Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2531

Search results for: physicochemical characterization of MFI

2531 The First Step to Standardization of Iranian Buffalo Milk: Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Farnoosh Attar

Abstract:

Nowadays, buffalo’s milk due to has highly nutritional properties, has a special place among consumers and its application for the production of dairy products due to the high technological properties is increasing day by day. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of Iranian buffalo’s milk were compared with cow's milk. According to chemical analysis, the amount of fat, protein, and total solid was higher in buffalo milk than cow's milk (respectively, 8.2%, 4.73%, and 15.92% compared with 3.5%, 3.25%, and 12.5%). Also, the percentage of cholesterol buffalo’s milk was less than in cow's milk. In contrast, no significant difference between the pH, acidity, and specific gravity was observed. The size of buffalo milk fat globules was larger than cow's milk. In addition, the profile of buffalo free fatty acids milk showed the relatively high distribution of long chain saturated fatty acids. The presence of four major bands related to αs casein, β casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin with quite higher intensity than cow’s milk was also observed. The results obtained will provide a reference investigation to improve the developing of buffalo milk standard.

Keywords: buffalo milk, physicochemical characterization, standardization, dairy products

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2530 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi

Abstract:

In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, physicochemical properties, APCVD, FTIR, band gap

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2529 Physicochemical Characterization of MFI–Ceramic Hollow Fibres Membranes for CO2 Separation with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher

Abstract:

This paper present some preliminary work on the preparation and physicochemical caracterization of nanocomposite MFI-alumina structures based on alumina hollow fibres. The fibers are manufactured by a wet spinning process. α-alumina particles were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in NMP. The resulting slurry is pressed through the annular gap of a spinneret into a precipitation bath. The resulting green fibres are sintered. The mechanical strength of the alumina hollow fibres is determined by a three-point-bending test while the pore size is characterized by bubble-point testing. The bending strength is in the range of 110 MPa while the average pore size is 450 nm for an internal diameter of 1 mm and external diameter of 1.7 mm. To characterize the MFI membranes various techniques were used for physicochemical characterization of MFI–ceramic hollow fibres membranes: The nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with X emission microanalysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Microanalysis by the X-ray were used to observe the morphology of the hollow fibre membranes (thickness, infiltration into the carrier, defects, homogeneity). No surface film, has been obtained, as observed by SEM and EDX analysis and confirmed by high temperature variation of N2 and CO2 gas permeances before cation exchange. Local analysis and characterise (SEM and EDX) and overall (by ICP elemental analysis) were conducted on two samples exchanged to determine the quantity and distribution of the cation of cesium on the cross section fibre of the zeolite between the cavities.

Keywords: physicochemical characterization of MFI, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

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2528 Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Raw and Calcined Kaolinitic Clays Using Analytical Techniques

Authors: Alireza Khaloo, Asghar Gholizadeh-Vayghan

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the characterization of the physicochemical properties of kaolinitic clays in both raw and calcined (i.e., dehydroxylated) states. The properties investigated included the dehydroxylation temperature, chemical composition and crystalline phases, band types, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, and reactive and unreactive silica and alumina. The thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy results suggest that full dehydroxylation takes place at 639°C, converting kaolinite to reactive metakaolinite (Si₂Al₂O₇). Application of higher temperatures up to 800 °C leads to complete decarbonation of the calcite phase, and the kaolinite converts to mullite at temperatures exceeding 957 °C. Calcination at 639°C was found to cause a 50% increase in the vitreous content of kaolin. Statistically meaningful increases in the reactivity of silica, alumina, calcite and sodium carbonate in kaolin were detected as a result of such thermal treatment. Such increases were found to be 11%, 47%, 240% and 10%, respectively. The ferrite phase, however, showed a 36% decline in reactivity. The proposed approach can be used as an analytical method to determine the viability of the source of kaolinite and proper physical and chemical modifications needed to enhance its suitability for geopolymer production.

Keywords: physicochemical properties, dehydroxylation, kaolinitic clays, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, reactivity

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2527 Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Dwarakanadha Reddy Peram, D. Swarnalatha, C. Gopinath

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.

