Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: adobe

26 Observed Damages to Adobe Masonry Buildings after 2011 Van Earthquake

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Masonry is the oldest building materials since ancient times. Adobe, stone, brick are the most widespread materials used in the construction of masonry buildings. Masonry buildings compose of a large part of building stock especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions of Turkey. The seismic performance of adobe masonry buildings is vulnerable against earthquake effects. In this study, after 2011 Van earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, damages occurred in existing adobe masonry buildings in Van city is investigated. The observed damages and reasons of adobe masonry buildings in design and construction phase are specified and evaluated.

Keywords: adobe masonry buildings, earthquake effects, damages, seismic performance

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25 The Usage of Adobe in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler

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The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van show the fact that Van has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of adobe which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of adobe in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, adobe, Van city, adobe

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24 Adobe Attenuation Coefficient Determination and Its Comparison with Other Shielding Materials for Energies Found in Common X-Rays Procedures

Authors: Camarena Rodriguez C. S., Portocarrero Bonifaz A., Palma Esparza R., Romero Carlos N. A.

Abstract:

Adobe is a construction material that fulfills the same function as a conventional brick. Widely used since ancient times, it is present in an appreciable percentage of buildings in Latin America. Adobe is a mixture of clay and sand. The interest in the study of the properties of this material arises due to its presence in the infrastructure of hospital´s radiological services, located in places with low economic resources, for the attenuation of radiation. Some materials such as lead and concrete are the most used for shielding and are widely studied in the literature. The present study will determine the mass attenuation coefficient of Adobe. The minimum required thicknesses for the primary and secondary barriers will be estimated for the shielding of radiological facilities where conventional and dental X-rays are performed. For the experimental procedure, an X-ray source emitted direct radiation towards different thicknesses of an Adobe barrier, and a detector was placed on the other side. For this purpose, an UNFORS Xi solid state detector was used, which collected information on the difference of radiation intensity. The initial parameters of the exposure started at 45 kV; and then the tube tension was varied in increments of 5 kV, reaching a maximum of 125 kV. The X-Ray tube was positioned at a distance of 0.5 m from the surface of the Adobe bricks, and the collimation of the radiation beam was set for an area of 0.15 m x 0.15 m. Finally, mathematical methods were applied to determine the mass attenuation coefficient for different energy ranges. In conclusion, the mass attenuation coefficient for Adobe was determined and the approximate thicknesses of the most common Adobe barriers in the hospital buildings were calculated for their later application in the radiological protection.

Keywords: Adobe, attenuation coefficient, radiological protection, shielding, x-rays

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23 Surveying Earthquake Vulnerabilities of District 13 of Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi, Toshio Fujimi

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High population and irregular urban development in Kabul city, Afghanistan's capital, are among factors that increase its vulnerability to earthquake disasters (on top of its location in a high seismic region); this can lead to widespread economic loss and casualties. This study aims to evaluate earthquake risks in Kabul's 13th district based on scientific data. The research data, which include hazard curves of Kabul, vulnerability curves, and a questionnaire survey through sampling in district 13, have been incorporated to develop risk curves. To estimate potential casualties, we used a set of M parameters in a model developed by Coburn and Spence. The results indicate that in the worst case scenario, more than 90% of district 13, which comprises mostly residential buildings, is exposed to high risk; this may lead to nearly 1000 million USD economic loss and 120 thousand casualties (equal to 25.88% of the 13th district's population) for a nighttime earthquake. To reduce risks, we present the reconstruction of the most vulnerable buildings, which are primarily adobe and masonry buildings. A comparison of risk reduction between reconstructing adobe and masonry buildings indicates that rebuilding adobe buildings would be more effective.

