Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Betül Özgenç

27 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions

Authors: Betül Özgenç, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Turan Çalban

Abstract:

The aim of this study was investigate the leaching kinetics of ulexite in disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions in a mechanical agitation system. Reaction temperature, concentration of disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions, stirring speed, solid/liquid ratio and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 63.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by chemical reaction.

Keywords: ulexite, disodium hydrogen phosphate, leaching kinetics

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26 Strategic Communication in Turkish Independence War

Authors: Özkan Özgenç, Serdar Hacisalihoğlu, Murat Yanik

Abstract:

History has shown that quantitative and qualitative supremacy in terms of military and economic power has been inadequate to reach the desired results. In addition, public support has been a crucial requirement for the success of the any struggle. As a leader seeking ways for the independence of the country, Ataturk comprehended that the only solution was possible with the help of public will and determination. Ataturk needed an impeccable communication strategy to combine efforts by establishing a united notion and action; to convince the world and Turkish nation of the legitimacy and sacredness of Independence struggle; and to show the resolution and determination of Turkish nation against the invaders. To emancipate the Turkish nation, Ataturk shaped the nation's emotions, ideas, and behaviors by using the most appropriate tools at the best time and place since the start of Independence War in May 19, 1919.

Keywords: Atatürk, Turkish independence struggle, strategic communication, independence war

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25 The Relationship between Adolescent Self Well Being and Cyber Bully/Victim Being

Authors: Nesrin Demir, Betül Demirbağ

Abstract:

In recent years, the type and content of bullying in schools changes together with technological development. Many studies attribute bullying movement to virtual platform to the widespread use of social media and internet. The main goal of this research is to determine if there is a correlation between subjective well-being as a popular conception of Positive Psychology and being cyber bully/victim. For this purpose, 287 students from various public high schools in Malatya have reached. As assessment tool, Cyber Bully/Victim Scale and Self Well Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Results were discussed in the relevant literature.

Keywords: cyber bully, cyber victim, school counseling, subjective well-being

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24 Investigation of Mutagenicity and DNA Binding Properties of Metal-Free and Metallophthalocyanines Containing α-Napththolbenzein Groups on the Peripheral Positions

Authors: Meltem Betül Sağlam, Halil İbrahim Güler, Aykut Sağlam

Abstract:

In this work, phthalocyanine compounds containing α-naphtholbenzeinunits have been synthesized. Mutagenicity and DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by Salmonella/Microsome Assay and spectrophotometer. According to the results of the preliminary range finding tests, the compounds gave no toxic effect to all tester strain S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 at doses of 500, 1100, 350, 500 and 750 µg/plate in the presence and absence of S9, respectively. This study showed that all compounds exhibited efficient DNA-binding activity. In conclusion, these non-toxic compounds may be used as effective DNA dyes for molecular biology studies.

Keywords: dye, mutagenicity, phthalocyanine, toxicity

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23 The Relationship between Romantic Relationship Beliefs and Ego Identity Process

Authors: Betül Demirbağ, Nesrin Demir

Abstract:

As a developmental period, early adulthood has a vital role in romantic relationships in young adult's life. lt's known that in this period, satisfaction of individual needs such as affiliation is essential for well-functioning and to be succeeded in sequent developmental task. Romantic relationships have an expected association with attachment style. But it's needed to get more information about indicators of romantic relationships in different cultural backgrounds. in this research it's aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between romantic relationship beliefs and Ego identity status and also other possible indicators such as gender, age, socioeconomic status. Participants were undergraduate students training in various programs in Education Faculty in Adiyaman University. As data collection tool, Romantic Relationship Beliefs scale and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire which was adapted into Turkish were used. Results were discussed in the relevant literature.