Keywords: pioglitazone, olibanum, transdermal drug delivery system, drug release percantage

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2526 Characterization of Coal Fly Ash with Potential Use in the Manufacture Geopolymers to Solidify/Stabilize Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: P. M. Fonseca Alfonso, E. A. Murillo Ruiz, M. Diaz Lagos

Abstract:

Understanding the physicochemical properties and mineralogy of fly ash from a particular source is essential for to protect the environment and considering its possible applications, specifically, in the production of geopolymeric materials that solidify/stabilize heavy metals ions. The results of the characterization of three fly ash samples are shown in this paper. The samples were produced in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant in the State of Boyaca, Colombia. The particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogy, and molecular structure of three samples were analyzed using laser diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy respectively. The particle size distribution of the three samples probably ranges from 0.128 to 211 μm. Approximately 59 elements have been identified in the three samples. It is noticeable that the ashes are made up of aluminum and silicon compounds. Besides, the iron phase in low content was also found. According to the results found in this study, the fly ash samples type F has a great potential to be used as raw material for the manufacture of geopolymers with potential use in the stabilization/solidification of heavy metals; mainly due to the presence of amorphous aluminosilicates typical of this type of ash, which react effectively with alkali-activator.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymers, molecular structure, physicochemical properties.

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2525 The Physicochemical Properties of Two Rivers in Eastern Cape South Africa as Relates to Vibrio Spp Density

Authors: Oluwatayo Abioye, Anthony Okoh

Abstract:

In the past view decades; human has experienced outbreaks of infections caused by pathogenic Vibrio spp which are commonly found in aquatic milieu. Asides the well-known Vibrio cholerae, discovery of other pathogens in this genus has been on the increase. While the dynamics of occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp have been linked to some physicochemical parameters in salt water, data in relation to fresh water is limited. Hence, two rivers of importance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa were selected for this study. In all, eleven sampling sites were systematically identified and relevant physicochemical parameters, as well as Vibrio spp density, were determined for the period of six months using standard instruments and methods. Results were statistically analysed to determined key physicochemical parameters that determine the density of Vibrio spp in the selected rivers. Results: The density of Vibrio spp in all the sampling points ranges between < 1 CFU/mL to 174 x 10-2 CFU/mL. The physicochemical parameters of some of the sampling points were above the recommended standards. The regression analysis showed that Vibrio density in the selected rivers depends on a complex relationship between various physicochemical parameters. Conclusion: This study suggests that Vibrio spp density in fresh water does not depend on only temperature and salinity as suggested by earlier studies on salt water but rather on a complex relationship between several physicochemical parameters.

Keywords: vibrio density, physicochemical properties, pathogen, aquatic milieu

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2524 Statistical Pattern Recognition for Biotechnological Process Characterization Based on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: S. Fröhlich, M. Herold, M. Allmer

Abstract:

Early stage quantitative analysis of host cell protein (HCP) variations is challenging yet necessary for comprehensive bioprocess development. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) provides a high-end technology for accurate identification alongside with quantitative information. Hereby we describe a flexible HRMS assay platform to quantify HCPs relevant in microbial expression systems such as E. Coli in both up and downstream development by means of MVDA tools. Cell pellets were lysed and proteins extracted, purified samples not further treated before applying the SMART tryptic digest kit. Peptides separation was optimized using an RP-UHPLC separation platform. HRMS-MSMS analysis was conducted on an Orbitrap Velos Elite applying CID. Quantification was performed label-free taking into account ionization properties and physicochemical peptide similarities. Results were analyzed using SIEVE 2.0 (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and SIMCA (Umetrics AG). The developed HRMS platform was applied to an E. Coli expression set with varying productivity and the corresponding downstream process. Selected HCPs were successfully quantified within the fmol range. Analysing HCP networks based on pattern analysis facilitated low level quantification and enhanced validity. This approach is of high relevance for high-throughput screening experiments during upstream development, e.g. for titer determination, dynamic HCP network analysis or product characterization. Considering the downstream purification process, physicochemical clustering of identified HCPs is of relevance to adjust buffer conditions accordingly. However, the technology provides an innovative approach for label-free MS based quantification relying on statistical pattern analysis and comparison. Absolute quantification based on physicochemical properties and peptide similarity score provides a technological approach without the need of sophisticated sample preparation strategies and is therefore proven to be straightforward, sensitive and highly reproducible in terms of product characterization.

