Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 427

Search results for: neutron scattering

427 Optimization of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Crystals for Neutron Optics

Authors: Hao Qu, Xiang Liu, Michael Crosby, Brian Kozak, Andreas K. Freund

Abstract:

The outstanding performance of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as an optical element for neutron beam conditioning is unequaled by any other crystalline material in the applications of monochromator, analyzer, and filter. This superiority stems from the favorable nuclear properties of carbon (small absorption and incoherent scattering cross-sections, big coherent scattering length) and the specific crystalline structure (small thermal diffuse scattering cross-section, layered crystal structure). The real crystal defect structure revealed by imaging techniques is correlated with the parameters used in the mosaic model (mosaic spread, mosaic block size, uniformity). The diffraction properties (rocking curve width as determined by both the intrinsic mosaic spread and the diffraction process, peak and integrated reflectivity, filter transmission) as a function of neutron wavelength or energy can be predicted with high accuracy and reliability by diffraction theory using empirical primary extinction coefficients extracted from a great amount of existing experimental data. The results of these calculations are given as graphs and tables permitting to optimize HOPG characteristics (mosaic spread, thickness, curvature) for any given experimental situation.

Keywords: neutron optics, pyrolytic graphite, mosaic spread, neutron scattering, monochromator, analyzer

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426 Observation of a Phase Transition in Adsorbed Hydrogen at 101 Kelvin

Authors: Raina J. Olsen, Andrew K. Gillespie, John W. Taylor, Cristian I. Contescu, Peter Pfeifer, James R. Morris

Abstract:

While adsorbent surfaces such as graphite are known to increase the melting temperature of solid H2, this effect is normally rather small, increasing to 20 Kelvin (K) relative to 14 K in the bulk. An as-yet unidentified phase transition has been observed in a system of H2 adsorbed in a porous, locally graphitic, Saran carbon with sub-nanometer sized pores at temperatures (74-101 K) and pressures ( > 76 bar) well above the critical point of bulk H2 using hydrogen adsorption and neutron scattering experiments. Adsorption data shows a discontinuous pressure jump in the kinetics at 76 bar after nearly an hour of equilibration time, which is identified as an exothermic phase transition. This discontinuity is observed in the 87 K isotherm, but not the 77 K isotherm. At higher pressures, the measured isotherms show greater excess adsorption at 87 K than 77 K. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements also show a striking phase transition, with the amount of high angle scattering (corresponding to large momentum transfer/ large effective mass) increasing by up to a factor of 5 in the novel phase. During the course of the neutron scattering experiment, three of these reversible spectral phase transitions were observed to occur in response to only changes in sample temperature. The novel phase was observed by neutron scattering only at high H2 pressure (123 bar and 187 bar) and temperatures between 74-101 K in the sample of interest, but not at low pressure (30 bar), or in a control activated carbon at 186 bar of H2 pressure. Based on several of the more unusual observations, such as the slow equilibration and the presence of both an upper and lower temperature bound, a reasonable hypothesis is that this phase forms only in the presence of a high concentration of ortho-H2 (nuclear spin S=1). The increase in adsorption with temperature, temperatures which cross the lower temperature bound observed by neutron scattering, indicates that this novel phase is denser. Structural characterization data on the adsorbent shows that it may support a commensurate solid phase denser than those known to exist on graphite at much lower temperatures. Whatever this phase is eventually proven to be, these results show that surfaces can have a more striking effect on hydrogen phases than previously thought.

Keywords: adsorbed phases, hydrogen, neutron scattering, nuclear spin

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425 MONDO Neutron Tracker Characterisation by Means of Proton Therapeutical Beams and MonteCarlo Simulation Studies

Authors: G. Traini, V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims a precise characterisation of the secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons produced in particle therapy treatments. The detector is composed of a matrix of scintillating fibres (250 um) readout by CMOS Digital-SPAD based sensors. Recoil protons from n-p elastic scattering are detected and used to track neutrons. A prototype was tested with proton beams (Trento Proton Therapy Centre): efficiency, light yield, and track-reconstruction capability were studied. The results of a MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation used to evaluated double scattering efficiency and expected backgrounds will be presented.

