Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 104

Search results for: wounds

104 Comparative Wound Healing Potential of Mitracarpus villosus Ointment and Honey in Diabetic Albino Rats by Collagen Assessment

Authors: Bawa Inalegwu, Jacob A. Jato, Ovye Akyengo, John Akighir


All humans will experience some type of wound in every lifetime. Most wounds heal quickly with little or no attention but, many people suffer from wounds that are complex and/or persistent therefore posing a burden. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Mitrcarpus villous ointment against honey in diabetic rats. To achieve this, percentage wound closure and collagen assessments were used to express treatment efficacy. Results show that on day 21, rats treated with M. villosus ointment had the highest percentage closure (94.5%) while honey treated and non-treated recorded 90.0% and 83.3% respectively. Similarly, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed on day 21 in the total collagen deposited in wounds of diabetic rats (10.57 ± 0.7) and M. villous ointment treated wounds (11.77 ± 0.4) as compared with the non-treated diabetic rats. M. villosus ointment was efficacious in healing wounds in diabetic rats and heals wound faster than honey and may hold potential for wound healing in diabetes mellitus sufferers. However, the wound healing mechanism of this ointment

Keywords: collagen, diabetic rats, honey, Mitracarpus villosus, ointment, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
103 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani


Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
102 Synthetic Dermal Template Use in the Reconstruction of a Chronic Scalp Wound

Authors: Stephanie Cornish


The use of synthetic dermal templates, also known as dermal matrices, such as PolyNovo® Biodegradable Temporising Matrix (BTM), has been well established in the reconstruction of acute wounds with a full thickness defect of the skin. Its use has become common place in the treatment of full thickness burns and is not unfamiliar in the realm of necrotising fasciitis, free flap donor site reconstruction, and the management of acute traumatic wounds. However, the use of dermal templates for more chronic wounds is rare. The authors present the successful use of BTM in the reconstruction of a chronic scalp wound following the excision of a malignancy and multiple previous failed attempts at repair, thus demonstrating the potential for an increased scope of use.

Keywords: dermal template, BTM, chronic, scalp wound, reconstruction

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101 Investigation of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Exposure Protocol on Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Authors: P. Akbartehrani, M. Khaledi Pour, M. Amini, M. Khani, M. Mohajeri Tehrani, E. Ghasemi, P. Charipoor, B. Shokri


A common problem between diabetic patients is foot ulcers which are chronic and require specialized treatment. Previous studies illustrate that Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has beneficial effects on wound healing and infection. Nevertheless, the comparison of different cap exposure protocols in diabetic ulcer wound healing remained to be studied. This study aims to determine the effect of two different exposure protocols on wound healing in diabetic ulcers. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted at two clinics. Diabetic patients with G1 and G2 wanger classification diabetic foot ulcers were divided into two groups of study. One group was treated by the first protocol, which was treating wounds by argon-generated cold atmospheric plasma jet once a week for five weeks in a row. The other group was treated by the second protocol, which was treating wounds every three days for five weeks in a row. The wounds were treated for 40 seconds/cubic centimeter, while the nozzle tip was moved nonlocalized 1 cm above the wounds. A patient with one or more wounds could participate in different groups as wounds were separately randomized, which allow a participant to be treated several times during the study. The study's significant findings were two different reductions rate in wound size, microbial load, and two different healing speeds. This study concludes that CAP therapy by the second protocol yields more effective healing speeds, reduction in wound sizes, and microbial loads of foot ulcers in diabetic patients.

Keywords: wound healing, diabetic ulcers, cold atmospheric plasma, cold argon jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
100 Effects of EMS on Foot Drop Associated with Grade III Wound: A Case Report

Authors: Mirza Obaid Baig, MaimoonaYaqub


A 51 year old lady; known case of diabetes mellitus, post wound debridement i.e. 4 open wounds of grade III presented to us with foot drop, with prominent sensory deficit over right lower leg/foot i.e. 0 on Nottingham scale for impaired sensation, marked pedal edema and 5/10 – 6/10 pain on VAS during day and night respectively, Wounds were poorly granulated and foul smelling. Physiotherapy sessions were planned including twice a day electrical muscle stimulation sessions, strategies to decrease edema and improve muscle action which resulted in noticeable improvement in motor and sensory ability, pain levels, edema and psychological status of patient. Thus, this study gives evidence of the effect of Electrical muscle stimulation in grade III open wounds associated with motor/sensory weakness post-surgery.

Keywords: EMS, foot drop, grade III wound, diabetes mellitus

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99 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent


Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: diabetes, piper betel, wound healing, body weight, morphology

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98 SiO2-Ag+Chlorex vs SilverSulfaDiazine: An 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' Silver Challenge

Authors: Roberto Cassino, Valeria Dissette, Carlo Alberto Bignozzi, Daniele Pazzi