Keywords: ego identity, romantic relationships, university counseling

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22 Comparison of Acid and Base Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Mustafa Ümi̇t Ünal, Nafi̇z Çeli̇ktaş, Aysun Şener, Sara Betül Dolgun, Duygu Keser

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare acid and base pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production. Switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) at 120, 140, 180 °C for 10, 60 and 90. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated switchgrass samples were carried out using three different enzyme mixtures (22.5 mg cellulase and 75 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 45 mg cellulase and 150 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase /g biomass). Samples were removed at 24-h interval for fermentable sugar analyses with HPLC. The results showed that use of 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase/g biomass resulted in the highest fermentable sugar formation. Furthermore, the highest fermentable sugar yield was obtained by pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min using 1.0 % sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: switchgrass, acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, base pretreatment, ethanol production

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21 Solution of Insurance Pricing Model Giving Optimum Premium Level for Both Insured and Insurer by Game Theory

Authors: Betul Zehra Karagul

Abstract:

A game consists of strategies that each actor has in his/her own choice strategies, and a game regulates the certain rules in the strategies that the actors choose, express how they evaluate their knowledge and the utility of output results. Game theory examines the human behaviors (preferences) of strategic situations in which each actor of a game regards the action that others will make in spite of his own moves. There is a balance between each player playing a game with the final number of players and the player with a certain probability of choosing the players, and this is called Nash equilibrium. The insurance is a two-person game where the insurer and insured are the actors. Both sides have the right to act in favor of utility functions. The insured has to pay a premium to buy the insurance cover. The insured will want to pay a low premium while the insurer is willing to get a high premium. In this study, the state of equilibrium for insurance pricing was examined in terms of the insurer and insured with game theory.

Keywords: game theory, insurance pricing, Nash equilibrium, utility function

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20 Fabrication of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Chitosan/Indocyanine Green Nanoprobe by Co-Axial Electrospinning Method for Early Detection

Authors: Zeynep R. Ege, Aydin Akan, Faik N. Oktar, Betul Karademir, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

Early detection of cancer could save human life and quality in insidious cases by advanced biomedical imaging techniques. Designing targeted detection system is necessary in order to protect of healthy cells. Electrospun nanofibers are efficient and targetable nanocarriers which have important properties such as nanometric diameter, mechanical properties, elasticity, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. In the present study, indocyanine green (ICG) organic dye was stabilized and encapsulated in polymer matrix which polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan (CHI) multilayer nanofibers via co-axial electrospinning method at one step. The co-axial electrospun nanofibers were characterized as morphological (SEM), molecular (FT-IR), and entrapment efficiency of Indocyanine Green (ICG) (confocal imaging). Controlled release profile of PEO/CHI/ICG nanofiber was also evaluated up to 40 hours.

Keywords: chitosan, coaxial electrospinning, controlled releasing, drug delivery, indocyanine green, polyethylene oxide

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19 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: body composition, body mass index, physical activity, university student

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18 Statistical Randomness Testing of Some Second Round Candidate Algorithms of CAESAR Competition

Authors: Fatih Sulak, Betül A. Özdemir, Beyza Bozdemir

Abstract:

In order to improve symmetric key research, several competitions had been arranged by organizations like National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR). In recent years, the importance of authenticated encryption has rapidly increased because of the necessity of simultaneously enabling integrity, confidentiality and authenticity. Therefore, at January 2013, IACR announced the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR Competition) which will select secure and efficient algorithms for authenticated encryption. Cryptographic algorithms are anticipated to behave like random mappings; hence, it is important to apply statistical randomness tests to the outputs of the algorithms. In this work, the statistical randomness tests in the NIST Test Suite and the other recently designed randomness tests are applied to six second round algorithms of the CAESAR Competition. It is observed that AEGIS achieves randomness after 3 rounds, Ascon permutation function achieves randomness after 1 round, Joltik encryption function achieves randomness after 9 rounds, Morus state update function achieves randomness after 3 rounds, Pi-cipher achieves randomness after 1 round, and Tiaoxin achieves randomness after 1 round.