Keywords: process analytical technology, mass spectrometry, process characterization, MVDA, pattern recognition

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2523 Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality Characterization of Some Selected Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: Olu Ale, Olugbenga Aribisala, Sanmi Awopetu

Abstract:

Groundwater (Wells) is obtained from several well-defined and different water-bearing geological layers or strata. The physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the water contributed from each of these water-bearing formations and resultant effects of indiscriminate wastes disposal will be dependent on the dissolution of material within the formation. Therefore, water withdrawn from any ground water source will be a composite of these individual aquifers. The water quality was determined by actual sampling and analysis of the completed wells. This study attempted to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality of twenty five selected wells comprising twenty boreholes (deep wells) and five hand dug wells (shallow wells). The twenty five wells cut across the entire Ado Ekiti Metropolitan area. The water samples collected using standard method was promptly taken to water laboratory at the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti for analysis, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out. Quality characteristics tested were found to meet WHO’s standard and generally acceptable, making it potable for drinking in most situations, thus encouraging the use of groundwater. Possible improvement strategies to groundwater exploitation were highlighted while remedies to poor quality water were suggested.

Keywords: bacteriological, physicochemical, quality, wells, Ado Ekiti

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2522 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki

Abstract:

Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: targeted drug delivery, magnetic properties, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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2521 Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid-Based Injections Used on Rejuvenation Skin Treatments

Authors: Lucas Kurth de Azambuja, Loise Silveira da Silva, Gean Vitor Salmoria, Darlan Dallacosta, Carlos Rodrigo de Mello Roesler

Abstract:

This work provides a physicochemical and thermal characterization assessment of three different hyaluronic acid (HA)-based injections used for rejuvenation skin treatments. The three products analyzed are manufactured by the same manufacturer and commercialized for application on different skin levels. According to the manufacturer, all three HA-based injections are crosslinked and have a concentration of 23 mg/mL of HA, and 0.3% of lidocaine. Samples were characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. FTIR analysis resulted in a similar spectrum when comparing the different products. DSC analysis demonstrated that the fusion points differ in each product, with a higher fusion temperature observed in specimen A, which is used for subcutaneous applications, when compared with B and C, which are used for the middle dermis and deep dermis, respectively. TGA data demonstrated a considerable mass loss at 100°C, which means that the product has more than 50% of water in its composition. TGA analysis also showed that Specimen A had a lower mass loss at 100°C when compared to Specimen C. A mass loss of around 220°C was observed on all samples, characterizing the presence of hyaluronic acid. SEM images displayed a similar structure on all samples analyzed, with a thicker layer for Specimen A when compared with B and C. This series of analyses demonstrated that, as expected, the physicochemical and thermal properties of the products differ according to their application. Furthermore, to better characterize the crosslinking degree of each product and their mechanical properties, a set of different techniques should be applied in parallel to correlate the results and, thereby, relate injection application with material properties.

Keywords: hyaluronic acid, characterization, soft-tissue fillers, injectable gels

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2520 Progressive Changes in Physico-Chemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom

Abstract:

The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: conductivity, pH, physicochemical, rainwater quality, TDS

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2519 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: MEB, thin disulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-Ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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2518 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

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2517 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. Investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property

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2516 Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils

Authors: Antonella Hadzich, Santiago Flores

Abstract:

Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.

Keywords: alkyd resins, flaxseed oil, pentaerythritol, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, protective coating

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2515 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100 g, acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, physicochemical, iodine value, peroxide value

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2514 Effects of Different Processing Methods on Composition, Physicochemical and Morphological Properties of MR263 Rice Flour

Authors: R. Asmeda, A. Noorlaila, M. H. Norziah

Abstract:

This research work was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques during the milling process of rice grains on physicochemical characteristics of rice flour produced. Dry grinding, semi-wet grinding, and wet grinding were employed to produce the rice flour. The results indicated that different grinding methods significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected physicochemical and functional properties of starch except for the carbohydrate content, x-ray diffraction pattern and breakdown viscosity. Dry grinding technique caused highest percentage of starch damage compared to semi-wet and wet grinding. Protein, fat and ash content were highest in rice flour obtained by dry grinding. It was found that wet grinding produce flour with smallest average particle size (8.52 µm), resulting in highest process yield (73.14%). Pasting profiles revealed that dry grinding produce rice flour with significantly lowest pasting temperature and highest setback viscosity.

