Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Fumio Ogawa

15 Fabrication of Hollow Germanium Spheres by Dropping Method

Authors: Kunal D. Bhagat, Truong V. Vu, John C. Wells, Hideyuki Takakura, Yu Kawano, Fumio Ogawa


Hollow germanium alloy quasi-spheres of diameters 1 to 2 mm with a relatively smooth inner and outer surface have been produced. The germanium was first melted at around 1273 K and then exuded from a coaxial nozzle into an inert atmosphere by argon gas supplied to the inner nozzle. The falling spheres were cooled by water spray and collected in a bucket. The spheres had a horn type of structure on the outer surface, which might be caused by volume expansion induced by the density difference between solid and gas phase. The frequency of the sphere formation was determined from the videos to be about 133 Hz. The outer diameter varied in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 mm with a wall thickness in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Solid silicon spheres are used for spherical silicon solar cells (S₃CS), which have various attractive features. Hollow S₃CS promise substantially higher energy conversion efficiency if their wall thickness can be kept to 0.1–0.2 mm and the inner surface can be passivated. Our production of hollow germanium spheres is a significant step towards the production of hollow S₃CS with, we hope, higher efficiency and lower material cost than solid S₃CS.

Keywords: hollow spheres, semiconductor, compound jet, dropping method

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14 Green Logistics Management and Performance for Thailand’s Logistic Enterprises

Authors: Kittipong Tissayakorn, Fumio Akagi, Yu Song


Logistics is the integrated management of all of the activities required to move products through the supply chain. For a typical product, this supply chain extends from a raw material source through the production and distribution system to the point of consumption and the associated reverse logistics. The logistical activities are comprised of freight transport, storage, inventory management, materials handling and all related information processing. This paper analyzes the green management system of logistics enterprise for Thailand and advances the concept of Green Logistics, which should be held by the public. In addition, it proposes that the government should strengthen its supervision and support for green logistics, and companies should construct self-disciplined green logistics management systems and corresponding processes, a reverse logistics management system and a modern green logistics information collection and management system.

Keywords: logistics, green logistics, management system, ecological economics

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13 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama


We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

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12 Hypoglycemic Coma in Elderly Patients with Diabetes mellitus

Authors: D. Furuya, H. Ryujin, S. Takahira, Y. Sekine, Y. Oya, K. Sonoda, H. Ogawa, Y. Nomura, R. Maruyama, H. Kim, T. Kudo, A. Nakano, T. Saruta, S. Sugita, M. Nemoto, N. Tanahashi


Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics of hypoglycemic coma in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Participants in this retrospective study comprised 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 71.5 ± 12.6 years; range, 42-97 years) brought to our emergency department by ambulance with disturbance of consciousness in the 7 years from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with hypoglycemia caused by alcoholic ketoacidosis, nutrition disorder, malignancies and psychological disorder were excluded. Results: Patients with type 1 (8 of 91) or type 2 DM (83 of 91) were analyzed. Mean blood sugar level was 31.6 ± 10.4 in all patients. A sulfonylurea (SU) was more commonly used in elderly (>75 years old; n=44)(70.5%) than in younger patients (36.2%, p < 0.05). Cases showing prolonged unconsciousness (range, 1 hour to 21 days; n=30) included many (p < 0.05) patients with dementia (13.3%; 0.5% without dementia) and fewer (p < 0.05) patients with type 1 DM (0%; 13.1% in type 2 DM). Specialists for DM (n=33) used SU less often (24.2%) than general physicians (69.0%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cases of hypoglycemic coma, SU was frequently used in elderly patients with DM.

Keywords: hypoglycemic coma, Diabetes mellitus, unconsciousness, elderly patients

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11 An Integrated Supply Chain Management to Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Kittipong Tissayakorn, Fumio Akagi, Yu Song


Manufacturers have been exploring innovative strategies to achieve and sustain competitive advantages as they face a new era of intensive global competition. Such strategy is known as Supply Chain Management (SCM), which has gained a tremendous amount of attention from both researchers and practitioners over the last decade. Supply chain management (SCM) is considered as the most popular operating strategy for improving organizational competitiveness in the twenty-first century. It has attracted a lot of attention recently due to its role involving all of the activities in industrial organizations, ranging from raw material procurement to final product delivery to customers. Well-designed supply chain systems can substantially improve efficiency and product quality, and eventually enhance customer satisfaction and profitability. In this paper, a manufacturing engineering perspective on supply chain integration is presented. Research issues discussed include the product and process design for the supply chain, design evaluation of manufacturing in the supply chain, agent-based techniques for supply chain integration, intelligent information for sharing across the supply chain, and a development of standards for product, process, and production data exchange to facilitate electronic commerce. The objective is to provide guidelines and references for manufacturing engineers and researchers interested in supply chain integration.

