation tensor. Numerical techniques for the prediction of fiber orientation are also considered for concentrated situations. The flow was considered to be incompressible, and behave as Newtonian fluid containing suspensions of short-fibers. The governing equations, of this problem are: the continuity, the momentum and the energy. The obtained results were compared to available experimental findings. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.

Keywords: injection, composites, short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, fiber orientation, incompressible fluid, numerical simulation

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3332 Modeling Study of Short Fiber Orientation in Simple Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Ihsane Modhaffar, Kamal Gueraoui, Abouelkacem Qais, Abderrahmane Maaouni, Samir Men-La-Yakhaf, Hamid Eltourroug


The main objective of this paper is to develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate and characterize the fiber suspension in flow in rectangular cavities. The model is intended to describe the velocity profile and to predict the fiber orientation. The flow was considered to be incompressible, and behave as Newtonian fluid containing suspensions of short-fibers. The numerical model for determination of velocity profile and fiber orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using finite volume method. The governing equations of this problem are: the continuity, the momentum and the energy. The obtained results were compared to available experimental findings. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.

Keywords: injection, composites, short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, fiber orientation, incompressible fluid, numerical simulation

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3331 A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites

Authors: I. Ioannou, I. M. Gitman


This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.

Keywords: effective properties, homogenization, representative volume element, short fiber reinforced composites

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3330 Enhancing the Engineering Properties of Clay by Using Mechanically Treated Rice Straw Fibers

Authors: Saeedullah J. Mandokhail, Meer H. Khan, Muhibullah Kakar


The studies on the mechanical behavior of randomly distributed short fiber soil composite are relatively new technique in geotechnical engineering. In this paper, mechanically treated rice straw (MTRS) fiber is used to improve the engineering properties of clay. Clay was mixed with 0 %, 0.5 %, 1 % and 2 % of MTRS fiber to analyze the effect of MTRS fiber on properties of soil. It was found that the plasticity index of soil decreases with increase in the MTRS fiber. Cohesion and angle of internal friction of soil were also found to increase with limiting increase in the amount of MTRS fiber and then decreases. The maximum dry density slightly decreases and the optimum moisture content slightly increases with increasing amount of MTRS fibers.

Keywords: cohesion, friction angle, optimum moisture content, rice straw fiber, short fiber

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3329 An Integrated Approach to Find the Effect of Strain Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Randomly Oriented Short Glass Fiber Composite in Combination with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Sharad Shrivastava, Arun Jalan


In this study tensile testing was performed on randomly oriented short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens which were prepared using hand lay-up method. Samples were tested over a wide range of strain rate/loading rate from 2mm/min to 40mm/min to see the effect on ultimate tensile strength of the composite. A multi layered 'back propagation artificial neural network of supervised learning type' was used to analyze and predict the tensile properties with strain rate and temperature as given input and output as UTS to predict. Various network structures were designed and investigated with varying parameters and network sizes, and an optimized network structure was proposed to predict the UTS of short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens with reasonably good accuracy.

Keywords: glass fiber composite, mechanical properties, strain rate, artificial neural network

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3328 A Comparative Study on Indian and Greek Cotton Fiber Properties Correlations

Authors: Md. Nakib Ul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Sumon Miah, Misbah Ul Hoque, Bulbul Ahmed


The variability of cotton fiber characteristics has always been influenced by origin, weather conditions, method of culturing, and harvesting. Spinners work tirelessly to ensure consistent yarn quality by using the different origins of fibers to maximizes the profit margin. Spinners often fail to select desired raw materials of various origins to achieve an appropriate mixing plan due to the lack of knowledge on the interrelationship among fiber properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the correlations among dominating fiber properties such as micronaire, strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, maturity, reflectance, and yellowness. For this purpose, fiber samples from 500 Indian cotton bales and 350 Greek cotton bales were collected and tested using the high volume instrument (HVI). The fiber properties dataset was then compiled and analyzed using python 3.7 to determine the correlations matrix. Results show that Indian cotton fiber have highest correlation between strength-mat = 0.84, followed by SFI-Unf =-0.83, and Neps-Unf = -0.72. Greek cotton fiber, in contrast, have highest correlation between SFI-Unf =-0.98, followed by SFI-Mat = 0.89, +b-Len = 0.84, and Str-Mat = 0.74. Overall, the Greek cotton fiber showed a higher correlational matrix than compared to that of Indian cotton fiber.