Keywords: secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking, elastic scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
424 Mixture of Polymers and Coating Fullerene Soft Nanoparticles

Authors: L. Bouzina, A. Bensafi, M. Duval, C. Mathis, M. Rawiso

Abstract:

We study the stability and structural properties of mixtures of model nanoparticles and non-adsorbing polymers in the 'protein limit', where the size of polymers exceeds the particle size substantially. We have synthesized in institute (Charles Sadron Strasbourg) model nanoparticles by coating fullerene C60 molecules with low molecular weight polystyrene (PS) chains (6 PS chains with a degree of polymerization close to 25 and 50 are grafted on each fullerene C60 molecule. We will present a Small Angle Neutron scattering (SANS) study of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions involving long polystyrene (PS) chains and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles. Long PS chains and C60 nanoparticles with different arm lengths were synthesized either hydrogenated or deuteriated. They were characterized through Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and Quasielastic Light Scattering (QLS). In this way, the solubility of the C60 nanoparticles in the usual good solvents of PS was controlled. SANS experiments were performed by use of the contrast variation method in order to measure the partial scattering functions related to both components. They allow us to obtain information about the dispersion state of the C60 nanoparticles as well as the average conformation of the long PS chains. Specifically, they show that the addition of long polymer chains leads to the existence of an additional attractive interaction in between soft nanoparticles.

Keywords: fulleren nanoparticles, polymer, small angle neutron scattering, solubility

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423 Application Research of Stilbene Crystal for the Measurement of Accelerator Neutron Sources

Authors: Zhao Kuo, Chen Liang, Zhang Zhongbing, Ruan Jinlu. He Shiyi, Xu Mengxuan

Abstract:

Stilbene, C₁₄H₁₂, is well known as one of the most useful organic scintillators for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for its good scintillation properties. An on-line acquisition system and an off-line acquisition system were developed with several CAMAC standard plug-ins, NIM plug-ins, neutron/γ discriminating plug-in named 2160A and a digital oscilloscope with high sampling rate respectively for which stilbene crystals and photomultiplier tube detectors (PMT) as detector for accelerator neutron sources measurement carried out in China Institute of Atomic Energy. Pulse amplitude spectrums and charge amplitude spectrums were real-time recorded after good neutron/γ discrimination whose best PSD figure-of-merits (FoMs) are 1.756 for D-D accelerator neutron source and 1.393 for D-T accelerator neutron source. The probability of neutron events in total events was 80%, and neutron detection efficiency was 5.21% for D-D accelerator neutron sources, which were 50% and 1.44% for D-T accelerator neutron sources after subtracting the background of scattering observed by the on-line acquisition system. Pulse waveform signals were acquired by the off-line acquisition system randomly while the on-line acquisition system working. The PSD FoMs obtained by the off-line acquisition system were 2.158 for D-D accelerator neutron sources and 1.802 for D-T accelerator neutron sources after waveform digitization off-line processing named charge integration method for just 1000 pulses. In addition, the probabilities of neutron events in total events obtained by the off-line acquisition system matched very well with the probabilities of the on-line acquisition system. The pulse information recorded by the off-line acquisition system could be repetitively used to adjust the parameters or methods of PSD research and obtain neutron charge amplitude spectrums or pulse amplitude spectrums after digital analysis with a limited number of pulses. The off-line acquisition system showed equivalent or better measurement effects compared with the online system with a limited number of pulses which indicated a feasible method based on stilbene crystals detectors for the measurement of prompt neutrons neutron sources like prompt accelerator neutron sources emit a number of neutrons in a short time.