Keywords: earthquake risk evaluation, Kabul, mitigation, vulnerability

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22 Technological Transference Tools to Diffuse Low-Cost Earthquake Resistant Construction with Adobe in Rural Areas of the Peruvian Andes

Authors: Marcial Blondet, Malena Serrano, Álvaro Rubiños, Elin Mattsson

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In Peru, there are more than two million houses made of adobe (sun dried mud bricks) or rammed earth (35% of the total houses), in which almost 9 million people live, mainly because they cannot afford to purchase industrialized construction materials. Although adobe houses are cheap to build and thermally comfortable, their seismic performance is very poor, and they usually suffer significant damage or collapse with tragic loss of life. Therefore, over the years, researchers at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and other institutions have developed many reinforcement techniques as an effort to improve the structural safety of earthen houses located in seismic areas. However, most rural communities live under unacceptable seismic risk conditions because these techniques have not been adopted massively, mainly due to high cost and lack of diffusion. The nylon rope mesh reinforcement technique is simple and low-cost, and two technological transference tools have been developed to diffuse it among rural communities: 1) Scale seismic simulations using a portable shaking table have been designed to prove its effectiveness to protect adobe houses; 2) A step-by-step illustrated construction manual has been developed to guide the complete building process of a nylon rope mesh reinforced adobe house. As a study case, it was selected the district of Pullo: a small rural community in the Peruvian Andes where more than 80% of its inhabitants live in adobe houses and more than 60% are considered to live in poverty or extreme poverty conditions. The research team carried out a one-day workshop in May 2015 and a two-day workshop in September 2015. Results were positive: First, the nylon rope mesh reinforcement procedure was proven simple enough to be replicated by adults, both young and seniors, and participants handled ropes and knots easily as they use them for daily livestock activity. In addition, nylon ropes were proven highly available in the study area as they were found at two local stores in variety of color and size.. Second, the portable shaking table demonstration successfully showed the effectiveness of the nylon rope mesh reinforcement and generated interest on learning about it. On the first workshop, more than 70% of the participants were willing to formally subscribe and sign up for practical training lessons. On the second workshop, more than 80% of the participants returned the second day to receive introductory practical training. Third, community members found illustrations on the construction manual simple and friendly but the roof system illustrations led to misinterpretation so they were improved. The technological transfer tools developed in this project can be used to train rural dwellers on earthquake-resistant self-construction with adobe, which is still very common in the Peruvian Andes. This approach would allow community members to develop skills and capacities to improve safety of their households on their own, thus, mitigating their high seismic risk and preventing tragic losses. Furthermore, proper training in earthquake-resistant self-construction with adobe would prevent rural dwellers from depending on external aid after an earthquake and become agents of their own development.

Keywords: adobe, Peruvian Andes, safe housing, technological transference

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21 Possibility of Creating Polygon Layers from Raster Layers Obtained by using Classic Image Processing Software: Case of Geological Map of Rwanda

Authors: Louis Nahimana

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Most maps are in a raster or pdf format and it is not easy to get vector layers of published maps. Faced to the production of geological simplified map of the northern Lake Tanganyika countries without geological information in vector format, I tried a method of obtaining vector layers from raster layers created from geological maps of Rwanda and DR Congo in pdf and jpg format. The procedure was as follows: The original raster maps were georeferenced using ArcGIS10.2. Under Adobe Photoshop, map areas with the same color corresponding to a lithostratigraphic unit were selected all over the map and saved in a specific raster layer. Using the same image processing software Adobe Photoshop, each RGB raster layer was converted in grayscale type and improved before importation in ArcGIS10. After georeferencing, each lithostratigraphic raster layer was transformed into a multitude of polygons with the tool "Raster to Polygon (Conversion)". Thereafter, tool "Aggregate Polygons (Cartography)" allowed obtaining a single polygon layer. Repeating the same steps for each color corresponding to a homogeneous rock unit, it was possible to reconstruct the simplified geological constitution of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in vector format. By using the tool «Append (Management)», vector layers obtained were combined with those from Burundi to achieve vector layers of the geology of the « Northern Lake Tanganyika countries ».

Keywords: creating raster layer under image processing software, raster to polygon, aggregate polygons, adobe photoshop

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20 The Design of Decorative Flower Patterns from Suan Sunandha Palace

Authors: Nawaporn Srisarankullawong

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The study on the design of decorative flower patterns from Suan Sunandha Palace is the innovative design using flowers grown in Suan Sunandha Palace as the original sources. The research instrument included: 1) the photographs of flowers in watercolors painted by one of the lady in waiting of Her Royal Highness Princess Saisawareepirom as the source for investigating flowers used to grow in Suan Sunandha Palace, 2) pictures of real flowers used to grow in Suan Sunandha Palace, 3) Adobe Illustrator Program and Adobe Photoshop Program in designing the motif and decorative patterns including the prototype. The researcher chose 3 types of Suan Sunandha Palace flowers; moss rose, orchid, and lignum vitae. The details of the flowers were cut down to make simple motifs which were developed for elaborative decoration. There were 4 motifs adapted from moss roses, 3 motifs adapted from orchids, and 3 motifs adapted from lignum vitae. The patterns were used to decorate photo frames, wrapping paper, and gift boxes or souvenir boxes.