Keywords: cotton fiber, fiber properties correlation, Greek cotton, HVI, Indian cotton, spinning

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3327 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles

Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering


Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is combined with a proportion of glass fiber, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled without sizing agent was identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste.

Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composites, recycling, short fiber composites

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3326 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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3325 Non-Homogeneous Layered Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs


Fiber reinforced concrete is important material for load bearing structural elements. Usually fibers are homogeneously distributed in a concrete body having arbitrary spatial orientations. At the same time, in many situations, fiber concrete with oriented fibers is more optimal. Is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented short fibers in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of such approaches- fiber reinforced concrete prisms having dimensions 100 mm×100 mm×400 mm with layers of non-homogeneously distributed fibers inside them were fabricated. Simultaneously prisms with homogeneously dispersed fibers were produced for reference as well. Prisms were tested under four point bending conditions. During the tests vertical deflection at the center of every prism and crack opening were measured (using linear displacements transducers in real timescale). Prediction results were discussed.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, 4-point bending, steel fiber, construction engineering

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3324 Fracture Toughness Properties and FTIR Analysis of Corn Fiber Green Composites

Authors: Ahmed Hashim, Aseel Abdullah


In this work, the fracture toughness of new green composite based on bio-PMMA resin reinforced with randomly short corn natural fiber of constant weight fraction by 10% wt was investigated. The corn fiber surface was modified by mercerization treatment with two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (3, and 5% NaOH) for 1.5 and 3 hours respectively. The effect of mercerization treatment on the fracture behavior of the green composites was analyzed by FTIR spectra. NaOH concentration of 3% for 1.5 hrs. That was used for corn fiber green composite should the highest improvement in terms of plane strain fracture toughness KIC which increased by 62 % compared to untreated fiber composite material. On the other hand, increased both concentrations of alkali solution to 5% NaOH and time of soaking to 3 hrs. reduced the values of KIC lower than the value of the unfilled material.

Keywords: green composites, fracture toughness, corn natural fiber, bio-PMMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3323 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park


With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

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3322 Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Curvature Sensor Based on Four Mode Fiber

Authors: Qihang Zeng, Wei Xu, Ying Shen, Changyuan Yu


In this paper, a highly sensitive fiber-optic curvature sensor based on four mode fiber (FMF) is presented and investigated. The proposed sensing structure is constructed by fusing a section of FMF into two standard single mode fibers (SMFs) concatenated with two no core fiber (NCF), i.e., SMF-NCF-FMF-NCF-SMF structure is fabricated. The length of the NCF is very short about 1 millimeter acting as exciting/recoupling the light from/into the core of the SMF, while the FMF is with 3 centimeters long supporting four eigenmodes including LP₀₁, LP₁₁, LP₂₁ and LP₀₂. High core modes in FMF can be effectively stimulated owing to mismatched mode field distribution and the mainly sensing principle is based on modal interferometer spectrum analysis. Different curvatures induce different strains on the FMF such that affecting the modal excitation, resulting spectrum shifts. One can get the curvature value by tracking the wavelength shifting. Experiments have been done to address the sensing performance, which is about 7.8 nm/m⁻¹ within a range of 1.90 m⁻¹~3.18 m⁻¹.

Keywords: curvature, four mode fiber, highly sensitive, modal interferometer

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3321 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park


This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

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3320 Thixomixing as Novel Method for Fabrication Aluminum Composite with Carbon and Alumina Fibers

Authors: Ebrahim Akbarzadeh, Josep A. Picas Barrachina, Maite Baile Puig


This study focuses on a novel method for dispersion and distribution of reinforcement under high intensive shear stress to produce metal composites. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based short carbon fiber (Csf) and Nextel 610 alumina fiber were dispersed under high intensive shearing at mushy zone in semi-solid of A356 by a novel method. The bundles and clusters were embedded by infiltration of slurry into the clusters, thus leading to a uniform microstructure. The fibers were embedded homogenously into the aluminum around 576-580°C with around 46% of solid fraction. Other experiments at 615°C and 568°C which are contained 0% and 90% solid respectively were not successful for dispersion and infiltration of aluminum into bundles of Csf. The alumina fiber has been cracked by high shearing load. The morphologies and crystalline phase were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The adopted thixo-process effectively improved the adherence and distribution of Csf into Al that can be developed to produce various composites by thixomixing.