Keywords: average particle size, grinding techniques, physicochemical characteristics, rice flour

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2513 Physicochemical Studies and Screening of Aflatoxins and Pesticide Residues in Some 'Honey Pastes' Marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad Al-Hindi

Abstract:

The study aimed at investigating and screening of some contaminants in some honey-based products. Sixty-nine 'honey paste' samples marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were subjected to physicochemical studies and screening of aflatoxins and pesticide residues. The physicochemical parameters studied were mainly: moisture content, total sugars, total ash, total nitrogen, fibres, total acidity as citric acid and pH. These parameters were investigated using standard methods of analysis. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues were by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to official methods. Results revealed that mean values of the examined criteria were: 15.44±0.36%; 74±4.30%; 0.40±0.062%; 0.22±0.05%; 6.93±1.30%; 2.53±0.161 mmol/kg; 4.10±0.158, respectively. Overall results proved that all tested honey pastes samples were free from mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues. Therefore, we conclude that 'honey pastes' marketed in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were safe for human consumption.

Keywords: aflatoxins, honey mixtures, pesticide residues, physicochemical

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2512 Prediction and Analysis of Human Transmembrane Transporter Proteins Based on SCM

Authors: Hui-Ling Huang, Tamara Vasylenko, Phasit Charoenkwan, Shih-Hsiang Chiu, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

The knowledge of the human transporters is still limited due to technically demanding procedure of crystallization for the structural characterization of transporters by spectroscopic methods. It is desirable to develop bioinformatics tools for effective analysis of available sequences in order to identify human transmembrane transporter proteins (HMTPs). This study proposes a scoring card method (SCM) based method for predicting HMTPs. We estimated a set of propensity scores of dipeptides to be HMTPs using SCM from the training dataset (HTS732) consisting of 366 HMTPs and 366 non-HMTPs. SCM using the estimated propensity scores of 20 amino acids and 400 dipeptides -as HMTPs, has a training accuracy of 87.63% and a test accuracy of 66.46%. The five top-ranked dipeptides include LD, NV, LI, KY, and MN with scores 996, 992, 989, 987, and 985, respectively. Five amino acids with the highest propensity scores are Ile, Phe, Met, Gly, and Leu, that hydrophobic residues are mostly highly-scored. Furthermore, obtained propensity scores were used to analyze physicochemical properties of human transporters.

Keywords: dipeptide composition, physicochemical property, human transmembrane transporter proteins, human transmembrane transporters binding propensity, scoring card method

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2511 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka

Abstract:

The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

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2510 Elaboration and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Edible Films Made from Chitosan and Spray Dried Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez

Abstract:

It was necessary to establish which formulation is suitable for the preservation of aquaculture products, that why edible films were made. These were to a characterization in order to meet their morphology physicochemical and mechanical properties, optical. Six Formulations of chitosan and propolis ethanolic extract encapsulated were developed because of their activity against pathogens and due to their properties, which allows the creation waterproof polymer networks against gasses, vapor, and physical damage. In the six Formulations, the concentration of comparison material (1% w/v, 2% pv) and the bioactive concentrations (0.5% w/v, 1% w/v, 1.5% pv) were changed and the results obtained were compared with statistical and multivariate analysis methods. It was observed that the matrices showed a mayor impermeability and thickness control samples and the samples reported in the literature. Also, these films showed a notorious uniformity of the films and a bigger resistance to the physical damage compared with other edible films made of other biopolymers. However the action of some compounds had a negative effect on the mechanical properties and changed drastically the optical properties, the bioactive has an effect on Polymer Matrix and it was determined that the films with 2% w / v of chitosan and 1.5% w/v encapsulated, exhibited the best properties and suffered to a lesser extent the negative impact of immiscible substances.

Keywords: chitosan, edible films, ethanolic extract of propolis, mechanical properties, optical properties, physical characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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2509 Electrochemistry of Metal Chalcogenides Semiconductor Materials; Theory and Practical Applications

Authors: Mahmoud Elrouby

Abstract:

Metal chalcogenide materials have wide spectrum of properties, for that these materials can be used in electronics, optics, magnetics, solar energy conversion, catalysis, passivation, ion sensing, batteries, and fuel cells. This work aims to, how can obtain these materials via electrochemical methods simply for further applications. The work regards in particular the systems relevant to the sulphur sub-group elements, i.e., sulphur, selenium, and tellurium. The role of electrochemistry in synthesis, development, and characterization of the metal chalcogenide materials and related devices is vital and important. Electrochemical methods as preparation tool offer the advantages of soft chemistry to access bulk, thin, nano film and epitaxial growth of a wide range of alloys and compounds, while as a characterization tool provides exceptional assistance in specifying the physicochemical properties of materials. Moreover, quite important applications and modern devices base their operation on electrochemical principles. Thereupon, our scope in the first place was to organize existing facts on the electrochemistry of metal chalcogenides regarding their synthesis, properties, and applications.