Keywords: supply chain, supply chain management, supply chain integration, manufacturing industries

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10 Existence and Stability of Periodic Traveling Waves in a Bistable Excitable System

Authors: M. Osman Gani, M. Ferdows, Toshiyuki Ogawa


In this work, we proposed a modified FHN-type reaction-diffusion system for a bistable excitable system by adding a scaled function obtained from a given function. We study the existence and the stability of the periodic traveling waves (or wavetrains) for the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) system and the modified one and compare the results. The stability results of the periodic traveling waves (PTWs) indicate that most of the solutions in the fast family of the PTWs are stable for the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations. The instability occurs only in the waves having smaller periods. However, the smaller period waves are always unstable. The fast family with sufficiently large periods is always stable in FHN model. We find that the oscillation of pulse widths is absent in the standard FHN model. That motivates us to study the PTWs in the proposed FHN-type reaction-diffusion system for the bistable excitable media. A good agreement is found between the solutions of the traveling wave ODEs and the corresponding whole PDE simulation.

Keywords: bistable system, Eckhaus bifurcation, excitable media, FitzHugh-Nagumo model, periodic traveling waves

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9 Influence of Strong Optical Feedback on Frequency Chirp and Lineshape Broadening in High-Speed Semiconductor Laser

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Fumio Koyama


Directly-modulated semiconductor lasers, including edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, have received considerable interest recently for use in data transmitters in cost-effective high-speed data centers, metro, and access networks. Optical feedback has been proved as an efficient technique to boost the modulation bandwidth and enhance the speed of the semiconductor laser. However, both the laser linewidth and frequency chirping in directly-modulated lasers are sensitive to both intensity modulation and optical feedback. These effects along width fiber dispersion affect the transmission bit rate and distance in single-mode fiber links. In this work, we continue our recent research on directly-modulated semiconductor lasers with modulation bandwidth in the millimeter-wave band by introducing simultaneous modeling and simulations on both the frequency chirping and lineshape broadening. The lasers are operating under strong optical feedback. The model takes into account the multiple reflections of laser reflections of laser radiation in the external cavity. The analyses are given in terms of the chirp-to-modulated power ratio, and the results are shown for the possible dynamic states of continuous wave, period-1 oscillation, and chaos.

Keywords: chirp, linewidth, optical feedback, semiconductor laser

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8 Genetic Characteristics of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Northern Vietnam

Authors: Hieu Van Dong, Giang Thi Huong Tran, Giap Van Nguyen, Tung Duy Dao, Vuong Nghia Bui, Le Thi My Huynh, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai


Chicken anemia virus (CAV) has a ubiquitous and worldwide distribution in chicken production. Our group previously reported high seroprevalence of CAV in chickens in northern Vietnam. In the present study, 330 tissue samples collected from commercial and breeder chicken farms in eleven provinces in northern Vietnam were tested for the CAV infection. We found that 157 out of 330 (47.58%) chickens were positive with CAV genes by real-time PCR method. Nine CAV strains obtained from the different location and time were forwarded to the full-length sequence of CAV VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the Vietnamese CAV vp1 gene indicated that the CAVs circulating in northern Vietnam were divided into three distinct genotypes, II, III, and V, but not clustered with the vaccine strains. Among the three genotypes, genotype III was the major one widely spread in Vietnam, and that included three sub-genotypes, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc. The Vietnamese CAV strains were closely related to the Chinese, Taiwanese, and USA strains. All the CAV isolates had glutamine at amino acid position 394 in the VP1 gene, suggesting that they might be highly pathogenic strains. One strain was defined to be genotype V, which had not been reported for Vietnamese CAVs. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the pathogenicity of CAV strains circulating in Vietnam.

Keywords: chicken anemia virus, genotype, genetic characteristics, Vietnam

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7 Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016

Authors: Giang Tran Thi Huong, Hieu Dong Van, Tung Dao Duy, Saadanov Iskender, Isakeev Mairambek, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yuki Ozeki, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai


Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.

Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Newcastle disease, genotype, genome characterization

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6 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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5 Cytogenetic Characterization of the VERO Cell Line Based on Comparisons with the Subline; Implication for Authorization and Quality Control of Animal Cell Lines

Authors: Fumio Kasai, Noriko Hirayama, Jorge Pereira, Azusa Ohtani, Masashi Iemura, Malcolm A. Ferguson Smith, Arihiro Kohara


The VERO cell line was established in 1962 from normal tissue of an African green monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops (2n=60), and has been commonly used worldwide for screening for toxins or as a cell substrate for the production of viral vaccines. The VERO genome was sequenced in 2014; however, its cytogenetic features have not been fully characterized as it contains several chromosome abnormalities and different karyotypes coexist in the cell line. In this study, the VERO cell line (JCRB0111) was compared with one of the sublines. In contrast to 59 chromosomes as the modal chromosome number in the VERO cell line, the subline had two peaks of 56 and 58 chromosomes. M-FISH analysis using human probes revealed that the VERO cell line was characterized by a translocation t(2;25) found in all metaphases, which was absent in the subline. Different abnormalities detected only in the subline show that the cell line is heterogeneous, indicating that the subline has the potential to change its genomic characteristics during cell culture. The various alterations in the two independent lineages suggest that genomic changes in both VERO cells can be accounted for by progressive rearrangements during their evolution in culture. Both t(5;X) and t(8;14) observed in all metaphases of the two cell lines might have a key role in VERO cells and could be used as genetic markers to identify VERO cells. The flow karyotype shows distinct differences from normal. Further analysis of sorted abnormal chromosomes may uncover other characteristics of VERO cells. Because of the absence of STR data, cytogenetic data are important in characterizing animal cell lines and can be an indicator of their quality control.

Keywords: VERO, cell culture passage, chromosome rearrangement, heterogeneous cells

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4 Genetic and Phenotypic Variability Among the Vibrio Cholerae O1 Isolates of India

Authors: Sreeja Shaw, Prosenjit Samanta, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay


Cholera is still a global public health burden and is caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Evidence from recent outbreaks in Haiti and Yemen suggested that circulating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains are continuously changing to cause more ruinous outbreaks worldwide, and most of them have emerged from the Indian subcontinents. Therefore, we studied the changing virulence characteristics along with the antibiotic resistance profile of V. cholerae O1strains isolated from seasonal outbreaks in three cholera endemic regions during 2018, Gujarat and Maharashtra in Western India (87 strains), and to compare those features with the isolates of West Bengal in Eastern India (48 strains) collected during the same period. All the strains from Western India were of Ogawa serotype, polymyxin B-sensitive, hemolytic, and contained a large fragment deletion in VSP-II genomic region similar with Yemen outbreak strains and carried more virulent Haitian genetic alleles of major virulence associated genes ctxB, tcpA, and rtxA. Conversely, 14.6% (7/48) of the strains from Eastern India were belong to the Inaba serotype, polymyxin B-resistant, non-hemolytic, harbored intact VSP-II region, classical ctxB, Haitian tcpA, and El Tor rtxA alleles. Interestingly, resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol was seen in isolates from both regions, which are not very common among V. cholerae O1 isolates in India. Therefore, this study indicated West Bengal as a diverse region where two different types of El Tor variant hypervirulent strains are co-existed, probably competing for their better environmental survival, which may result in severe irrepressible disease outcome in the future.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholerae, polymyxin B, Non-hemolytic, ctxB, tcpA, rtxA, VSP-II

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3 Outbreak of Cholera, Jalgaon District, Maharastra, 2013

Authors: Yogita Tulsian, A. Yadav


Background: India reports 3,600 cholera cases annually. In August 2013, a cholera outbreak was reported in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra state. We sought to describe the epidemiological characteristics,identify risk factors, and recommend control measures. Methods: We collected existing stool and water testing laboratory results, and conducted a1: 1 matched case-control study. A cholera case was defined as a resident of Vishnapur or Malapur villagewith onset of acute watery diarrhea on/ after 1-July-2013. Controls were matched by age, gender and village and had not experienced any diarrhea for 3 months. We collected socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and food/travel/water exposure history and conducted conditional logistic regression. Results: Of 50 people who met the cholera case definition, 40 (80%) were from Vishnapur village and 30 (60%) were female. The median age was 8.5 years (range; 0.3-75). Twenty (45%) cases were hospitalized, twelve (60%) with severe dehydration. Three of five stool samples revealed Vibrio cholerae 01 El Tor, Ogawa and samples from 7 of 14 Vishnapur water sources contained fecal coliforms. Cases from Vishnapur were significantly more likely to drink from identified contaminated water sources (matched odds ratio (MOR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1-13), or from a river/canal (MOR=18.4;95%CI: 2-504). Cases from Malapur were more likely to drink from a river/canal (MOR=6.2; 95%CI: 0.6-196). Cases from both villages were significantly more likely to visit the forest (MOR 6.3; 95%CI: 2-30) or another village (MOR 3.5; 95%CI; 0.9-17). Conclusions: This outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholerae, likely through contamination of water in Vishnapur village and/or through drinking river/canal water. We recommended safe drinking water for forest visitors and all residents of these villages and use of regular water testing.