Keywords: stilbene crystal, accelerator neutron source, neutron / γ discrimination, figure-of-merits, CAMAC, waveform digitization

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422 Measurement and Simulation of Axial Neutron Flux Distribution in Dry Tube of KAMINI Reactor

Authors: Manish Chand, Subhrojit Bagchi, R. Kumar

Abstract:

A new dry tube (DT) has been installed in the tank of KAMINI research reactor, Kalpakkam India. This tube will be used for neutron activation analysis of small to large samples and testing of neutron detectors. DT tube is 375 cm height and 7.5 cm in diameter, located 35 cm away from the core centre. The experimental thermal flux at various axial positions inside the tube has been measured by irradiating the flux monitor (¹⁹⁷Au) at 20kW reactor power. The measured activity of ¹⁹⁸Au and the thermal cross section of ¹⁹⁷Au (n,γ) ¹⁹⁸Au reaction were used for experimental thermal flux measurement. The flux inside the tube varies from 10⁹ to 10¹⁰ and maximum flux was (1.02 ± 0.023) x10¹⁰ n cm⁻²s⁻¹ at 36 cm from the bottom of the tube. The Au and Zr foils without and with cadmium cover of 1-mm thickness were irradiated at the maximum flux position in the DT to find out the irradiation specific input parameters like sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α). The f value was 143 ± 5, indicates about 99.3% thermal neutron component and α value was -0.2886 ± 0.0125, indicates hard epithermal neutron spectrum due to insufficient moderation. The measured flux profile has been validated using theoretical model of KAMINI reactor through Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP). In MCNP, the complex geometry of the entire reactor is modelled in 3D, ensuring minimum approximations for all the components. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.1 as well as S (α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions are considered. The neutron flux has been estimated at the corresponding axial locations of the DT using mesh tally. The thermal flux obtained from the experiment shows good agreement with the theoretically predicted values by MCNP, it was within ± 10%. It can be concluded that this MCNP model can be utilized for calculating other important parameters like neutron spectra, dose rate, etc. and multi elemental analysis can be carried out by irradiating the sample at maximum flux position using measured f and α parameters by k₀-NAA standardization.

Keywords: neutron flux, neutron activation analysis, neutron flux shape factor, MCNP, Monte Carlo N-Particle Code

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421 Ground State Properties of Neutron Magic Isotones

Authors: G. Saxena, M. Kaushik

Abstract:

In the present investigation, we have employed RMF+BCS (relativistic mean-field plus BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of the entire chains of even-even neutron magic nuclei represented by isotones of traditional neutron magic numbers N = 8, 20, 40, 50, 82, and 126. The main body of the results of our calculations includes the binding energy, deformation, two proton separation energies, rms radii of the proton and neutron distributions as well as the proton and neutron density profiles etc. Several of these results have been given in the form of a series of graphs for a ready reference. In addition, the possible locations of the proton and neutron drip-lines as well as the (Z,N) values for the shell closures as suggested by the detailed analyzes of the single particle spectra, and the two proton and two-neutron separation energies for the different isotonic chains are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: relativistic mean field theory, neutron magic nuclei, shell closure, separation energy, deformation

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420 Interaction of Low-Energy Positrons with Mg Atoms: Elastic Scattering, Bound States, and Annihilation

Authors: Mahasen M. Abdel Mageed, H. S. Zaghloul

Abstract:

Annihilations, phase shifts, scattering lengths, and elastic cross sections of low energy positrons scattering from magnesium atoms were studied using the least-squares variational method (LSVM). The possibility of positron binding to the magnesium atoms is investigated. A trial wavefunction is suggested to represent e+-Mg elastic scattering and scattering parameters were derived to estimate the binding energy and annihilation rates. The trial function is taken to depend on several adjustable parameters and is improved iteratively by increasing the number of terms. The present results have the same behavior as reported semi-empirical, theoretical, and experimental results. Especially, the estimated positive scattering length supports the possibility of positron-magnesium bound state system that was confirmed in previous experimental and theoretical work.