Keywords: authenticated encryption, CAESAR competition, NIST test suite, statistical randomness tests

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17 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: balance, body composition, body mass, young adults

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16 Investigation of Kinesiophobia in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ismail Okur, Betul Taspinar, Turkan Pasali Kilit, Eda O. Okur, Ferruh Taspinar

Abstract:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important global health emergencies and every year more and more people are affected by T2DM. T2DM causes life-changing complications by affecting organ and systems. Although diet and exercise are the best way to treat patients with T2DM, those patients generally have a sedentary life style. This study was planned to determine whether patients with T2DM have kinesiophobia (fear of movement). A controlled trial was conducted on 87 adults. Forty-one individuals with T2DM (study group, 34 female and 7 male) and 46 nondiabetic individuals (control group, 39 female and 7 male) were included in the study. Patients were screened for fear of movement using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK). The data including age, sex, weight, height, and TSK scores were obtained. Mann Whitney U test were used to analyse the data. The mean ages and BMI of study and control groups were 51.98 ± 6.03 year and 49.52 ± 5.61 year and 31.82 ± 2.88 kg/m2 and 30.22 ± 2.91 kg/m2, respectively. The groups have similar demographic properties. The kinesiophobia scores of study and control groups were 42.78 ± 5.50 and 39.48 ± 5.05, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.05). This study showed that patients with T2DM had high kinesiophobia scores rather than nondiabetics. Those patients might avoid to do exercise. In other words, patients with T2DM might have lower physical activity level. Therefore the authors suggest that to evaluate and interfere with kinesiophobia before conducting exercise therapy will be useful for diabetes care.

Keywords: diabetes, fear of movement, kinesiophobia, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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15 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli

Abstract:

The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, canola, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

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14 Mathematical Modelling of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment in Microwave Dried Strawberry (Fragaria L.) Slices

Authors: Hilal Uslu, Salih Eroglu, Betul Ozkan, Ozcan Bulantekin, Alper Kuscu

Abstract:

In this study, the strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruits, which were pretreated with ultrasound (US), were worked on in the microwave by using 90W power. Then mathematical modelling was applied to dried fruits by using different experimental thin layer models. The sliced fruits were subjected to ultrasound treatment at a frequency of 40 kHz for 10, 20, and 30 minutes, in an ultrasonic water bath, with a ratio of 1:4 to fruit/water. They are then dried in the microwave (90W). The drying process continued until the product moisture was below 10%. By analyzing the moisture change of the products at a certain time, eight different thin-layer drying models, (Newton, page, modified page, Midilli, Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, two-term, Wang and Singh) were tested for verification of experimental data. MATLAB R2015a statistical program was used for the modelling, and the best suitable model was determined with R²adj (coefficient of determination of compatibility), and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to analysis, the drying model that best describes the drying behavior for both drying conditions was determined as the Midilli model by high R²adj and low RMSE values. Control, 10, 20, and 30 min US for groups R²adj and RMSE values was established as respectively; 0,9997- 0,005298; 0,9998- 0,004735; 0,9995- 0,007031; 0,9917-0,02773. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for each group and were determined as 3,80x 10⁻⁸, 3,71 x 10⁻⁸, 3,26 x10⁻⁸ ve 3,5 x 10⁻⁸ m/s, respectively.

Keywords: mathematical modelling, microwave drying, strawberry, ultrasound

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13 The Immediate Effects of Thrust Manipulation for Thoracic Hyperkyphosis

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ismail Okur, Ferruh Taspinar

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Thoracic hyperkyphosis, is a well-known spinal phenomenon, refers to an excessive curvature (> 40 degrees) of the thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of thrust manipulation on thoracic spine alignment. 31 young adults with hyperkyphosis diagnosed with Spinal Mouse® device were randomly assigned either thrust manipulation group (n=16, 11 female, 5 male) or sham manipulation group (n=15, 8 female, 7 male). Thrust and sham manipulations were performed by a blinded physiotherapist who is a certificated expert in musculoskeletal physiotherapy. Thoracic kyphosis degree was measured after the interventions via Spinal Mouse®. Wilcoxon test was used to analyse the data obtained before and after the manipulation for each group, whereas Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the groups. The mean of baseline thoracic kyphosis degrees in thrust and sham groups were 50.69 o ± 7.73 and 48.27o ± 6.43, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of initial thoracic kyphosis degrees (p=0.51). After the interventions, the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust and sham groups were measured as 44.06o ± 6.99 and 48.93o ± 6.57 respectively (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference between before and after interventions in sham group (p=0.33), while the mean of thoracic kyphosis degree in thrust group decreased significantly (p=0.00). Thrust manipulation can attenuate thoracic hyperkyphosis immediately in young adults by not using placebo effect. Manipulation might provide accurate proprioceptive (sensory) input to the spine joints and reduce kyphosis by restoring normal segment mobility. Therefore thoracic manipulation might be included in the physiotherapy programs to treat hyperkyphosis.