Background and Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate, both ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’, if the new SCX technology (SiO2-Ag+Chlorex) can easily defeat infections and it is really more effective than SSD (SilverSulfaDiazine). ‘In vitro’ methods: we tested ‘in vitro’ the effectiveness of both silver materials using a pool of 5 strains: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus hirae and Candida Albicans. 100 µl of this pool have been seeded on Petri dishes and kept for 24 hours in incubation at 37 C°. ‘In vivo’ methods: we enrolled patients with multiple infectious chronic wounds (according with cutting & harding criteria for infection); after a qualitative evaluation of the wounds bacterial population, taking a sample by plug, we included in the study 6 patients for a total of 10 wounds, infected by one or more of the microorganisms used for the ‘in vitro’ test. The protocol consisted of a treatment with a spray powder of SSD every 48 hours for 14 days; in case of worsening we should have to start a new treatment with a spray powder containing silicon dioxide, ionic silver and chlorexidine (SiO2-Ag+Chlorex) every 48 hours for 14 days. We evaluated the number of clinical signs of infection and the disappearance or not of the wound edge erithema. ‘In vitro’ results: SSD demonstrated a wide zone of inhibition within 24 hours, but after 5 days there was no more signs of inhibition; on the contrary SCX had a good inhibition ring that lasted more than 5 days. ‘In vivo’ results: all wounds treated with SSD got worse; the signs of infection increased and the wound edge erithema did not disappear. According with the protocol, we treated then all wounds with SCX and they all improved within the period of observation with complete disappearance of clinical signs of infection and no more wound edge erithema. Conclusions: the study demonstrated the effectiveness of SiO2-Ag+Chlorex, especially in terms of long lasting antimicrobial action. We had the same results ‘in vitro’, so that there has been a perfect correspondence between the laboratory outcomes and the clinical ones.

Keywords: chronic wounds, infections, ionic silver, SSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
97 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri


The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
96 Efficacy of Umbilical Cord Lining Stem Cells For Wound Healing in Diabetic Murine Model

Authors: Fui Ping Lim, Wen Choong Chua, Toan Thang Phan


Aim: This study investigates the roles of Cord Lining Stem Cells (CLSCs) as potential therapeutic agents for diabetic wounds. Method: 20 genetically diabetic db/db mice were randomly assigned to two arms; (i) control group received placebo treatment (sham media or cells delivery material), and (ii) active comparator received CLSCs. Two full-thickness wounds, each sized 10mm X 10mm were created, one on each side of the midline on the back of the mice. Digital pictures were taken on day 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28. Wound areas were analyzed with ImageJ TM software and calculated as percentage of the original wound. Time to closure was defined as the day the wound bed was completely epithelized and filled with new tissues. Results: The CLSCs-treated wounds, showed a significant increase in the percentage of wound closure and achieved 100% closure of the wound sooner than the control group by an average of 3.7 days. The mice treated with CLSCs have a shorter wound closure time (mean closure day: 19.8 days) as compared to the control group (mean closure day: 23.5 days). Conclusion: Our preliminary findings inferred that CLSCs treated wound achieved higher percentage of wound closure within a shorter duration of time.

Keywords: cord lining stem cell, diabetic wound, stem cell, wound

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95 Sea Cucumber (Stichopus chloronotus) to Expedite Healing of Minor Wounds

Authors: Isa Naina Mohamed, Mazliadiyana Mazlan, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid


Stichopus chloronotus (Black Knobby or green fish) is a sea cucumber species commonly found along Malaysia’s coastline. In Malaysia, it is believed that sea cucumber can expedite healing of wounds, provide extra energy and used as an ointment to relieve pain. The aim of this study is to determine the best concentration of Stichopus chlronotus extract to promote wound healing. 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats with wounds created using 6mm disposable punch biopsy were divided into 6 treatment groups. The normal control group (untreated), positive control group (flavin treated only), negative control group (emulsifying ointment only), and group 0.1, group 0.5, group 1 were each treated with 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% of Stichopus chlronotus water extract mixed in emulsifying ointment, respectively. Treatments were administered topically for 10 days. Changes in wound area were measured using caliper and photographs were taken on day 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after index wound. Results showed that wound reduction of group 0.5 on day 4, 6, and 8 was significantly higher compared to normal control group and positive control group. Group 0.5 also had higher wound reduction from day 6 until day 10 compared to all other groups. In conclusion, Sea Cucumber (Stichopus chloronotus) extract demonstrated the best minor wound healing properties at concentration 0.5%. The potential of Stichopus chlronotus extract ointment for wound healing shall be investigated further.

Keywords: minor wound healing, expedite wound healing, sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus

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94 Collagen Scaffold Incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum Plant Extracts as a–Burn/Wound Dressing Material, in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Thangavelu Muthukumar, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry


Collagen is the most abundantly available connective tissue protein, which is being used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. Presently, fish wastes are disposed improperly which is causing serious environmental pollution resulting in offensive odour. Fish scales are promising source of Type I collagen. Medicinal plants have been used since time immemorial for treatment of various ailments of skin and dermatological disorders especially cuts, wounds, and burns. Developing biomaterials from the natural sources which are having wound healing properties within the search of a common man is the need of hour, particularly in developing and third world countries. With these objectives in view we have developed a wound dressing material containing fish scale collagen (FSC) incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract (PE). The wound dressing composite was characterized for its physiochemical properties using conventional methods. SEM image revealed that the composite has fibrous and porous surface which helps in transportation of oxygen as well as absorbing wound fluids. The biomaterial has shown 95% biocompatibility with required mechanical strength and has exhibited antimicrobial properties. This biomaterial has been used as a wound dressing material in experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern was evaluated by macroscopic observations, panimetric studies, biochemical, histopathological observations. The results showed faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with CSPE compared to the other composites used in this study and untreated control. These experiments clearly suggest that CSPE can be used as wound/burn dressing materials.