Keywords: bound wavefunction, positron annihilation, scattering phase shift, scattering length

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419 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir

Abstract:

Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

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418 The Application of the Analytic Basis Function Expansion Triangular-z Nodal Method for Neutron Diffusion Calculation

Authors: Kunpeng Wang, Hongchun, Wu, Liangzhi Cao, Chuanqi Zhao

Abstract:

The distributions of homogeneous neutron flux within a node were expanded into a set of analytic basis functions which satisfy the diffusion equation at any point in a triangular-z node for each energy group, and nodes were coupled with each other with both the zero- and first-order partial neutron current moments across all the interfaces of the triangular prism at the same time. Based this method, a code TABFEN has been developed and applied to solve the neutron diffusion equation in a complicated geometry. In addition, after a series of numerical derivation, one can get the neutron adjoint diffusion equations in matrix form which is the same with the neutron diffusion equation; therefore, it can be solved by TABFEN, and the low-high scan strategy is adopted to improve the efficiency. Four benchmark problems are tested by this method to verify its feasibility, the results show good agreement with the references which demonstrates the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

Keywords: analytic basis function expansion method, arbitrary triangular-z node, adjoint neutron flux, complicated geometry

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417 Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties

Authors: Jaehyug Lee, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) can achieve very low thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agree well with additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective thermal conductivity. Thus, the materials with backward scattering properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal conductivity of VIPs.

Keywords: combined conduction and radiation, discrete ordinates interpolation method, scattering phase function, vacuum insulation panel

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416 Bile Salt Induced Microstructural Changes of Gemini Surfactant Micelles

Authors: Vijaykumar Patel, P. Bahadur

Abstract:

Microstructural evolution of a cationic gemini surfactant 12-4-12 micelles in the presence of bile salts has been investigated using different techniques. A negative value of interaction parameter evaluated from surface tension measurements is a signature of strong synergistic interaction between oppositely charged surfactants. Both the bile salts compete with each other in inducing the micellar transition of 12-4-12 micelles depending on their hydrophobicity. Viscosity measurements disclose that loading of bile salts induces morphological changes in 12-4-12 micelles; sodium deoxycholate is more efficient in altering the aggregation behaviour of 12-4-12 micelles compared to sodium cholate and presents pronounced increase in viscosity and micellar growth which is suppressed at elevated temperatures. A remarkable growth of 12-4-12 micelles in the presence of sodium deoxycholate at low pH has been ascribed to the solubilization of bile acids formed in acidic medium. Small angle neutron scattering experiments provided size and shape of 12-4-12/bile salt mixed micelles are explicated on the basis of hydrophobicity of bile salts. The location of bile salts in micelle was determined from nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy. The present study characterizes 12-4-12 gemini-bile salt mixed systems which significantly enriches our knowledge, and such a structural transition provides an opportunity to use these bioamphiphiles as delivery vehicles and in some pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: gemini surfactants, bile salts, SANS (small angle neutron scattering), NOESY (nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy)

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
415 The Monitor for Neutron Dose in Hadrontherapy Project: Secondary Neutron Measurement in Particle Therapy

Authors: V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, G. Traini, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The particle therapy (PT) is a very modern technique of non invasive radiotherapy mainly devoted to the treatment of tumours untreatable with surgery or conventional radiotherapy, because localised closely to organ at risk (OaR). Nowadays, PT is available in about 55 centres in the word and only the 20\% of them are able to treat with carbon ion beam. However, the efficiency of the ion-beam treatments is so impressive that many new centres are in construction. The interest in this powerful technology lies to the main characteristic of PT: the high irradiation precision and conformity of the dose released to the tumour with the simultaneous preservation of the adjacent healthy tissue. However, the beam interactions with the patient produce a large component of secondary particles whose additional dose has to be taken into account during the definition of the treatment planning. Despite, the largest fraction of the dose is released to the tumour volume, a non-negligible amount is deposed in other body regions, mainly due to the scattering and nuclear interactions of the neutrons within the patient body. One of the main concerns in PT treatments is the possible occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). While SMNs can be developed up to decades after the treatments, their incidence impacts directly life quality of the cancer survivors, in particular in pediatric patients. Dedicated Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used to predict the normal tissue toxicity including the risk of late complications induced by the additional dose released by secondary neutrons. However, no precise measurement of secondary neutrons flux is available, as well as their energy and angular distributions: an accurate characterization is needed in order to improve TPS and reduce safety margins. The project MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) is devoted to the construction of a secondary neutron tracker tailored to the characterization of that secondary neutron component. The detector, based on the tracking of the recoil protons produced in double-elastic scattering interactions, is a matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in layer x-y oriented. The final size of the object is 10 x 10 x 20 cm3 (squared 250µm scint. fibres, double cladding). The readout of the fibres is carried out with a dedicated SPAD Array Sensor (SBAM) realised in CMOS technology by FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler). The detector is under development as well as the SBAM sensor and it is expected to be fully constructed for the end of the year. MONDO will make data tacking campaigns at the TIFPA Proton Therapy Center of Trento, at the CNAO (Pavia) and at HIT (Heidelberg) with carbon ion in order to characterize the neutron component and predict the additional dose delivered on the patients with much more precision and to drastically reduce the actual safety margins. Preliminary measurements with charged particles beams and MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation will be presented.