Keywords: hyperkyphosis, manual therapy, spinal mouse, physiotherapy

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12 Impact of Soci̇al Media in Tourism Marketing

Authors: Betül Garda

Abstract:

Technological developments have diversified marketing activities of the tourism sector and it has increased tourism opportunities to compete on a global scale for tourism businesses. Tourism businesses have been forced to use its core skills and knowledge effectively with the increase in effectiveness of the technology in the global competitive environment. Tourism businesses have been reached beyond the traditional boundaries because of their commercial activities, so, the boundaries of the national market either eliminated or blurred. Therefore, the internet is the alternative promotion tool and distribution channel to providing unlimited facilities for tourism suppliers. For example, the internet provides an opportunity to reach customers on a global scale with direct email marketing, advertising, customer service, promotion, sales, and marketing. Tourism businesses have improved themselves with the continuous information flows and also they have provided the permanence of the changes. Especially in terms of tourism businesses, social media is emerging as an extremely important tool in the use of knowledge effectively. This research paper investigates the impact of social media on the tourism businesses. A social networking site is a type of social media that provides a platform for business and people to connect with each other. Social media is so flexible that it can be used for both leisure and business purposes. In the tourism industry, social networking sites are one of the essential tools that play an important and beneficial role. The topic that will be discussed in this research paper are consumer behavior, connection with consumers, effectiveness in terms of time and cost, creating brand awareness and building the image of the company, promoting company, targeting consumers in a conceptual frame.

Keywords: branding, promoting, social media in tourism, tourism marketing tools

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11 Relationship Between Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Eyüp S. Akbas, Betul Ayaz, Beyza S. Haksever, Sema Basat

Abstract:

We aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance, muscle mass and muscle strength in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In our study, there were 65 patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in Child A and B group and 65 healthy control individual. Control group was chosen between patients who admitted to the internal medicine clinic and had no pathological values in a routine examination. Muscle mass index was calculated with bioimpedance analysis for both groups to determine muscle strength and muscle mass. Handgrip strength, arm, and calf circumference were measured. In both groups, HOMA-IR was calculated to determine insulin resistance. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value was detected 3,47±3,80 in the study group and 1,83±1,20 in control group. There were significant differences between the two groups in arm circumference, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol parameters. The correlation coefficient between muscle mass and insulin resistance was statistically insignificant, especially in the study group. In healthy individuals group and all the groups, there wasn’t a correlation between muscle mass and insulin resistance. The upper limit for HOMA-IR was determined as 3,2. In control group, %78,9 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3.2) group and %21,1 of them were in ( ≥ 3,2) group. In study group, %68,3 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3,2) group and %31.7 were in HOMA-IR ( ≥ 3,2) group. In our study, we did not find a relationship between muscle mass and insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the study group, we detected a positive relationship between muscle mass, handgrip strength, and calf circumference. We did not find a relationship between insulin resistance and handgrip strength in our study.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatitis B, Insulin resistance, muscle mass

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10 Study of Microbial Diversity Associated with Tarballs and Their Exploitation in Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Varsha Shinde, Belle Damodara Shenoy

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Tarballs are crude oil remnants found in oceans after long term weathering process and are a global concern since several decades as potential marine pollutant. Being complicated in structure microbial remediation of tarballs in natural environment is a slow process. They are rich in high molecular weight alkanes and poly aromatic hydrocarbons which are resistant to microbial attack and other environmental factors, therefore remain in environment for long time. However, it has been found that many bacteria and fungi inhabit on tarballs for nutrients and shelter. Many of them are supposed to be oil degraders, while others are supposed to be getting benefited by byproducts formed during hydrocarbon metabolism. Thus tarballs are forming special interesting ecological niche of microbes. This work aimed to study diversity of bacteria and fungi from tarballs and to see their potential application in crude oil degradation. The samples of tarballs were collected from Betul beach of south Goa (India). Different methods were used to isolate culturable fraction of bacteria and fungi from it. Those were sequenced for 16S rRNA gene and ITS for molecular level identification. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 bacterial genera/clades (Alcanivorax, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Marinobacter, Nitratireductor, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Tistrella and Vibrio), while the ITS sequence analysis placed the fungi in 8 diverse genera/ clades (Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scytalidium/ Xylogone, Talaromyces and Trichoderma). All bacterial isolates were screened for oil degradation capacity. Potential strains were subjected to crude oil degradation experiment for quantification. Results were analyzed by GC-MS-MS.