Keywords: collagen, wound dressing, Macrotyloma uniflorum, burn dressing

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93 Stimuli-Responsive Zwitterionic Dressings for Chronic Wounds Management

Authors: Konstans Ruseva, Kristina Ivanova, Katerina Todorova, Margarita Gabrashanska, Tzanko Tzanov, Elena Vassileva


Zwitterionic polymers (ZP) are well-known with their ultralow biofouling. They are successfully competing with poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), which are considered as the “golden standard” in this respect. These unique properties are attributed to their strong hydration capacity, defined by the dipole-dipole interactions, arising between the ZP pendant groups as well as to the dipoles interaction with water molecules. Beside, ZP are highly resistant to bacterial adhesion thus ensuring an excellent anti-biofilm formation ability. Moreover, ZP are able to respond upon external stimuli such as temperature, pH, salt concentration changes which in combination with their anti-biofouling effect render this type of polymers as materials with a high potential in biomedical applications. The present work is focused on the development of zwitterionic hydrogels for efficient treatment of highly exudating and hard-to-heal chronic wounds. To this purpose, two types of ZP networks with different crosslinking degree were synthesized - polysulfobetaine (PSB) and polycarboxybetaine (PCB) ones. They were characterized in terms of their physico-mechanical properties, e.g. microhardness, swelling ability, smart behaviour. Furthermore, the potential of ZP networks to resist biofilm formation towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied. Their ability to reduce the high levels of myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase, two enzymes that are part of the chronic wounds enviroenment, was revealed. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic assessment of PSB and PCB networks along with their in vivo performance in rats was also studied to reveal their high biocompatibility.

Keywords: absorption properties, biocompatibility, enzymatic inhibition activity, wound healing, zwitterionic polymers

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92 Biotechnology Approach: A Tool of Enhancement of Sticky Mucilage of Pulicaria Incisa (Medicinal Plant) for Wounds Treatment

Authors: Djamila Chabane, Asma Rouane, Karim Arab


Depending of the chemical substances responsible for the pharmacological effects, a future therapeutic drug might be produced by extraction from whole plants or by callus initiated from some parts. The optimized callus culture protocols now offer the possibility to use cell culture techniques for vegetative propagation and open minds for further studies on secondary metabolites and drug establishment. In Algerian traditional medicine, Pulicaria incisa (Asteraceae) is used in the treatment of daily troubles (stomachache, headhache., cold, sore throat and rheumatic arthralgia). Field findings revealed that many healers use some fresh parts (leaves, flowers) of this plant to treat skin wounds. This study aims to evaluate the healing efficiency of artisanal cream prepared from sticky mucilage isolated from calluses on dermal wounds of animal models. Callus cultures were initiated from reproductive explants (young inflorescences) excised from adult plants and transferred to a MS basal medium supplemented with growth regulators and maintained under dark for for months. Many calluses types were obtained with various color and aspect (friable, compact). Several subcultures of calli were performed to enhance the mucilage accumulation. After extraction, the mucilage extracts were tested on animal models as follows. The wound healing potential was studied by causing dermal wounds (1 cm diameter) at the dorsolumbar part of Rattus norvegicus; different samples of the cream were applied after hair removal on three rats each, including two controls (one treated by Vaseline and one without any treatment), two experimental groups (experimental group 1, treated with a reference ointment "Madecassol® and experimental group 2 treated by callus mucilage cream for a period of seventeen days. The evolution of the healing activity was estimated by calculating the percentage reduction of the area wounds treated by all compounds tested compared to the controls by using AutoCAD software. The percentage of healing effect of the cream prepared from callus mucilage was (99.79%) compared to that of Madecassol® (99.76%). For the treatment time, the significant healing activity was observed after 17 days compared to that of the reference pharmaceutical products without any wound infection. The healing effect of Madecassol® is more effective because it stimulates and regulates the production of collagen, a fibrous matrix essential for wound healing. Mucilage extracts also showed a high capacity to heal the skin without any infection. According to this pharmacological activity, we suggest to use calluses produced by in vitro culture to producing new compounds for the skin care and treatment.

Keywords: calluses, Pulicaria incisa, mucilage, Wounds

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91 Phage Therapy as a Potential Solution in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance

Authors: Sanjay Shukla


Excessive use of antibiotics is a main problem in the treatment of wounds and other chronic infections and antibiotic treatment is frequently non-curative, thus alternative treatment is necessary. Phage therapy is considered one of the most effective approaches to treat multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are very efficiently controlled with phage cocktails, containing a different individual phages lysate infecting a majority of known pathogenic S. aureus strains. The aim of current study was to investigate the efficiency of a purified phage cocktail for prophylactic as well as therapeutic application in mouse model and in large animals with chronic septic infection of wounds. A total of 150 sewage samples were collected from various livestock farms. These samples were subjected for the isolation of bacteriophage by double agar layer method. A total of 27 sewage samples showed plaque formation by producing lytic activity against S. aureus in double agar overlay method out of 150 sewage samples. In TEM recovered isolates of bacteriophages showed hexagonal structure with tail fiber. In the bacteriophage (ØVS) had an icosahedral symmetry with the head size 52.20 nm in diameter and long tail of 109 nm. Head and tail were held together by connector and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family under the order of Caudovirale. Recovered bacteriophage had shown the antibacterial activity against the S. aureus in vitro. Cocktail (ØVS1, ØVS5, ØVS9 and ØVS 27) of phage lysate were tested to know in vivo antibacterial activity as well as the safety profile. Result of mice experiment indicated that the bacteriophage lysate was very safe, did not show any appearance of abscess formation which indicates its safety in living system. The mice were also prophylactically protected against S. aureus when administered with cocktail of bacteriophage lysate just before the administration of S. aureus which indicates that they are good prophylactic agent. The S. aureus inoculated mice were completely recovered by bacteriophage administration with 100% recovery which was very good as compere to conventional therapy. In present study ten chronic cases of wound were treated with phage lysate and follow up of these cases was done regularly up to ten days (at 0, 5 and 10 d). Result indicated that the six cases out of ten showed complete recovery of wounds within 10 d. The efficacy of bacteriophage therapy was found to be 60% which was very good as compared to the conventional antibiotic therapy in chronic septic wounds infections. Thus, the application of lytic phage in single dose proved to be innovative and effective therapy for treatment of septic chronic wounds.

Keywords: phage therapy, phage lysate, antimicrobial resistance, S. aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
90 The Effect of Topically Aloe vera Gel on Cutaneous Wound Healing

Authors: Nasrin Takzaree, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammadreza Rouini


Background: Wound healing and repair is a normal reaction to injury which results in restoration of tissue integrity. Rate of wound healing is affected by various factors, such as nutrition, vitamins, hormones. Method: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera mucilage on wound healing. Mucilage was extracted from leaves, then homogenize, filtered and concentrated. Some creams were prepared with different concentrations of mucilage 95%. In this study 63 male albino rats, weighing 250–300 gr were used. Incision wounds (10 mm) were made on the shaved and cleaned back of rat necks. Wounds of case groups (group I & group II) were treated with aloe vera mucilage which were administered one time daily another group two times daily. Results: In order to evaluate wound healing, various parameters such as wound diameter, percentage of healing, duration of healing. Were considered. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed that aloe vera mucilage is a potent healing and can be used in wound healing process.

Keywords: Aloe vera, wound healing, open skin wound, healing process

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89 Bacteriophage Is a Novel Solution of Therapy Against S. aureus Having Multiple Drug Resistance

Authors: Sanjay Shukla, A. Nayak, R. K. Sharma, A. P. Singh, S. P. Tiwari


Excessive use of antibiotics is a major problem in the treatment of wounds and other chronic infections, and antibiotic treatment is frequently non-curative, thus alternative treatment is necessary. Phage therapy is considered one of the most promising approaches to treat multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are very efficiently controlled with phage cocktails, containing a different individual phages lysate infecting a majority of known pathogenic S. aureus strains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a purified phage cocktail for prophylactic as well as therapeutic application in mouse model and in large animals with chronic septic infection of wounds. A total of 150 sewage samples were collected from various livestock farms. These samples were subjected for the isolation of bacteriophage by the double agar layer method. A total of 27 sewage samples showed plaque formation by producing lytic activity against S. aureus in the double agar overlay method out of 150 sewage samples. In TEM, recovered isolates of bacteriophages showed hexagonal structure with tail fiber. In the bacteriophage (ØVS) had an icosahedral symmetry with the head size 52.20 nm in diameter and long tail of 109 nm. Head and tail were held together by connector and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family under the order of Caudovirale. Recovered bacteriophage had shown the antibacterial activity against the S. aureus in vitro. Cocktail (ØVS1, ØVS5, ØVS9, and ØVS 27) of phage lysate were tested to know in vivo antibacterial activity as well as the safety profile. Result of mice experiment indicated that the bacteriophage lysate were very safe, did not show any appearance of abscess formation, which indicates its safety in living system. The mice were also prophylactically protected against S. aureus when administered with cocktail of bacteriophage lysate just before the administration of S. aureuswhich indicates that they are good prophylactic agent. The S. aureusinoculated mice were completely recovered by bacteriophage administration with 100% recovery, which was very good as compere to conventional therapy. In the present study, ten chronic cases of the wound were treated with phage lysate, and follow up of these cases was done regularly up to ten days (at 0, 5, and 10 d). The result indicated that the six cases out of ten showed complete recovery of wounds within 10 d. The efficacy of bacteriophage therapy was found to be 60% which was very good as compared to the conventional antibiotic therapy in chronic septic wounds infections. Thus, the application of lytic phage in single dose proved to be innovative and effective therapy for the treatment of septic chronic wounds.