Keywords: Suan Sunandha Palace, design of decorative, flower patterns, decorative flower

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19 The Patterns Designation by the Inspiration from Flower at Suan Sunandha Palace

Authors: Nawaporn Srisarankullawong

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This research is about the creating the design by the inspiration of the flowers, which were once planted in Suan Sunandha Palace. The researcher have conducted the research regarding the history of Suan Sunandha Palace and the flowers which have been planted in the palace’s garden, in order to use this research to create the new designs in the future. The objective are as follows; 1. To study the shape and the pattern of the flowers in Suan Sunandha Palace, in order to select a few of them as the model to create the new design. 2. In order to create the flower design from the flowers in Suan Sunandha Palace by using the current photograph of the flowers which were once used to be planted inside the palace and using adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop programs to create the patterns and the model. The result of the research: From the research, the researcher had selected three types of flowers to crate the pattern model; they are Allamanda, Orchids and Flamingo Plant. The details of the flowers had been reduced in order to show the simplicity and create the pattern model to use them for models, so three flowers had created three pattern models and they had been developed into six patterns, using universal artist techniques, so the pattern created are modern and they can be used for further decoration.

Keywords: patterns design, Suan Sunandha Palace, pattern of the flowers, visual arts and design

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18 Sustainable Desert Traditional Architecture of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hisham Mortada

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For thousands of years mud houses have represented the practical wisdom and spirituality of people, particularly those of desert regions, who learned how to use local materials to build homes that fitted the environmental and cultural conditions which they lived in. As a case study, the central region of Saudi Arabia exhibits a tradition of earth architecture that is unique in style, culture and sustainability. Aiming to contribute towards the local debate of the suitability of the traditional mud architecture for today’s lifestyle of Saudis, this paper explores the sustainable nature of the traditional adobe architecture of this hot arid region from environmental, social and technical points of view.

Keywords: desert architecture, alternative materials, Saudi Arabia, arid climate, green architecture

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17 A Drawing Software for Designers: AutoCAD

Authors: Mayar Almasri, Rosa Helmi, Rayana Enany

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This report describes the features of AutoCAD software released by Adobe. It explains how the program makes it easier for engineers and designers and reduces their time and effort spent using AutoCAD. Moreover, it highlights how AutoCAD works, how some of the commands used in it, such as Shortcut, make it easy to use, and features that make it accurate in measurements. The results of the report show that most users of this program are designers and engineers, but few people know about it and find it easy to use. They prefer to use it because it is easy to use, and the shortcut commands shorten a lot of time for them. The feature got a high rate and some suggestions for improving AutoCAD in Aperture, but it was a small percentage, and the highest percentage was that they didn't need to improve the program, and it was good.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, design, planning, commands, autodesk, dimensions

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16 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

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Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

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15 Late Roman-Byzantine Glass Bracelet Finds at Amorium and Comparison with Other Cultures

Authors: Atilla Tekin

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Amorium was one of the biggest cities of Byzantine Empire, located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It was situated on the routes of trades and Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. In addition, it was on the routes of trades and a center of bishopric. After Arab invasion, Amorium gradually lost importance. The research consists of 1372 pieces of glass bracelet finds from mostly at 1998- 2009 excavations. Most of them were found as glass bracelets fragments. The fragments are of various size, forms, colors, and decorations. During the research, they were measured and grouped according to their crossings, at first. After being photographed, they were sketched by Adobe Illustrator and decoupaged by Photoshop. All forms, colors, and decorations were specified and compared to each other. Thus, they have been tried to be dated and uncovered the place of manufacture. The importance of the research is presenting the perception of image and admiration and comparing with other cultures.