Keywords: electrodeposition, metal chacogenides, semiconductors, applications

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2508 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi

Abstract:

The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

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2507 Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin (PS) and Palm Kernel Olein (PKOO) Blends as Potential Edible Coating Materials

Authors: I. Ruzaina, A. B. Rashid, M. S. Halimahton Zahrah, C. S. Cheow, M. S. Adi

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the potential of palm stearin (PS) as edible coating materials for fruits. The palm stearin was blended with 20-80% palm kernel olein (PKOo) and the properties of the blends were evaluated in terms of the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions (TAG), and polymorphism. Blending of PS with PKOo reduced the SMP, SFC, altered the FAC and TAG composition and changed the crystal polymorphism from β to mixture of β and β′. The changes in the physicochemical properties of PS were due to the replacement of the high melting TAG in PS with medium chain TAG in PKOo. From the analysis, 1:1 and 3:2 were the better PSPKOo blend formulations in slowing down the weight loss, respiration gases and gave better appearance when compared to other PSPKOo blends formulations.

Keywords: guava, palm stearin, palm kernel olein, physicochemical

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2506 Delineation of Oil – Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria, Using Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

Abstract:

Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the highest crude oil & condensate producer in Nigeria has its operational base and an oil terminal, the Qua Iboe terminal (QIT) located at Ibeno, Nigeria. Other oil companies like Network Exploration and Production Nigeria Ltd, Frontier Oil Ltd; Shell Petroleum Development Company Ltd; Elf Petroleum Nigeria Ltd and Nigerian Agip Energy, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI E&P operate onshore, on the continental shelf and in deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean, respectively with the coastal waters of Ibeno, Nigeria as the nearest shoreline. This study was designed to delineate the oil-polluted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria using microbiological and physico-chemical characterization of soils, sediments and ground and surface water samples from the study area. Results obtained revealed that there have been significant recent hydrocarbon inputs into this environment as observed from the high counts of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms in excess of 1% at all the stations sampled. Moreover, high concentrations of THC, BTEX and heavy metals contents in all the samples analyzed corroborate the high recent crude oil input into the study area. The results also showed that the pollution of the different environmental media sampled were of varying degrees, following the trend: Ground water > surface water > sediments > soils.

Keywords: microbiological characterization, oil-polluted sites, physico-chemical analyses, total hydrocarbon content

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2505 Physicochemical Characterization of Low Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone/ Layered Double Hydroxide/Sepiolite Hybrid to Improve the Performance of Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Zakaria Ahmed, Khaled Charradi, Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Radhouane Chtourou

Abstract:

Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) with a low sulfonation degree was blended using nanofiller Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH, Mg2AlCl) /sepiolite nanostructured material as additive to use as an electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application. Characterization assessments, i.e., mechanical stability, thermal gravimetric analysis, ion exchange capability, swelling properties, water uptake capacities, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the composite membranes were conducted. The presence of LDH/sepiolite nanoarchitecture material within SPEEK was found to have the highest water retention and proton conductivity value at high temperature rather than LDH/SPEEK and pristine SPEEK membranes.

Keywords: SPEEK, sepiolite clay, LDH clay, proton exchange membrane

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2504 Physicochemical Attributes of Pectin Hydrogel and Its Wound Healing Activity

Authors: Nor Khaizan Anuar, Nur Karimah Aziz, Tin Wui Wong, Ahmad Sazali Hamzah, Wan Rozita Wan Engah

Abstract:

The physicochemical attributes and wound healing activity of pectin hydrogel in rat models, following partial thickness thermal injury were investigated. The pectin hydrogel was prepared by solvent evaporation method with the aid of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. The physicochemical properties were mainly evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the wound healing activity was examined by the macroscopic images, wound size reduction and histological evaluation using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for 14 days. The DSC and FTIR analysis suggested that pectin hydrogel exhibited higher extent of polymer-polymer interaction at O-H functional group in comparison to the unprocessed pectin. This was indicated by the increase of endothermic enthalpy values from 139.35 ± 13.06 J/g of unprocessed pectin to 156.23 ± 2.86 J/g of pectin hydrogel, as well as the decrease of FTIR wavenumber corresponding to O-H at 3432.07 ± 0.49 cm-1 of unprocessed pectin to 3412.62 ± 13.06 cm-1 of pectin hydrogel. Rats treated with pectin hydrogel had significantly smaller wound size (Student’s t-test, p<0.05) when compared to the untreated group starting from day 7 until day 14. H&E staining indicated that wounds received pectin hydrogel had more fibroblasts, blood vessels and collagen bundles on day 14 in comparison to the untreated rats.

Keywords: pectin, physicochemical, rats, wound

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2503 Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Non-ionic Surfactant Vesicles Containing Itraconazole

Authors: S. Ataei, F. Sarrafzadeh Javadi, K. Gilani, E. Moazeni

Abstract:

Drug delivery systems using colloidal particulate carriers such as niosomes or liposomes have distinct advantages over conventional dosage forms because the particles can act as drug-containing reservoirs. These carriers play an increasingly important role in drug delivery. Niosomes are vesicular delivery systems which result from the self-assembly of hydrated surfactant. Niosomes are now widely studied as an attractive to liposomes because they alleviate the disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as chemical instability, variable purity of phospholipids and high cost. The encapsulation of drugs in niosomes can decrease drug toxicity, increase the stability of drug and increase the penetrability of drug in the location of application, and may reduce the dose and systemic side effect. Nowadays, Niosomes are used by the pharmaceutical industry in manufacturing skin medications, eye medication, in cosmetic formulas and these vesicular systems can be used to deliver aspiratory drugs. One way of improving dispersion in the water phase and solubility of the hydrophobic drug is to formulate in into niosomes. Itraconazole (ITZ) was chosen as a model hydrophobic drug. This drug is water insoluble (solubility ~ 1 ng/ml at neutral pH), is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent and is used to treat various fungal disease. This study aims to investigate the capability of forming itraconazole niosomes with Spans, Tweens, Brijs as non-ionic surfactants. To this end, various formulations of niosomes have been studied with regard to parameters such as the degree of containment and particle size.

Keywords: physicochemical, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, itraconazole

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2502 Detailed Investigation of Thermal Degradation Mechanism and Product Characterization of Co-Pyrolysis of Indian Oil Shale with Rubber Seed Shell

Authors: Bhargav Baruah, Ali Shemsedin Reshad, Pankaj Tiwari

Abstract:

This work presents a detailed study on the thermal degradation kinetics of co-pyrolysis of oil shale of Upper Assam, India with rubber seed shell, and lab-scale pyrolysis to investigate the influence of pyrolysis parameters on product yield and composition of products. The physicochemical characteristics of oil shale and rubber seed shell were studied by proximate analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical study showed the mixture to be of low moisture, high ash, siliceous, sour with the presence of aliphatic, aromatic, and phenolic compounds. The thermal decomposition of the oil shale with rubber seed shell was studied using thermogravimetric analysis at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 °C/min. The kinetic study of the oil shale pyrolysis process was performed on the thermogravimetric (TGA) data using three model-free isoconversional methods viz. Friedman, Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO), and Kissinger Akahira Sunnose (KAS). The reaction mechanisms were determined using the Criado master plot. The understanding of the composition of Indian oil shale and rubber seed shell and pyrolysis process kinetics can help to establish the experimental parameters for the extraction of valuable products from the mixture. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed usinf central composite design (CCD) model to setup the lab-scale experiment using TGA data, and optimization of process parameters viz. heating rate, temperature, and particle size. The samples were pre-dried at 115°C for 24 hours prior to pyrolysis. The pyrolysis temperatures were set from 450 to 650 °C, at heating rates of 2 to 20°C/min. The retention time was set between 2 to 8 hours. The optimum oil yield was observed at 5°C/min and 550°C with a retention time of 5 hours. The pyrolytic oil and gas obtained at optimum conditions were subjected to characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR).

Keywords: Indian oil shale, rubber seed shell, co-pyrolysis, isoconversional methods, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

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