Keywords: phage therapy, S aureus, antimicrobial resistance, lytic phage, and bacteriophage

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
88 The Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma(PRP) on Wounds of OLEFT Rats Using Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA

Authors: Ho Seong Shin


Introduction: A research in relation to wound healing also showed that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was effective on normal tissue regeneration. Nonetheless, there is no evidence that when platelet-rich plasma was applied on diabetic wound, it normalize diabetic wound healing process. In this study, we have analyzed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression to know the effect of PRP on diabetic wounds using Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA. Materials and Methods: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from blood of 6 rats. The whole 120-mL was added immediately to an anticoagulant. Citrate phosphonate dextrose(CPD) buffer (0.15 mg CPDmL) in a ratio of 1 mL of CPD buffer to 5 mL of blood. The blood was then centrifuged at 220g for 20minutes. The supernatant was saved to produce fibrin glue. The participate containing PRP was used for second centrifugation at 480g for 20 minutes. The pellet from the second centrifugation was saved and diluted with supernatant until the platelet concentration became 900,000/μL. Twenty male, 4week-old OLETF rats were underwent operation; each rat had two wounds created on left and right sides. The each wound of left side was treated with PRP gel, the wound of right side was treated with physiologic saline gauze. Results: RT-PCR analysis; The levels of MMP-2 mRNA in PRP applied tissues were positively related to postwounding days, whereas MMP-2 mRNA expression in saline-applied tissues remained in 5day after treatment. MMP-9 mRNA was undetectable in saline-applied tissues for either tissue, except 3day after treatment. Following PRP-applied tissues, MMP-9 mRNA expression was detected, with maximal expression being seen at third day. The levels of MMP-9 mRNA in PRP applied tissues were reported high intensity of optical density related to saline applied tissues.

Keywords: diabetes, MMP-2, MMP-9, OLETF, PRP, wound healing MMP-9

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87 Macroscopic Evaluation of the Effect of Low-Level Laser and Plasma Jet on Wound Healing in Rats

Authors: Zahra Tabarsi, Mehdi Marjani, Alireza Najafpour, Alborz Mirzade


The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the macroscopic effect of low level laser and plasma jet for wound healing in rats. The study was performed on 40 old male white rats with an average weight of 250 g and an average age of the same age. After preparing the rats from Ibn Sina Research Institute, they were kept the same for one week under environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and light, and nutrition such as the type of diet and the number of meals. Then, to start the research, rats were randomly divided into two groups (A): laser treatment of wounds, group (B): plasma wound treatment. All rats were inhibited 4 hours before each anesthesia under conditions of abstinence and up to 2 hours after drinking water. Rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine 10% and xylazine 2%.After scrubbing between two shoulders of each rat, a circular wound was created by sterile 5 mm biopsy puncture. Group A rats were treated with low level laser in three sessions and group B in three sessions with argon plasma. Based on the observed results, it seems that Low level laser radiation has more acceptable and appropriate effects than cold plasma on the healing of rat skin wounds.

Keywords: low-level laser, plasma jet, rat, wound healing

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86 The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats

Authors: Abir O. El Sadik


Introduction: Wound healing involves the interaction of multiple biological processes among different types of cells, intercellular matrix and specific signaling factors producing enhancement of cell proliferation of the epidermis over dermal granulation tissue. Several studies investigated multiple strategies to promote wound healing and to minimize infection and fluid losses. However, burn crisis, and its related morbidity and mortality are still elevated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in accelerating wound healing and to compare the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, with focusing on the mechanisms producing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration. Material and methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into three equal groups (fourteen rats in each group): control group (group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group III: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 2, 6, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for fluorescent, histological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: The wounds of the control group did not reach complete closure up to the end of the experiment. In MSCs treated groups, better and faster healing of wounds were detected more than the control group. Moreover, the intradermal route of administration of stem cells increased the rate of healing of the wounds more than the systemic injection. In addition, the wounds were found completely healed by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment in all rats of the group injected intradermally. Microscopically, the wound areas of group III were hardly distinguished from the adjacent normal skin with complete regeneration of all skin layers; epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle layer. Fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas surrounded by different arrangement of collagen fibers with a significant increase in their area percent were recorded in this group more than in other groups. Conclusion: MSCs accelerate the healing process of wound closure. The route of administration of MSCs has a great influence on wound healing as intradermal injection of MSCs was more effective in enhancement of wound healing than systemic injection.

Keywords: intradermal, mesenchymal stem cells, morphology, skin wound, systemic injection

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85 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Increases the Re-Epithelialization Rate of Model Wounds by Stimulating Keratinocyte Migration in Ex-Vivo