Keywords: bacteria, biodegradation, crude oil, diversity, fungi, tarballs

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9 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci

Abstract:

In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater reclamation

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8 The Correlation between Body Composition and Spinal Alignment in Healthy Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Ismail Saracoglu, Emrah Afsar, Eda O. Okur, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Although it is thought that abdominal adiposity is one of the risk factor for postural deviation, such as increased lumbar lordosis, the body mass index is not sufficient to indicate effects of abdominal adiposity on spinal alignment and postural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation with detailed body composition and spine alignment in healthy young adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with sixty seven healthy volunteers (37 men and 30 women) whose ages ranged between 19 and 27 years. All participants’ sagittal spinal curvatures of lumbar and thoracic region were measured via Spinal mouse® (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland). Also, body composition analysis (whole body fat ratio, whole body muscle ratio, abdominal fat ratio, and trunk muscle ratio) estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance was evaluated via Tanita Bc 418 Ma Segmental Body Composition Analyser (Tanita, Japan). Pearson’s correlation was used to analysis among the variables. The mean lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angles were 21.02°±9.39, 41.50°±7.97, respectively. Statistically analysis showed a significant positive correlation between whole body fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.28, p=0.02). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between abdominal fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.27, p=0.03). The thoracic kyphosis angle showed also positive correlation with whole body fat ratio (r=0.33, p=0.00) and abdominal fat ratio (r=0.40, p=0.01). The whole body muscle ratio showed negative correlation between lumbar lordosis (r=-0.28, p=0.02) and thoracic kyphosis angles (r=-0.33, p=0.00), although there was no statistically correlation between trunk muscle ratio, lumbar and thoracic curvatures (p>0.05). The study demonstrated that an increase of fat ratio and decrease of muscle ratio in abdominal region or whole body shifts the spinal alignment which may adversely affect the spinal loading. Therefore, whole body composition should be taken into account in spine rehabilitation.

Keywords: body composition, lumbar lordosis, spinal alignment, thoracic kyphosis

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7 A National Systematic Review on Determining Prevalence of Mobbing Exposure in Turkish Nurses

Authors: Betül Sönmez, Aytolan Yıldırım

Abstract:

Objective: This systematic review aims to methodically analyze studies regarding mobbing behavior prevalence, individuals performing this behavior and the effects of mobbing on Turkish nurses. Background: Worldwide reports on mobbing cases have increased in the past years, a similar trend also observable in Turkey. It has been demonstrated that among healthcare workers, mobbing is significantly widespread in nurses. The number of studies carried out in this regard has also increased. Method: The main criteria for choosing articles in this systematic review were nurses located in Turkey, regardless of any specific date. In November 2014, a search using the keywords 'mobbing, bullying, psychological terror/violence, emotional violence, nurses, healthcare workers, Turkey' in PubMed, Science Direct, Ebscohost, National Thesis Centre database and Google search engine led to 71 studies in this field. 33 studies were not met the inclusion criteria specified for this study. Results: The findings were obtained using the results of 38 studies carried out in the past 13 years in Turkey, a large sample consisting of 8,877 nurses. Analysis of the incidences of mobbing behavior revealed a broad spectrum, ranging from none-slight experiences to 100% experiences. The most frequently observed mobbing behaviors include attacking personality, blocking communication and attacking professional and social reputation. Victims mostly experienced mobbing from their managers, the most common consequence of these actions being psychological effects. Conclusions: The results of studies with various scales indicate exposure of nurses to similar mobbing behavior. The high frequency of exposure of nurses to mobbing behavior in such a large sample highlights the importance of considering this issue in terms of individual and institutional consequences that adversely affect the performance of nurses.