Keywords: secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking detector, elastic scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
414 Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Yassine Ait-El-Aoud, Michael Okomoto, Andrew M. Luce, Alkim Akyurtlu, Richard M. Osgood III

Abstract:

Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.

Keywords: dip coating, light-scattering, metal nanoparticles, nanosphere lithography

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413 Dipole and Quadrupole Scattering of Ultra Short Pulses on Metal Nanospheres

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko

Abstract:

The presentation is devoted to the theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) scattering on metallic nanospheres in a dielectric medium in the vicinity of surface plasmon resonance due to excitation of dipole and quadrupole surface plasmons.

Keywords: surface plasmon, scattering, metallic nanosphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
412 Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements

Authors: Xingyu Peng, Qingyuan Hu, Xuebin Zhu, Xi Yuan

Abstract:

Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.

Keywords: neutron spectrometry, magnetic proton recoil spectrometer, neutron spectra, fast neutron

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411 On the Study of the Electromagnetic Scattering by Large Obstacle Based on the Method of Auxiliary Sources

Authors: Hidouri Sami, Aguili Taoufik

Abstract:

We consider fast and accurate solutions of scattering problems by large perfectly conducting objects (PEC) formulated by an optimization of the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). We present various techniques used to reduce the total computational cost of the scattering problem. The first technique is based on replacing the object by an array of finite number of small (PEC) object with the same shape. The second solution reduces the problem on considering only the half of the object.These two solutions are compared to results from the reference bibliography.

Keywords: method of auxiliary sources, scattering, large object, RCS, computational resources

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410 Production of Neutrons by High Intensity Picosecond Laser Interacting with Thick Solid Target at XingGuangIII

Authors: Xi Yuan, Xuebin Zhu, Bojun Li

Abstract:

This work describes the experiment to produce high-intensity pulsed neutron beams on XingGuangIII laser facility. The high-intensity laser is utilized to drive protons and deuterons, which hit a thick solid target to produce neutrons. The pulse duration of the laser used in the experiment is about 0.8 ps, and the laser energy is around 100 J. Protons and deuterons are accelerated from a 10-μm-thick deuterated polyethylene (CD₂) foil and diagnosed by a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer. The energy spectrum of neutrons generated via ⁷Li(d,n) and ⁷Li(p,n) reaction when proton and deuteron beams hit a 5-mm-thick LiF target is measured by a scintillator-based time-of-flight spectrometer. Results from the neuron measurements show that the maximum neutron energy is about 12.5 MeV and the neutron yield is up to 2×10⁹/pulse. The high-intensity pulsed neutron beams demonstrated in this work can provide a valuable neutron source for material research, fast neutron induced fission research, and so on.