Keywords: aluminum, carbon fiber, alumina fiber, thixomixing, adhesion

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3319 Rapid Method for the Determination of Acid Dyes by Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Can Hu, Huixia Shi, Hongcheng Mei, Jun Zhu, Hongling Guo


Textile fibers are important trace evidence and frequently encountered in criminal investigations. A significant aspect of fiber evidence examination is the determination of fiber dyes. Although several instrumental methods have been developed for dyes detection, the analysis speed is not fast enough yet. A rapid dye analysis method is still needed to further improve the efficiency of case handling. Capillary electrophoresis has the advantages of high separation speed and high separation efficiency and is an ideal method for the rapid analysis of fiber dyes. In this paper, acid dyes used for protein fiber dyeing were determined by a developed short-end injection capillary electrophoresis technique. Five acid red dyes with similar structures were successfully baseline separated within 5 min. The separation reproducibility is fairly good for the relative standard deviation of retention time is 0.51%. The established method is rapid and accurate which has great potential to be applied in forensic setting.

Keywords: acid dyes, capillary electrophoresis, fiber evidence, rapid determination

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3318 Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Thomas Beer


Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete(FRC), polypropylene fiber, resonance, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel fiber

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3317 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Varun Mittal, Shishir Sinha


The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: bagasse fiber, composite, hardness, sodium hydroxide

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3316 Effective Layer-by-layer Chemical Grafting of a Reactive Oxazoline Polymer and MWCNTs onto Carbon Fibers for Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Composites using Polystyrene as a Model Thermoplastic Matrix

Authors: Ryoma Tokonami, Teruya Goto, Tatsuhiro Takahashi,


For enhancing the mechanical property ofcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), the surface modification of carbon fiber (CF) by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has received considerable attention using direct MWCNT growth on CF with a catalysis, MWCNT electrophoresis, and layer-by-layer of MWCNT with reactive polymers, etc. Among above approaches, the layer-by-layer method is the simplest process, however, the amount of MWCNTs on CF is very little, resulting in the small amount of improvement of the mechanical property of the composite. The remaining amount of MWCNT on CF after melt mixing of CF (short fiber) with thermoplastic matrix polymer was not examined clearly in the former studies. The present research aims to propose an effective layer-by-layer chemical grafting of a highly reactive oxazoline polymer, which has not been used before, and MWCNTs onto CF using the highly reactivity of oxazoline and COOH on the surface of CF and MWCNTs.With layer-by-layer method, the first uniform chemically bonded mono molecular layer on carbon fiber was formed by chemical surface reaction of carbon fiber, a reactive oxazoline polymer solution between COOH of carbon fiber and oxazoline. The second chemically bonded uniform layer of MWCNTs on the first layer was prepared through the first layer coated carbon fiber in MWCNT dispersion solution by chemical reaction between oxazoline and COOH of MWCNTs. The quantitative analysis of MWCNTs on carbon fiber was performed, showing 0.44 wt.% of MWCNTs based on carbon fiber, which is much larger amount compared with the former studies in layer-by-layer method. In addition, MWCNTs were also observed uniform coating on carbon fiber by scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Carbon fiber composites were prepared by melting mixing using polystyrene (PS) as a thermoplastic matrix because of easy removal of PS by solvent for additional analysis, resulting the 20% of enhancement of tensile strength and modulus by tensile strength test. It was confirmed bySEM the layer-by-layer structure on carbon fibers were remained after the melt mixing by removing PS with a solvent. As a conclusion, the effectiveness for the enhancement of the mechanical properties of CF(short fiber)/PS composite using the highly reactive oxazoline polymer for the first layer and MWCNT for the second layer, which act as the physical anchor, was demonstrated.