Keywords: mobbing, bullying, workplace violence, nurses, Turkey

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6 The Effect of Values on Social Innovativeness in Nursing and Medical Faculty Students

Authors: Betül sönmez, Fatma Azizoğlu, S. Bilge Hapçıoğlu, Aytolan Yıldırım

Abstract:

Background: Social innovativeness contains the procurement of a sustainable benefit for a number of problems from working conditions to education, social development, health, and from environmental control to climate change, as well as the development of new social productions and services. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the social innovation tendency of nursing and medical faculty students and value types. Methods and participants: The population of this correlational study consisted of third-year students studying at a medical faculty and a nursing faculty in a public university in Istanbul. Ethics committee approval and permission from the school administrations were obtained in order to conduct the study and voluntary participation of the students in the study was ensured. 524 questionnaires were obtained with a total return rate of 57.1% (65.0% in nurse student and 52.1% in physic students). The data of the study were collected by using the Portrait Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire containing the Social Innovativeness Scale. Results: The effect of the subscale scores of Portrait Values Questionnaire on the total score of Social Innovativeness Scale was 26.6%. In the model where a significance was determined (F=37.566; p<0.01), the highest effect was observed in the subscale of universalism. The effect of subscale scores obtained from the Portrait Values Questionnaire, as well as age, gender and number of siblings was 25% on the Social Innovativeness in nursing students and 30.8% in medical faculty students. In both models where a significance was determined (p<0.01), the nursing students had the values of power, universalism and kindness, whereas the medical faculty students had the values of self-direction, stimulation, hedonism and universalism showed the highest effect in both models. Conclusions: Universalism is the value with the highest effect upon the social innovativeness in both groups, which is an expected result by the nature of professions. The effect of the values of independent thinking and self-direction, as well as openness to change involving quest for innovation (stimulation), which are observed in medical faculty students, also supports the literature of innovative behavior. These results are thought to guide educators and administrators in terms of developing socially innovative behaviors.

Keywords: social innovativeness, portrait values questionnaire, nursing students, medical faculty students

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5 Activity of Resveratrol on the Influence of Aflatoxin B1 on the Testes of Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Ali D. Omur, Betul Apaydin Yildirim, Yavuz S. Saglam, Selim Comakli, Mustafa Ozkaraca

Abstract:

Twenty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats (aged 3 months) were used in the study. The animals were given feed and water as ad libitum. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as 7 rats in each group. Aflatoxin B1 (7.5 μg/200 g), resveratrol (60 mg/kg) was administered to rats in groups other than the control group. At the end of the 16th day, blood, semen and tissue specimens were taken by decapitation under ether anesthesia. The effects of aflatoxin B1 and resveratrol on spermatological, pathological and biochemical parameters were determined in rats. When we evaluate the spermatological parameters, it is understood that resveratrol has a statistically significant difference in terms of sperm motility and viability (membrane integrity) compared to the control group and aflatoxin B1 administration groups, indicating a protective effect on spermatological parameters (groups: control, resveratrol, aflatoxin B1 and Afb1 + res; respectively, values of motility: 71,42 ± 0,52b, 72,85 ± 1, 48c , 60,71 ± 1,30a, 57,14 ± 2, 40a; values of viability: 63,85 ± 1,33b, 70,42 ± 2,61c, 55,00 ± 1,54a, 56,57 ± 0,89a. In terms of pathological parameters -histopathological examination- in the control and resveratrol groups, seminiferous tubules were observed to be in normal structure. In the group treated with aflatoxin, the regular structure of the spermatogenic cells deteriorated, and the seminiferous tubules became necrotic and degenerative. In the group treated with Afb1 + res, the decreasing of necrotic and degenerative changes were determined compared with in the group treated with aflatoxin. As immunohistochemical examination, cleaved caspase 3 expression was found to be very low in the control and resveratrol groups. Cleaved caspase 3 expression was severely exacerbated in seminiferous tubules in aflatoxin group but cleaved caspase 3 expression level decreased in Afb1 + res. In the biochemical direction, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the adverse effects of aflatoxin on antioxidant levels (GSH-mmol/L, CAT-kU/L, GPx-U/mL, SOD-EU/mL) and to show a protective effect. For this purpose, the use of resveratrol with antioxidant activity was investigated in preventing or ameliorating damage to aflatoxin B1. It has been concluded that resveratrol effectively prevents the aflatoxin-induced testicular damage and lipid peroxidation. It has also been shown that resveratrol has protective effects on sperm motility and viability.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, rat, resveratrol, sperm