Keywords: cholera, case control study, contaminated water, river

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2 Angiogenic, Cytoprotective, and Immunosuppressive Properties of Human Amnion and Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Kenichi Yamahara, Makiko Ohshima, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Hidetoshi Tsuda, Akihiko Taguchi, Toshihiro Soma, Hiroyasu Ogawa, Jun Yoshimatsu, Tomoaki Ikeda


We have previously reported the therapeutic potential of rat fetal membrane(FM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using various rat models including hindlimb ischemia, autoimmune myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and myocardial infarction. In this study, 1) we isolated and characterized MSCs from human amnion and chorion; 2) we examined their differences in the expression profile of growth factors and cytokines; and 3) we investigated the therapeutic potential and difference of these MSCs using murine hindlimb ischemia and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models. Isolated MSCs from both amnion and chorion layers of FM showed similar morphological appearance, multipotency, and cell-surface antigen expression. Conditioned media obtained from amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs inhibited cell death caused by serum starvation or hypoxia in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Amnion and chorion MSCs secreted significant amounts of angiogenic factors including HGF, IGF-1, VEGF, and bFGF, although differences in the cellular expression profile of these soluble factors were observed. Transplantation of human amnion or chorion MSCs significantly increased blood flow and capillary density in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. In addition, compared to human chorion MSCs, human amnion MSCs markedly reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation with the enhanced secretion of PGE2, and improved the pathological situation of a mouse model of GVHD disease. Our results highlight that human amnionand chorion-derived MSCs, which showed differences in their soluble factor secretion and angiogenic/immuno-suppressive function, could be ideal cell sources for regenerative medicine.

Keywords: amnion, chorion, fetal membrane, mesenchymal stem cells

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1 Preparation of hydrophobic silica membranes supported on alumina hollow fibers for pervaporation applications

Authors: Ami Okabe, Daisuke Gondo, Akira Ogawa, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Koichi Sato, Sadao Araki, Hideki Yamamoto


Membrane separation draws attention as the energy-saving technology. Pervaporation (PV) uses hydrophobic ceramic membranes to separate organic compounds from industrial wastewaters. PV makes it possible to separate organic compounds from azeotropic mixtures and from aqueous solutions. For the PV separation of low concentrations of organics from aqueous solutions, hydrophobic ceramic membranes are expected to have high separation performance compared with that of conventional hydrophilic membranes. Membrane separation performance is evaluated based on the pervaporation separation index (PSI), which depends on both the separation factor and the permeate flux. Ingenuity is required to increase the PSI such that the permeate flux increases without reducing the separation factor or to increase the separation factor without reducing the flux. A thin separation layer without defects and pinholes is required. In addition, it is known that the flux can be increased without reducing the separation factor by reducing the diffusion resistance of the membrane support. In a previous study, we prepared hydrophobic silica membranes by a molecular templating sol−gel method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to form pores suitable for permitting the passage of organic compounds through the membrane. We separated low-concentration organics from aqueous solutions by PV using these membranes. In the present study, hydrophobic silica membranes were prepared on a porous alumina hollow fiber support that is thinner than the previously used alumina support. Ethyl acetate (EA) is used in large industrial quantities, so it was selected as the organic substance to be separated. Hydrophobic silica membranes were prepared by dip-coating porous alumina supports with a -alumina interlayer into a silica sol containing CTAB and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) as the silica precursor. Membrane thickness increases with the lifting speed of the sol in the dip-coating process. Different thicknesses of the γ-alumina layer were prepared by dip-coating the support into a boehmite sol at different lifting speeds (0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mm s-1). Silica layers were subsequently formed by dip-coating using an immersion time of 60 s and lifting speed of 1 mm s-1. PV measurements of the EA (5 wt.%)/water system were carried out using VTMS hydrophobic silica membranes prepared on -alumina layers of different thicknesses. Water and EA flux showed substantially constant value despite of the change of the lifting speed to form the γ-alumina interlayer. All prepared hydrophobic silica membranes showed the higher PSI compared with the hydrophobic membranes using the previous alumina support of hollow fiber.

Keywords: membrane separation, pervaporation, hydrophobic, silica

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