Authors: W. Mohammedsaeed, A. J. Mcbain, S. M. Cruickshank, C. A. O’Neill


Many studies have demonstrated the importance of probiotics and their potential therapeutic effects within the gut. Recently, the possible therapeutic effects of probiotics in other tissues have also begun to be investigated. Comparatively few studies have evaluated the use of topical probiotics in relation to the skin. In this study, we have conducted preliminary investigations into whether a well-known probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), can increase the rate of re-epithelialization in a model wound. Full-thickness skin was obtained from individuals undergoing elective cosmetic surgery. This skin was wounded using excisional punch and cultured using a serum-free medium, either in the presence or absence of L. rhamnosus GG lysate. Histological staining of the sections was performed with Haematoxylin& Eosin E to quantify “epithelial tongue length”. This is the length of the new epithelial ‘tongue’ that grows and covers the exposed dermis at the inner wound edges. The length of the new epithelial ‘tongue’ was compared in untreated section and section treated with and L. rhamnosus GG made using108CFU/ml bacterial cells. L. rhamnosus GG lysate enhanced significantly the re-epithelialisation of treated wounds compared with that of untreated wounds (P=0.005, n=3). Tongue length, at day 1 was 7.55μm 0.15, at day 3 it was 18.5μm 0.25 and at day 7 was 22.9μm 0.35. These results can be compared with untreated cultures in which tongue length was 3.25μm 0.35, day 3 was 9.65μm 0.25 and day 7 was 13.5μm 0.15 post-wounding. In ex-vivo proliferation and migration cells were measured by determining the expression of nuclear proliferation marker Ki-67 and the expression of Phosphorylated cortactin respectively demonstrated that L. rhamnosus GG significantly increased NHEK proliferation and migration rates relative to controls. However, the dominant mechanism was migration because in ex-vivo skin treated with the L. rhamnosus GG up-regulated the gene expression of the chemokine receptor and ligands CXCR2 and CXCL2 comparing with controls (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively, n=3). High levels of CXCL2/CXCL2 have already been implicated in multiple aspects of stimulation of wound healing through activation of keratinocyte migration. These data demonstrate that lysates from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increase re-epithelialization by stimulation of keratinocyte migration. The current study identifies the partial mechanism that contribute to stimulating the wound-healing process ex vivo in response to L. rhamnosus GG lysate is an increase in the production of CXCL2/ CXCR2 in ex vivo models. The use of probiotic lysates potentially offers new options to develop treatments that could improve wound healing.

Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, wounds, migration, lysate

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84 Biological Control of Blue Mold Disease of Grapes by Pichia anomala Supplemented by Chitosan and Its Possible Control Mechanism

Authors: Esa Abiso Godana, Qiya Yang, Kaili Wang, Zhang Hongyin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lina Zhao


Blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum is among the recent identified diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera). The increasing concern about use of chemical substance and pesticide in postharvest fruit push the trends of research toward biocontrol strategies which are more sustainable and ecofriendly. In this study, we determined the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapefruit against blue mold disease caused by P. expansum. The result showed that 1% chitosan better enhances the biocontrol efficacy P. anomala. Chitosan (1% w/v) also improved the number of population of P. anomala in grape wounds, surface and on nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB). P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapefruits without affecting the fruit quality as compared to the control. The scanned electron microscope (SEM) concisely illustrates how the high number of yeast cells on the wounds reduced the growth of P. expansum. P. anomala alone or P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan are presented as a potential biocontrol alternative against the postharvest blue mold of grapefruit.

Keywords: biocontrol, Pichia anomala, chitosan, Penicillium expansum, grape

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83 The Thinking of Dynamic Formulation of Rock Aging Agent Driven by Data

Authors: Longlong Zhang, Xiaohua Zhu, Ping Zhao, Yu Wang


The construction of mines, railways, highways, water conservancy projects, etc., have formed a large number of high steep slope wounds in China. Under the premise of slope stability and safety, the minimum cost, green and close to natural wound space repair, has become a new problem. Nowadays, in situ element testing and analysis, monitoring, field quantitative factor classification, and assignment evaluation will produce vast amounts of data. Data processing and analysis will inevitably differentiate the morphology, mineral composition, physicochemical properties between rock wounds, by which to dynamically match the appropriate techniques and materials for restoration. In the present research, based on the grid partition of the slope surface, tested the content of the combined oxide of rock mineral (SiO₂, CaO, MgO, Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄, etc.), and classified and assigned values to the hardness and breakage of rock texture. The data of essential factors are interpolated and normalized in GIS, which formed the differential zoning map of slope space. According to the physical and chemical properties and spatial morphology of rocks in different zones, organic acids (plant waste fruit, fruit residue, etc.), natural mineral powder (zeolite, apatite, kaolin, etc.), water-retaining agent, and plant gum (melon powder) were mixed in different proportions to form rock aging agents. To spray the aging agent with different formulas on the slopes in different sections can affectively age the fresh rock wound, providing convenience for seed implantation, and reducing the transformation of heavy metals in the rocks. Through many practical engineering practices, a dynamic data platform of rock aging agent formula system is formed, which provides materials for the restoration of different slopes. It will also provide a guideline for the mixed-use of various natural materials to solve the complex, non-uniformity ecological restoration problem.

Keywords: data-driven, dynamic state, high steep slope, rock aging agent, wounds

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82 Victimization in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study

Authors: Mehmet Budak, Mehmet Fatih Ustundag


Objectives: In this research, we studied the extent of exposure to physical violence and committing violence in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in comparison to a control group consisting of patients with psychiatric diseases other than psychotic and mood disorders. Method: Between August 2019 and October 2019, a total of 100 hospitalized patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (clinically in remission, Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale < 30) were sequentially studied while undergoing inpatient treatment at Erenkoy Mental Health Training and Research Hospital. From the outpatient clinic, 50 patients with psychiatric disorders other than psychotic disorders or mood disorders were consecutively included as a control group. All participants were evaluated by the sociodemographic data that also questions the history of violence, physical examination, bilateral comparative hand, and forearm anterior-posterior and lateral radiography. Results: While 59% of patients with schizophrenia and 28% of the control group stated that they were exposed to physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p < 0,001); a defensive wound or fracture was detected in 29% of patients with schizophrenia and 2% of the control group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 61% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 32% of the control group expressed that they committed physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p: 0.001). A self-destructive wound or fracture was detected in 53% of the patients with schizophrenia and 24% of the control group (p: 0,001). In the schizophrenia group, the rate of committing physical violence is higher in those with substance use compared to those without substance use (p:0.049). Also, wounds and bone fractures (boxer’s fracture) resulting from self-injury are more common in schizophrenia patients with substance use (p:0,002). In the schizophrenia group, defensive wounds and parry fractures (which are located in the hand, forearm, and arm usually occur as a result of a trial to shield the face against an aggressive attack and are known to be the indicators of interpersonal violence) are higher in those with substance use compared to those who do not (p:0,007). Conclusion: This study shows that exposure to physical violence and the rate of violence is higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the control group. It is observed that schizophrenia patients who are stigmatized as being aggressive are more exposed to violence. Substance use in schizophrenia patients increases both exposure to physical violence and the use of physical violence. Physical examination and anamnesis that question violence are important tools to reveal the exposure to violence in patients. Furthermore, some specific bone fractures and wounds could be used to detect victimization even after plenty of time passes.