Keywords: Amorium, glass bracelets, image, Byzantine empire, jewelry

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14 The Impact of Information and Communication Technology in Knowledge Fraternization

Authors: Muhammad Aliyu

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Significant improvement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the enforced global competition are revolutionizing the way knowledge is managed and the way organizations compete. The emergence of new organizations calls for a new way to fraternize knowledge, which is known as 'knowledge fraternization.' In this modern economy, it is the knowledge if properly managed that can harness the organization's competitive advantage. This competitive advantage is realized through the full utilization of information and data coupled with the harnessing of people’s skills and ideas as well as their commitment and motivations, which can be accomplished through socializing the knowledge management processes. A fraternize network for knowledge management is a web-based system designed using PHP that is Dreamweaver web development tool, with the help of CS4 Adobe Dreamweaver as the PHP code Editor that supports the use of Cascadian Style Sheet (CSS), MySQL with Xamp, Php My Admin (Version 3.4.7) localhost server via TCP/IP for containing the databases of the system to support this in a distributed way, spreading the workload over the whole organization. This paper reviews the technologies and the technology tools to be used in the development of social networks in an organization.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT), knowledge, fraternization, social network

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13 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa, Sara Zatir

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It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: earthquake, architecture, traditional, construction, resistance

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12 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary

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The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centres and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, Unreinforced Masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening

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11 Lessons Learnt from Moment Magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

Authors: Narayan Gurung, Fawu Wang, Ranjan Kumar Dahal

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Nepal is highly prone to earthquakes and has witnessed at least one major earthquake in 80 to 90 years interval. The Gorkha earthquake, that measured 7.8 RS in magnitude and struck Nepal on 25th April 2015, after 81 years since Mw 8.3 Nepal Bihar earthquake in 1934, was the largest earthquake after Mw 8.3 Nepal Bihar earthquake. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the lessons learnt from the MwW 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake. Several types of damage patterns in buildings were observed for reinforced concrete buildings, as well as for unreinforced masonry and adobe houses in the earthquake of 25 April 2015. Many field visits in the affected areas were conducted, and thus, associated failure and damage patterns were identified and analyzed. Damage patterns in non-engineered buildings, middle and high-rise buildings, commercial complexes, administrative buildings, schools and other critical facilities are also included from the affected districts. For most buildings, the construction and structural deficiencies have been identified as the major causes of failure; however, topography, local soil amplification, foundation settlement, liquefaction associated damages and buildings built in hazard-prone areas were also significantly observed for the failure or damages to buildings and hence are reported. Finally, the lessons learnt from Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake are presented in order to mitigate impacts of future earthquakes in Nepal.

Keywords: Gorkha earthquake, reinforced concrete structure, Nepal, lesson learnt

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10 Effect of Baking Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Clayey Soil

Authors: Gul Muhammad, Amanullah Marri, Asif Abbas

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Thermal treatment changes the physical and mechanical properties of clayey soils. Thermally treated soils have been used since ancient times for making trails for access and bricks for residence. In this study, it has been focused to observe and analyze the effect of baking (burning) temperature on the mechanical properties of clayey soils usually used for the construction of adobe houses in the rural areas of many of the developing countries. In the first stage of experimental work, a series of tests on clayey soil moulds (100 mm height and 50 mm diameter in size) added different percentages of lime and wheat straw (typically 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) were conducted. In the second stage; samples were made of clayey soils and were subjected to six level of temperatures i.e., 25, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500⁰C. In the third stage, the moulds of clayey soil were submerged in water prior to testing in order to investigate the flood resilience of the moulds prepared with and without the addition of lime and wheat straw. The experimental results suggest that samples with 6% of lime content and on 2% of wheat straw contents have shown the maximum value of compressive strength. The effect of baking temperature on the clayey soils has shown that maximum UCS is obtained at 200⁰C. The results also suggest reinforcement with 2% wheat straw, give 70.8% increase in the compressive strength compared to soil only, whereas the flooding resilience can be better resist by adding 6% lime and 2% wheat straw.