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4 Researching Servant Leadership Behaviors of Sport Managers

Authors: Betul Altinok

Abstract:

The aim of this study is researching servant leadership behaviors of sports managers. For this purpose, Servant Leadership behaviors of Sport Managers (N=69) working as Dean, School Principal and Head of Department in Sport Sciences Faculties, Physical Education and Sport Schools and Departments educating Physical Education and Sport investigated via questionnaires applied to academicians (N=1185) working in these institutions. Servant Leadership Questionnaire sent via e-mail to all Academicians working in Physical Education and Sport educating Faculties, Schools of Universities and Departments in Turkey. 406 survey which is responded and accurately completed by Academicians were evaluated. In this study, Servant Leadership Questionnaire developed and conducted validity and reliability analysis by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) used to investigate sports managers servant leadership behaviors. Scale translated into Turkish then validity and reliability analysis were conducted. After measurement model of servant leadership questionnaire verified, Shapiro Wilk normality test was applied to obtained data to determine whether has got a normal distribution or not, depending on gender, job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Results of practiced normality test showed that data has not got a normal distribution (nonparametric). After normality test, Mann Whitney-U test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to gender and Kruskal Wallis Test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to gender. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. In the light of study results, it can be said that applied survey is objective and unfurls evaluated managers servant leadership behaviors. Empirical and practical contribution of this study is to test sports managers servant leadership behaviors in Turkey for the very first time.

Keywords: academicians, management, servant leadership, sport

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3 Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of a Texture-Modified Beef- Based 3D Printed Functional Product

Authors: Elvan G. Bulut, Betul Goksun, Tugba G. Gun, Ozge Sakiyan Demirkol, Kamuran Ayhan, Kezban Candogan

Abstract:

Dysphagia, difficulty in swallowing solid foods and thin liquids, is one of the common health threats among the elderly who require foods with modified texture in their diet. Although there are some commercial food formulations or hydrocolloids to thicken the liquid foods for dysphagic individuals, there is still a need for developing and offering new food products with enriched nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics to safely nourish these patients. 3D food printing is an appealing alternative in creating personalized foods for this purpose with attractive shape, soft and homogenous texture. In order to modify texture and prevent phase separation, hydrocolloids are generally used. In our laboratory, an optimized 3D printed beef-based formulation specifically for people with swallowing difficulties was developed based on the research project supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK Project # 218O017). The optimized formulation obtained from response surface methodology was 60% beef powder, 5.88% gelatin, and 0.74% kappa-carrageenan (all in a dry basis). This product was enriched with powders of freeze-dried beet, celery, and red capia pepper, butter, and whole milk. Proximate composition (moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents), pH value, CIE lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), and color difference (ΔE*) values were determined. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast, total coliforms were conducted, and detection of coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were performed. The 3D printed products had 60.11% moisture, 16.51% fat, 13.68% protein, and 1.65% ash, and the pH value was 6.19, whereas the ΔE* value was 3.04. Counts of TMAB, LAB, mold and yeast and total coliforms before and after 3D printing were 5.23-5.41 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, 2.39-2.15 log EMS/g, respectively. Coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the products. The data obtained from this study based on determining some important product characteristics of functional beef-based formulation provides an encouraging basis for future research on the subject and should be useful in designing mass production of 3D printed products of similar composition.