Keywords: fracture, physical violence, schizophrenia, substance use

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81 Study of the Genes Involved in the Resistance of Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Fluoroquinolone

Authors: Rosetta Moshirian Farahi, Ahya Abdi Ali, Sara Gharavi


The major mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolones is the alteration of target enzymes, type II and IV topoisomerases due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes coding A subunits of these enzymes. 37 isolates from patients with burn wounds and 20 isolates from blood, urine and sputum specimen were selected to evaluate mutations involved in antibiotic resistance and were subsequently verified for their resistance to ciprofloxacin. QRDRs regions of gyrA and parC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were subsequently sequenced. 90% of isolates with MIC≥8 µg/ml to ciprofloxacin had a mutation in gyrA gene in which threonine at position 83 changed to isoleucine. 87.5% of isolates had mutation in parC, Serine 87 changed. 75% had Ser87Leu and 12.5% possessed Serin87Trp. Various silent mutations were also detected such as Val103Val, Ala118Ala, Ala136Ala, His132His in gyrA and Ala115Ala in parC. The data indicates that the common mutation in gyrA is Thr83Ile and in parC is Ser87Leu/Trp. No individual parC mutation was observed while mutations in gyrA and parC occurred simultaneously and appears to be the main reason of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in patients with burn wounds and urine infection. The vast majority of P.aeruginosa isolates had mutation in parC which can play a crucial role in increased resistance of these isolates. This is a report of parC mutations from resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Iran, Tehran.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, fluoroquinolones, gyrA, parC, antibiotic resistance

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80 The Use of a Rabbit Model to Evaluate the Influence of Age on Excision Wound Healing

Authors: S. Bilal, S. A. Bhat, I. Hussain, J. D. Parrah, S. P. Ahmad, M. R. Mir


Background: The wound healing involves a highly coordinated cascade of cellular and immunological response over a period including coagulation, inflammation, granulation tissue formation, epithelialization, collagen synthesis and tissue remodeling. Wounds in aged heal more slowly than those in younger, mainly because of comorbidities that occur as one age. The present study is about the influence of age on wound healing. 1x1cm^2 (100 mm) wounds were created on the back of the animal. The animals were divided into two groups; one group had animals in the age group of 3-9 months while another group had animals in the age group of 15-21 months. Materials and Methods: 24 clinically healthy rabbits in the age group of 3-21 months were used as experimental animals and divided into two groups viz A and B. All experimental parameters, i.e., Excision wound model, Measurement of wound area, Protein extraction and estimation, Protein extraction and estimation and DNA extraction and estimation were done by standard methods. Results: The parameters studied were wound contraction, hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein, and DNA. A significant increase (p<0.005) in the hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA and a significant decrease in wound area (p<0.005) was observed in the age group of 3-9 months when compared to animals of an age group of 15-21 months. Wound contraction together with hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA estimations suggest that advanced age results in retarded wound healing. Conclusion: The decrease wound contraction and accumulation of hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA in group B animals may be associated with the reduction or delay in growth factors because of the advancing age.

Keywords: age, wound healing, excision wound, hydroxyproline, glucosamine

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79 The Healing Effect of Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells Loaded in Collagen-Modified Nanofibrous PHBV Scaffold on Full-Thickness Skin Defects

Authors: Hadi Rad


Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) loaded in nanofibrous PHBV scaffold can be used for skin regeneration when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rats. Nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds were designed using electrospinning method and then, modified with the immobilized collagen via the plasma method. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, physical and mechanical assays. In this study; nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds loaded with and without USSCs were grafted into the skin defects. The wounds were subsequently investigated at 21 days after grafting. Results of mechanical and physical analyses showed good resilience and compliance to movement as a skin graft. In animal models; all study groups excluding the control group exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen on post-operative Day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells, showed a thin epidermis plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. Thus, the graft of collagen-coated nanofibrous PHBV scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat model.

Keywords: collagen, nanofibrous PHBV scaffold, unrestricted somatic stem cells, wound healing.