Keywords: baked temperature, submersion, lime, uniaxial, wheat straw

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9 Assessing Suitability of Earthbag Technology for Temporary Housing: Sustainability Challenge

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Ana Blanco, Albert De La Fuente, Sergio Cavalaro

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In emergency situations, it is fundamental to provide with a safe shelter to the population affected. However, the lack of resources and short time often represent a barrier difficult to overcome. A sustainable, rapid and low-cost construction technique is earthbag construction. This technique has spread as an alternative to the construction of emergency shelter, social housing, and even ecovillages. The earthbag construction consists of introducing soil in degradable bags that are stacked to form adobe structures. The present study aims to assess characteristics of the earthbag construction technique based on sustainability requirements and features of other methods used for temporary housing. In this case, after defining the sustainability criteria and emergency situation necessities, this study compares earthbag construction with other types of prefabricated temporary housing. Finally, the most suitable conditions for applying this technique based on the particular local properties and second life scenarios of superadobe temporary housing. The results of the study contribute to promote the earthbag and superadobe techniques as sustainable alternatives for temporary housing. However, the sustainability index of this technology highly depends on affected local conditions and characteristics. Consequently, in order to achieve a high sustainability index, emergency managers need to decide about this technology based on the highlighted results of this study, attention to the importance of specific local conditions and next functions of temporary housing.

Keywords: temporary housing, temporary shelter, earthbag, superadobe, sustainability, emergency

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8 A Study and Design Scarf Collection Applied Vietnamese Traditional Patterns by Using Printing Method on Fabric

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho

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Scarf products today is a symbol of fashion to decorate, to make our life more beautiful and bring new features to our living space. It also shows the cultural identity by using the traditional patterns that make easily to introduce the image of Vietnam to other nations all over the world. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to classify Vietnamese traditional patterns according to the era and dynasties. Vietnamese traditional patterns through the dynasties of Vietnamese history are done and classified by five groups of patterns including the geometric patterns, the natural patterns, the animal patterns, the floral patterns, and the character patterns in the Prehistoric times, the Bronze and Iron age, the Chinese domination, the Ngo-Dinh-TienLe-Ly-Tran-Ho dynasty, and the LeSo-Mac-LeTrinh-TaySon-Nguyen dynasty. Besides, there are some special kinds of Vietnamese traditional patterns like buffalo, lotus, bronze-drum, Phuc Loc Tho character, and so on. Extensive research was conducted for modernizing scarf collection applied Vietnamese traditional patterns which the fashion trend is used on creating works. The concept, target, image map, lifestyle map, motif, colours, arrangement and completion of patterns on scarf were set up. The scarf collection is designed and developed by the Adobe Illustrator program with three colour ways for each scarf. Upon completion of the research, digital printing technology is chosen for using on scarf collection which Vietnamese traditional patterns were researched deeply and widely with the purpose of establishment the basic background for Vietnamese culture in order to identify Vietnamese national personality as well as establish and preserve the cultural heritage.

Keywords: scarf collection, Vietnamese traditional patterns, printing methods, fabric design

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7 Scientific Investigation for an Ancient Egyptian Polychrome Wooden Stele

Authors: Ahmed Abdrabou, Medhat Abdalla

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The studied stele dates back to Third Intermediate Period (1075-664) B.C in an ancient Egypt. It is made of wood and covered with painted gesso layers. This study aims to use a combination of multi spectral imaging {visible, infrared (IR), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL), Visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL) and ultraviolet reflected (UVR)}, along with portable x-ray fluorescence in order to map and identify the pigments as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the painting techniques. Moreover; the authors were significantly interested in the identification of wood species. Multispectral imaging acquired in 3 spectral bands, ultraviolet (360-400 nm), visible (400-780 nm) and infrared (780-1100 nm) using (UV Ultraviolet-induced luminescence (UVL), UV Reflected (UVR), Visible (VIS), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL) and Infrared photography. False color images are made by digitally editing the VIS with IR or UV images using Adobe Photoshop. Optical Microscopy (OM), potable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (p-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study. Mapping and imaging techniques provided useful information about the spatial distribution of pigments, in particular visible-induced luminescence (VIL) which allowed the spatial distribution of Egyptian blue pigment to be mapped and every region containing Egyptian blue, even down to single crystals in some instances, is clearly visible as a bright white area; however complete characterization of the pigments requires the use of p. XRF spectroscopy. Based on the elemental analysis found by P.XRF, we conclude that the artists used mixtures of the basic mineral pigments to achieve a wider palette of hues. Identification of wood species Microscopic identification indicated that the wood used was Sycamore Fig (Ficus sycomorus L.) which is recorded as being native to Egypt and was used to make wooden artifacts since at least the Fifth Dynasty.