Keywords: interface, layer-by-layer, multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), oxazoline

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3315 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Ahmed Bakry, Moustafa Ahmed


We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser

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3314 Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kulig, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet


Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data are known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber has the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the higher load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increase in the top to bottom gradient, whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus, and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11 ± 181.86 MPa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04 ± 0.02 mm/mm, respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana, and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Chemical treatment, Fiber characteristics, Natural fiber

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3313 Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: S. Kerakra, S. Bouhelal, M. Poncot


The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.

Keywords: isotactic polypropylene, hollow recycled PET fibers, solid recycled-PET fibers, composites, short fiber, scanning electron microscope

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3312 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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3311 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Ali Elheber Ahmed


Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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3310 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem


Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, Fineness, Carpet, Fleece, Raw Wool

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3309 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun


In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound

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3308 Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser

Authors: Liang Zhang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuming Dong, Guohua Jiao, Wei Chen, Jiancheng Lv


We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.

Keywords: fiber sensing, interferometric demodulation, mode-locked fiber laser, vernier effect

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3307 Thermo-Mechanical Properties of PBI Fiber Reinforced HDPE Composites: Effect of Fiber Length and Composition

Authors: Shan Faiz, Arfat Anis, Saeed M. Al-Zarani


High density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly benzimidazole fiber (PBI) composites were prepared by melt blending in a twin screw extruder (TSE). The thermo-mechanical properties of PBI fiber reinforced HDPE composite samples (1%, 4% and 8% fiber content) of fiber lengths 3 mm and 6 mm were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), universal testing machine (UTM), rheometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of fiber content and fiber lengths on the thermo-mechanical properties of the HDPE-PBI composites was studied. The DSC analysis showed decrease in crystallinity of HDPE-PBI composites with the increase of fiber loading. Maximum decrease observed was 12% at 8% fiber length. The thermal stability was found to increase with the addition of fiber. T50% was notably increased to 40oC for both grades of HDPE using 8% of fiber content. The mechanical properties were not much affected by the increase in fiber content. The optimum value of tensile strength was achieved using 4% fiber content and slight increase of 9% in tensile strength was observed. No noticeable change was observed in flexural strength. In rheology study, the complex viscosities of HDPE-PBI composites were higher than the HDPE matrix and substantially increased with even minimum increase of PBI fiber loading i.e. 1%. We found that the addition of the PBI fiber resulted in a modest improvement in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the prepared composites.

Keywords: PBI fiber, high density polyethylene, composites, melt blending

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3306 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Reinforced Composite with Different Fiber Orientation

Authors: Y. C. Ching, K. H. Chong


The increasing of environmental awareness has led to grow interest in the expansion of materials with eco-friendly attributes. In this study, a 3 ply sandwich layer of kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester with various fiber orientations was developed. The effect of the fiber orientation on mechanical and thermal stability properties of polyester was studied. Unsaturated polyester as a face sheets and kenaf fibers as a core was fabricated with combination of hand lay-up process and cold compression method. Tested result parameters like tensile, flexural, impact strength, melting point, and crystallization point were compared and recorded based on different fiber orientation. The failure mechanism and property changes associated with directional change of fiber to polyester composite were discussed.

Keywords: kenaf fiber, polyester, tensile, thermal stability

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3305 Study of the Chemical Composition of Rye, Millet and Sorghum from Algeria

Authors: Soualem Mami Zoubida, Brixi Nassima, Beghdad Choukri, Belarbi Meriem


Cereals are the most important source of dietary fiber in the Nordic diet. The fiber in cereals is located mainly in the outer layers of the kernel; particularly in the bran. Improved diet can help unlock the door to good health. Whole grains are an important source of nutrients that are in short supply in our diet, including digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, trace minerals, and other compounds of interest in disease prevention, including phytoestrogens and antioxidants (1). The objective of this study is to know the composition of whole grain cereals (rye, millet, white, and red sorghum) which a majority pushes in the south of Algeria. This shows that the millet has a high rate of the sugar estimated at 67.6%. The high proportion of proteins has been found in the two varieties of sorghum and rye. The millet presents the great percentage in lipids compared with the others cereals. And at the last, a red sorghum has the highest rate of fiber(2). These nutrients, as well as other components of whole grain cereals, have, in terms of health, an increased effect if they are consumed together.

Keywords: chemical composition, miller, Secale cereal, Sorghum bicolor

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3304 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan


This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

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