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78 Seal and Heal Miracle Ointment: Effects of Cryopreserved and Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Balb/C Mice

Authors: Elizalde D. Bana


Healing restores continuity and form through cell replication; hence, conserving structural integrity. In response to the worldwide pressing problem of chronic wounds in the healthcare delivery system, the researcher aims to provide effective intervention to preserve the structural integrity of the person. The wound healing effects of cryopreserved and lyophilized amniotic membrane (AM) of a term fetus embedded into two (2) concentrations (1.5 % and 1.0 %) of absorption-based ointment has been evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model 1x1 cm size. The total protein concentration in full term fetus was determined by the Biuret and Bradford methods, which are based on UV-visible spectroscopy. The percentages of protein presence in 9.5 mg (Mass total sample) of Amniotic membrane ranges between 14.77 – 14.46 % in Bradford method, while slightly lower to 13.78 – 13.80 % concentration in Biuret method, respectively. Bradford method evidently showed higher sensitivity for proteins than Biuret test. Overall, the amniotic membrane is composed principally of proteins in which a copious amount of literature substantially proved its healing abilities. After which, an area of 1 cm by 1 cm skin tissue was excised to its full thickness from the dorsolateral aspect of the isogenic mice and was applied twice a day with the ointment formulation having two (2) concentrations for the diabetic group and non-diabetic group. The wounds of each animal were left undressed and its area was measured every other day by a standard measurement formula from day 2,4,6,8,10,12 and 14. By the 14th day, the ointment containing 1.5 % of AM in absorption-based ointment applied to non-diabetic and diabetic group showed 100 % healing. The wound areas in the animals treated with the standard antibiotic, Mupirocin Ointment (Brand X) showed a 100% healing by the 14th day but with traces of scars, indicating that AM prepared from cryopreservation and lyophilization, at that given concentration, had a better wound healing property than the standard antibiotic. Four (4) multivariate tests were used which showed a significant interaction between days and treatments, meaning that the ointments prepared in two differing concentrations and induced in different groups of the mice had a significant effect on the percent of contraction over time. Furthermore, the evaluations of its effectiveness to wound healing were all significant although in differing degrees. It is observed that the higher the concentrations of amniotic membrane, the more effective are the results.

Keywords: wounds, healing, amniotic membrane ointments, biomedical, stem cell

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77 Effect of Honey on Rate of Healing of Socket after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits

Authors: Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Ashish Shrestha, Mehul Rajesh Jaisani, Gajendra Prasad Rauniar


Background: Honey is the worlds’ oldest known wound dressing. Its wound healing properties are not fully established till today. Concerns about antibiotic resistance, and a renewed interest in natural remedies have prompted the resurgence in the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of Honey. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing in burns, infected wounds and open wounds. None of these reports have documented the effect of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction. Therefore, the present experimental study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted in six New Zealand White rabbits. Extraction of first premolar tooth on both sides of the lower jaw was done under anesthesia produced by Ketamine and Xylazine followed by application of honey on one socket (test group) and normal saline (control group) in the opposite socket. The intervention was continued for two more days. On the 7th day, the biopsy was taken from the extraction site, and histopathological examination was done. Student’s t-test was used for comparison between the groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between control group and test group in terms of fibroblast proliferation (p = 0.0019) and bony trabeculae formation (p=0.0003). Inflammatory cells were also observed in both groups, and it was not significant (p=1.0). Overlying epithelium was hyperplastic in both the groups. Conclusion: The study showed that local application of honey promoted the rapid healing process particularly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and bony trabeculae.

Keywords: honey, extraction wound, Nepal, healing

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76 Pain Management in Burn Wounds with Dual Drug Loaded Double Layered Nano-Fiber Based Dressing

Authors: Sharjeel Abid, Tanveer Hussain, Ahsan Nazir, Abdul Zahir, Nabyl Khenoussi


Localized application of drug has various advantages and fewer side effects as compared with other methods. Burn patients suffer from swear pain and the major aspects that are considered for burn victims include pain and infection management. Nano-fibers (NFs) loaded with drug, applied on local wound area, can solve these problems. Therefore, this study dealt with the fabrication of drug loaded NFs for better pain management. Two layers of NFs were fabricated with different drugs. Contact layer was loaded with Gabapentin (a nerve painkiller) and the second layer with acetaminophen. The fabricated dressing was characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The double layered based NFs dressing was designed to have both initial burst release followed by slow release to cope with pain for two days. The fabricated nanofibers showed diameter < 300 nm. The liquid absorption capacity of the NFs was also checked to deal with the exudate. The fabricated double layered dressing with dual drug loading and release showed promising results that could be used for dealing pain in burn victims. It was observed that by the addition of drug, the size of nanofibers was reduced, on the other hand, the crystallinity %age was increased, and liquid absorption decreased. The combination of fast nerve pain killer release followed by slow release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could be a good tool to reduce pain in a more secure manner with fewer side effects.

Keywords: pain management, burn wounds, nano-fibers, controlled drug release

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75 Producing TPU/Propolis Nanofibrous Membrane as Wound Dressing

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç


Wound dressings have strategically and economic importance considering increase of chronic wounds in the world. In this study, TPU nanofibrous membranes containing propolis as wound dressing are produced by two different methods. Firstly, TPU solution and propolis extract were mixed and this solution was electrospun. The other method is that TPU/propolis blend was centrifugally spun. Properties of nanofibrous membranes obtained by these methods were compared. While realizing the experiments, both systems were optimized to produce nanofibers with nearly same average fiber diameter.

Keywords: nanofiber, wound dressing, electrospinning, centrifugal spinning

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