Keywords: polychrome wooden stele, multispectral imaging, IR luminescence, Wood identification, Sycamore Fig, p-XRF

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6 Risk Analysis of Flood Physical Vulnerability in Residential Areas of Mathare Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: James Kinyua Gitonga, Toshio Fujimi

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Vulnerability assessment and analysis is essential to solving the degree of damage and loss as a result of natural disasters. Urban flooding causes a major economic loss and casualties, at Mathare residential area in Nairobi, Kenya. High population caused by rural-urban migration, Unemployment, and unplanned urban development are among factors that increase flood vulnerability in Mathare area. This study aims to analyse flood risk physical vulnerabilities in Mathare based on scientific data, research data that includes the Rainfall data, River Mathare discharge rate data, Water runoff data, field survey data and questionnaire survey through sampling of the study area have been used to develop the risk curves. Three structural types of building were identified in the study area, vulnerability and risk curves were made for these three structural types by plotting the relationship between flood depth and damage for each structural type. The results indicate that the structural type with mud wall and mud floor is the most vulnerable building to flooding while the structural type with stone walls and concrete floor is least vulnerable. The vulnerability of building contents is mainly determined by the number of floors, where households with two floors are least vulnerable, and households with a one floor are most vulnerable. Therefore more than 80% of the residential buildings including the property in the building are highly vulnerable to floods consequently exposed to high risk. When estimating the potential casualties/injuries we discovered that the structural types of houses were major determinants where the mud/adobe structural type had casualties of 83.7% while the Masonry structural type had casualties of 10.71% of the people living in these houses. This research concludes that flood awareness, warnings and observing the building codes will enable reduce damage to the structural types of building, deaths and reduce damage to the building contents.

Keywords: flood loss, Mathare Nairobi, risk curve analysis, vulnerability

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5 Age Estimation from Upper Anterior Teeth by Pulp/Tooth Ratio Using Peri-Apical X-Rays among Egyptians

Authors: Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, Amr Mohamed Abd Allah

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Introduction: Age estimation of individuals is one of the crucial steps in forensic practice. Different traditional methods rely on the length of the diaphysis of long bones of limbs, epiphyseal-diaphyseal union, fusion of the primary ossification centers as well as dental eruption. However, there is a growing need for the development of precise and reliable methods to estimate age, especially in cases where dismembered corpses, burnt bodies, purified or fragmented parts are recovered. Teeth are the hardest and indestructible structure in the human body. In recent years, assessment of pulp/tooth area ratio, as an indirect quantification of secondary dentine deposition has received a considerable attention. However, scanty work has been done in Egypt in terms of applicability of pulp/tooth ratio for age estimation. Aim of the Work: The present work was designed to assess the Cameriere’s method for age estimation from pulp/tooth ratio of maxillary canines, central and lateral incisors among a sample from Egyptian population. In addition, to formulate regression equations to be used as population-based standards for age determination. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 270 peri-apical X-rays of maxillary canines, central and lateral incisors (collected from 131 males and 139 females aged between 19 and 52 years). The pulp and tooth areas were measured using the Adobe Photoshop software program and the pulp/tooth area ratio was computed. Linear regression equations were determined separately for canines, central and lateral incisors. Results: A significant correlation was recorded between the pulp/tooth area ratio and the chronological age. The linear regression analysis revealed a coefficient of determination (R² = 0.824 for canine, 0.588 for central incisor and 0.737 for lateral incisor teeth). Three regression equations were derived. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the pulp/tooth ratio is a useful technique for estimating age among Egyptians. Additionally, the regression equation derived from canines gave better result than the incisors.

Keywords: age determination, canines, central incisors, Egypt, lateral incisors, pulp/tooth ratio

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4 Investigating Student Behavior in Adopting Online Formative Assessment Feedback

Authors: Peter Clutterbuck, Terry Rowlands, Owen Seamons

Abstract:

In this paper we describe one critical research program within a complex, ongoing multi-year project (2010 to 2014 inclusive) with the overall goal to improve the learning outcomes for first year undergraduate commerce/business students within an Information Systems (IS) subject with very large enrolment. The single research program described in this paper is the analysis of student attitudes and decision making in relation to the availability of formative assessment feedback via Web-based real time conferencing and document exchange software (Adobe Connect). The formative assessment feedback between teaching staff and students is in respect of an authentic problem-based, team-completed assignment. The analysis of student attitudes and decision making is investigated via both qualitative (firstly) and quantitative (secondly) application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with a two statistically-significant and separate trial samples of the enrolled students. The initial qualitative TPB investigation revealed that perceived self-efficacy, improved time-management, and lecturer-student relationship building were the major factors in shaping an overall favorable student attitude to online feedback, whilst some students expressed valid concerns with perceived control limitations identified within the online feedback protocols. The subsequent quantitative TPB investigation then confirmed that attitude towards usage, subjective norms surrounding usage, and perceived behavioral control of usage were all significant in shaping student intention to use the online feedback protocol, with these three variables explaining 63 percent of the variance in the behavioral intention to use the online feedback protocol. The identification in this research of perceived behavioral control as a significant determinant in student usage of a specific technology component within a virtual learning environment (VLE) suggests that VLEs could now be viewed not as a single, atomic entity, but as a spectrum of technology offerings ranging from the mature and simple (e.g., email, Web downloads) to the cutting-edge and challenging (e.g., Web conferencing and real-time document exchange). That is, that all VLEs should not be considered the same. The results of this research suggest that tertiary students have the technological sophistication to assess a VLE in this more selective manner.

Keywords: formative assessment feedback, virtual learning environment, theory of planned behavior, perceived behavioral control

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3 Screens Design and Application for Sustainable Buildings

Authors: Fida Isam Abdulhafiz

Abstract:

Traditional vernacular architecture in the United Arab Emirates constituted namely of adobe houses with a limited number of openings in their facades. The thick mud and rubble walls and wooden window screens protected its inhabitants from the harsh desert climate and provided them with privacy and fulfilled their comfort zone needs to an extent. However, with the rise of the immediate post petroleum era reinforced concrete villas with glass and steel technology has replaced traditional vernacular dwellings. And more load was put on the mechanical cooling systems to ensure the satisfaction of today’s more demanding doweling inhabitants. However, In the early 21at century professionals started to pay more attention to the carbon footprint caused by the built constructions. In addition, many studies and innovative approaches are now dedicated to lower the impact of the existing operating buildings on their surrounding environments. The UAE government agencies started to regulate that aim to revive sustainable and environmental design through Local and international building codes and urban design policies such as Estidama and LEED. The focus in this paper is on the reduction of the emissions resulting from the use of energy sources in the cooling and heating systems, and that would be through using innovative screen designs and façade solutions to provide a green footprint and aesthetic architectural icons. Screens are one of the popular innovative techniques that can be added in the design process or used in existing building as a renovation techniques to develop a passive green buildings. Preparing future architects to understand the importance of environmental design was attempted through physical modelling of window screens as an educational means to combine theory with a hands on teaching approach. Designing screens proved to be a popular technique that helped them understand the importance of sustainable design and passive cooling. After creating models of prototype screens, several tests were conducted to calculate the amount of Sun, light and wind that goes through the screens affecting the heat load and light entering the building. Theory further explored concepts of green buildings and material that produce low carbon emissions. This paper highlights the importance of hands on experience for student architects and how physical modelling helped rise eco awareness in Design studio. The paper will study different types of façade screens and shading devices developed by Architecture students and explains the production of diverse patterns for traditional screens by student architects based on sustainable design concept that works properly with the climate requirements in the Middle East region.

Keywords: building’s screens modeling, façade design, sustainable architecture, sustainable dwellings, sustainable education

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2 Developing Digital Competencies in Aboriginal Students through University-College Partnerships

Authors: W. S. Barber, S. L. King

Abstract:

This paper reports on a pilot project to develop a collaborative partnership between a community college in rural northern Ontario, Canada, and an urban university in the greater Toronto area in Oshawa, Canada. Partner institutions will collaborate to address learning needs of university applicants whose goals are to attain an undergraduate university BA in Educational Studies and Digital Technology degree, but who may not live in a geographical location that would facilitate this pathways process. The UOIT BA degree is attained through a 2+2 program, where students with a 2 year college diploma or equivalent can attain a four year undergraduate degree. The goals reported on the project are as: 1. Our aim is to expand the BA program to include an additional stream which includes serious educational games, simulations and virtual environments, 2. Develop fully (using both synchronous and asynchronous technologies) online learning modules for use by university applicants who otherwise are not geographically located close to a physical university site, 3. Assess the digital competencies of all students, including members of local, distance and Indigenous communities using a validated tool developed and tested by UOIT across numerous populations. This tool, the General Technical Competency Use and Scale (GTCU) will provide the collaborating institutions with data that will allow for analyzing how well students are prepared to succeed in fully online learning communities. Philosophically, the UOIT BA program is based on a fully online learning communities model (FOLC) that can be accessed from anywhere in the world through digital learning environments via audio video conferencing tools such as Adobe Connect. It also follows models of adult learning and mobile learning, and makes a university degree accessible to the increasing demographic of adult learners who may use mobile devices to learn anywhere anytime. The program is based on key principles of Problem Based Learning, allowing students to build their own understandings through the co-design of the learning environment in collaboration with the instructors and their peers. In this way, this degree allows students to personalize and individualize the learning based on their own culture, background and professional/personal experiences. Using modified flipped classroom strategies, students are able to interrogate video modules on their own time in preparation for one hour discussions occurring in video conferencing sessions. As a consequence of the program flexibility, students may continue to work full or part time. All of the partner institutions will co-develop four new modules, administer the GTCU and share data, while creating a new stream of the UOIT BA degree. This will increase accessibility for students to bridge from community colleges to university through a fully digital environment. We aim to work collaboratively with Indigenous elders, community members and distance education instructors to increase opportunities for more students to attain a university education.

Keywords: aboriginal, college, competencies, digital, universities

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1 Potential of Dredged Material for CSEB in Building Structure

Authors: BoSheng Liu

Abstract:

The research goal is to re-image a locally-sourced waste product as abuilding material. The author aims to contribute to the compressed stabilized earth block (CSEB) by investigating the promising role of dredged material as an alternative building ingredient in the production of bricks and tiles. Dredged material comes from the sediment deposited near the shore or downstream, where the water current velocity decreases. This sediment needs to be dredged to provide water transportation; thus, there are mounds of the dredged material stored at bay. It is the interest of this research to reduce the filtered un-organic soil in the production of CSEB and replace it with locally dredged material from the Atchafalaya River in Morgan City, Louisiana. Technology and mechanical innovations have evolved the traditional adobe production method, which mixes the soil and natural fiber into molded bricks, into chemically stabilized CSEB made by compressing the clay mixture and stabilizer in a compression chamber with particular loads. In the case of dredged material CSEB (DM-CSEB), cement plays an essential role as the bending agent contributing to the unit strength while sustaining the filtered un-organic soil. Each DM-CSEB unit is made in a compression chamber with 580 PSI (i.e., 4 MPa) force. The research studied the cement content from 5% to 10% along with the range of dredged material mixtures, which differed from 20% to 80%. The material mixture content affected the DM-CSEB's strength and workability during and after its compression. Results indicated two optimal workabilities of the mixture: 27% fine clay content and 63% dredged material with 10% cement, or 28% fine clay content, and 67% dredged material with 5% cement. The final product of DM-CSEB emitted between 10 to 13 times fewer carbon emissions compared to the conventional fired masonry structure. DM-CSEB satisfied the strength requirement given by the ASTM C62 and ASTM C34 standards for construction material. One of the final evaluations tested and validated the material performance by designing and constructing an architectural, conical tile-vault prototype that was 28" by 40" by 24." The vault utilized a computational form-finding approach to generate the form's geometry, which optimized the correlation between the vault geometry and structural load distribution. A series of scaffolding was deployed to create the framework for the tile-vault construction. The final tile-vault structure was made from 2 layers of DM-CSEB tiles jointed by mortar, and the construction of the structure used over 110 tiles. The tile-vault prototype was capable of carrying over 400 lbs of live loads, which further demonstrated the dredged material feasibility as a construction material. The presented case study of Dredged Material Compressed Stabilized Earth Block (DM-CSEB) provides the first impression of dredged material in the clayey mixture process, structural performance, and construction practice. Overall, the approach of integrating dredged material in building material can be feasible, regionally sourced, cost-effective, and environment-friendly.

Keywords: dredged material, compressed stabilized earth block, tile-vault, regionally sourced, environment-friendly

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