Keywords: beef, dysphagia, product characteristics, texture-modified foods, 3D food printing

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2 Assessment of Water Reuse Potential in a Metal Finishing Factory

Authors: Efe Gumuslu, Guclu Insel, Gülten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tuğba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatoş Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Ökmen Yildirim, Özge Erturan, Betül Kirci

Abstract:

Although water reclamation and reuse are inseparable parts of sustainable production concept all around the world, current levels of reuse constitute only a small fraction of the total volume of industrial effluents. Nowadays, within the perspective of serious climate change, wastewater reclamation and reuse practices should be considered as a requirement. Industrial sector is one of the largest users of water sources. The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 predicts that global water demand for manufacturing will increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 which is much larger than any other sector. Metal finishing industry is one of the industries that requires high amount of water during the manufacturing. Therefore, actions regarding the improvement of wastewater treatment and reuse should be undertaken on both economic and environmental sustainability grounds. Process wastewater can be reused for more purposes if the appropriate treatment systems are installed to treat the wastewater to the required quality level. Recent studies showed that membrane separation techniques may help in solving the problem of attaining a suitable quality of water that allows being recycled back to the process. The metal finishing factory where this study is conducted is one of the biggest white-goods manufacturers in Turkey. The sheet metal parts used in the cookers production have to be exposed to surface pre-treatment processes composed of degreasing, rinsing, nanoceramics coating and deionization rinsing processes, consecutively. The wastewater generating processes in the factory are enamel coating, painting and styrofoam processes. In the factory, the main source of water is the well water. While some part of the well water is directly used in the processes after passing through resin treatment, some portion of it is directed to the reverse osmosis treatment to obtain required water quality for enamel coating and painting processes. In addition to these processes another important source of water that can be considered as a potential water source is rainwater (3660 tons/year). In this study, process profiles as well as pollution profiles were assessed by a detailed quantitative and qualitative characterization of the wastewater sources generated in the factory. Based on the preliminary results the main water sources that can be considered for reuse in the processes were determined as painting and styrofoam processes.

Keywords: enamel coating, painting, reuse, wastewater

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1 An Impact Assesment of Festive Events on Sustainable Cultural Heritage: İdrisyayla Village

Authors: Betül Gelengül Eki̇mci̇, Semra Günay Aktaş

Abstract:

Festive, habitual activities celebrated on the specified date by a local community, are conducive to recognition of the region. The main function of festive events is to help gathering people via an annual celebration to create an atmosphere of understanding and the opportunity to participate in the joy of life. At the same time, festive events may serve as special occasions on which immigrants return home to celebrate with their family and community, reaffirming their identity and link to the community’s traditions. Festivals also support the local economy by bringing in different visitors to the region. The tradition of “Beet Brewing-Molasses Production,” which is held in İdrisyayla Village is an intangible cultural heritage with customs, traditions, and rituals carrying impacts of cuisine culture of Rumelian immigrants in the Ottoman. After the harvest of the beet plant in the autumn season of the year, Beet Brewing Molasses syrup is made by traditional production methods with co-op of the local community. Festive occurring brewing paste made process provided transmission of knowledge and experience to the young generations. Making molasses, which is a laborious process, is accompanied by folk games such as "sayacı," which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Performance provides enjoyable time and supporting motivation. Like other forms of intangible cultural heritage, “Beet Brewing-Molasses Festive in İdrasyayla is threatened by rapid urbanisation, young generation migration, industrialisation and environmental change. The festive events are threatened with gradual disappearance due to changes communities undergo in modern societies because it depends on the broad participation of practitioners. Ensuring the continuity of festive events often requires the mobilization of large numbers of individuals and the social, political and legal institutions and mechanisms of society. In 2015, Intangible cultural heritage research project with the title of "İdrisyayla Molasses Process" managed by the Eskişehir Governorship, City Directorate of Culture and Tourism and Anadolu University, project members took part in the festival organization to promote sustainability, making it visible, to encourage the broadest public participation possible, to ensure public awareness on the cultural importance. To preserve the originality of and encourage participation in the festive İdrisyayla, local associations, researchers and institutions created foundation and supports festive events, such as "sayacı" folk game, which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Practitioners find new opportunity to market İdrisyayla Molasses production. Publicity program through the press and exhibition made it possible to stress the cultural importance of the festive in İdrisyayla Village. The research reported here used a survey analysis to evaluate an affect of the festive after the spirit of the 2015 Festive in İdrisyayla Village. Particular attention was paid to the importance of the cultural aspects of the festival. Based on a survey of more than a hundred festival attendees, several recommendations are made to festival planners. Results indicate that the variety of festive activities and products offered for sale very important to attendees. The local participants care product sales rather than cultural heritage.

Keywords: agritourism, cultural tourism, festival, sustainable cultural heritage

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