Keywords: picosecond laser driven, fast neutron, time-of-flight spectrometry, XinggungIII

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409 Standardization Of Miniature Neutron Research Reactor And Occupational Safety Analysis

Authors: Raymond Limen Njinga

Abstract:

The comparator factors (Fc) for miniature research reactors are of great importance in the field of nuclear physics as it provide accurate bases for the evaluation of elements in all form of samples via ko-NAA techniques. The Fc was initially simulated theoretically thereafter, series of experiments were performed to validate the results. In this situation, the experimental values were obtained using the alloy of Au(0.1%) - Al monitor foil and a neutron flux setting of 5.00E+11 cm-2.s-1. As was observed in the inner irradiation position, the average experimental value of 7.120E+05 was reported against the theoretical value of 7.330E+05. In comparison, a percentage deviation of 2.86 (from theoretical value) was observed. In the large case of the outer irradiation position, the experimental value of 1.170E+06 was recorded against the theoretical value of 1.210E+06 with a percentage deviation of 3.310 (from the theoretical value). The estimation of equivalent dose rate at 5m from neutron flux of 5.00E+11 cm-2.s-1 within the neutron energies of 1KeV, 10KeV, 100KeV, 500KeV, 1MeV, 5MeV and 10MeV were calculated to be 0.01 Sv/h, 0.01 Sv/h, 0.03 Sv/h, 0.15 Sv/h, 0.21Sv/h and 0.25 Sv/h respectively with a total dose within a period of an hour was obtained to be 0.66 Sv.

Keywords: neutron flux, comparator factor, NAA techniques, neutron energy, equivalent dose

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408 The Contribution of Density Fluctuations in Ultrasound Scattering in Cancellous Bone

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans

Abstract:

An understanding of the interaction between acoustic waves and cancellous bone is needed in order to realize the full clinical potential of ultrasonic bone measurements. Scattering is likely to be of central importance but has received little attention to date. Few theoretical approaches have been described to explain scattering of ultrasound from bone. In this study, a scattering model based on velocity and density fluctuations in a binary mixture (marrow fat and cortical matrix) was used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in cancellous bone as a function of volume fraction. Predicted attenuation and backscatter coefficient were obtained for a range of porosities and scatterer size. At 600 kHZ and for different scatterer size the effect of velocity and density fluctuations in the predicted attenuation was approximately 60% higher than velocity fluctuations.

Keywords: ultrasound scattering, sound speed, density fluctuations, attenuation coefficient

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407 X-Ray Diffraction and Precision Dilatometer Study of Neutron-Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Recovery Process up to 1673K

Authors: Yuhao Jin, Zhou Zhou, Katsumi Yoshida, Zhengcao Li, Tadashi Maruyama, Toyohiko Yano

Abstract:

Four kinds of nuclear graphite, IG-110U, ETP-10, CX-2002U and IG-430U were neutron-irradiated at different fluences and temperatures, ranged from 1.38 x 1024 to 7.4 x 1025 n/m2 (E > 1.0 MeV) at 473K, 573K and 673K. To take into account the disorder in the microstructure, such as stacking faults and anisotropic coherent lengths, the X-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted using a comprehensive structural model and a refinement program CARBONXS. The deduced structural parameters show the changes of lattice parameters, coherent lengths along the c-axis and the basal plane, and the degree of turbostratic disorder as a function of the irradiation dose. Our results reveal neutron irradiation effects on the microstructure and macroscopic dimension, which are consistent with previous work. The methodology used in this work enables the quantification of the damage on the microstructure of nuclear graphite induced by neutron irradiation.

Keywords: nuclear graphite, neutron irradiation, thermal annealing, recovery behavior, dimensional change, CARBONX, XRD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
406 Measurements of Scattering Cross Sections for 5.895 keV Photons in Various Polymers

Authors: H. Duggal, G. Singh, G. Singh, A. Bhalla, S. Kumar, J. S. Shahi, D. Mehta

Abstract:

The total differential cross section for scattering of the 5.895 keV photons by various polymers has been measured at scattering angle of 135o. The experimental measurements were carried out using the energy dispersive setup involving annular source of the 55Fe radioisotope and a low energy germanium (LEGe) detector. The cross section values are measured for 20 polymer targets namely, Paraffin Wax, Polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE), Cellulose, Silicone oil, Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinyl purrolidone (PVP), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Kapton, Mylar, Chitosan, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Bakelite, Carbopol, Chlorobutyl rubber (CBR), Polyetylene glycol (PEG), Polysorbate-20, Nylon-6, Cetyl alcohol, Carboxyl methyl sodium cellulose and Sodium starch glucolate. The measurements were performed in vacuum so as to avoid scattering contribution due to air and strong absorption of low energy photons in the air column. In the present investigations, the geometrical factor and efficiency of the detector were determined by measuring the K x-rays emitted from the 22Ti and 23V targets excited by the Mn K x-rays in the same experimental set up. The measured scattering cross sections have been compared with the sum of theoretically calculated elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. The theoretical elastic (Rayleigh) scattering cross sections based on the various form factor approximations, namely, non-relativistic form factor (NF), relativistic form factor (RF), modified form factor (MF), and MF with anomalous scattering factor (ASF) as well as the second order S-matrix formalisms, and the inelastic scattering differential cross sections based on the Klein-Nishina formula after including the inelastic scattering function (KN+ISF) have been calculated. The experimental results show fairly good agreement with theoretical cross sections.

Keywords: photon, polymers, elastic and inelastic, scattering cross sections

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405 Further Investigation of α+12C and α+16O Elastic Scattering

Authors: Sh. Hamada

Abstract:

The current work aims to study the rainbow like-structure observed in the elastic scattering of alpha particles on both 12C and 16O nuclei. We reanalyzed the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions data for α+12C and α+16O nuclear systems at different energies using both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models such as: CDM3Y1, DDM3Y1, CDM3Y6 and BDM3Y1. Potential created by BDM3Y1 interaction model has the shallowest depth which reflects the necessity to use higher renormalization factor (Nr). Both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models fairly reproduce the experimental data.

Keywords: density distribution, double folding, elastic scattering, nuclear rainbow, optical model

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404 An Improved Multiple Scattering Reflectance Model Based on Specular V-Cavity

Authors: Hongbin Yang, Mingxue Liao, Changwen Zheng, Mengyao Kong, Chaohui Liu

Abstract:

Microfacet-based reflection models are widely used to model light reflections for rough surfaces. Microfacet models have become the standard surface material building block for describing specular components with varying roughness; and yet, while they possess many desirable properties as well as produce convincing results, their design ignores important sources of scattering, which can cause a significant loss of energy. Specifically, they only simulate the single scattering on the microfacets and ignore the subsequent interactions. As the roughness increases, the interaction will become more and more important. So a multiple-scattering microfacet model based on specular V-cavity is presented for this important open problem. However, it spends much unnecessary rendering time because of setting the same number of scatterings for different roughness surfaces. In this paper, we design a geometric attenuation term G to compute the BRDF (Bidirectional reflection distribution function) of multiple scattering of rough surfaces. Moreover, we consider determining the number of scattering by deterministic heuristics for different roughness surfaces. As a result, our model produces a similar appearance of the objects with the state of the art model with significantly improved rendering efficiency. Finally, we derive a multiple scattering BRDF based on the original microfacet framework.

Keywords: bidirectional reflection distribution function, BRDF, geometric attenuation term, multiple scattering, V-cavity model

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403 Study of Proton-9,11Li Elastic Scattering at 60~75 MeV/Nucleon

Authors: Arafa A. Alholaisi, Jamal H. Madani, M. A. Alvi

Abstract:

The radial form of nuclear matter distribution, charge and the shape of nuclei are essential properties of nuclei, and hence, are of great attention for several areas of research in nuclear physics. More than last three decades have witnessed a range of experimental means employing leptonic probes (such as muons, electrons etc.) for exploring nuclear charge distributions, whereas the hadronic probes (for example alpha particles, protons, etc.) have been used to investigate the nuclear matter distributions. In this paper, p-9,11Li elastic scattering differential cross sections in the energy range  to  MeV have been studied by means of Coulomb modified Glauber scattering formalism. By applying the semi-phenomenological Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil [BGP] nuclear density for loosely bound neutron rich 11Li nucleus, the estimated matter radius is found to be 3.446 fm which is quite large as compared to so known experimental value 3.12 fm. The results of microscopic optical model based calculation by applying Bethe-Brueckner–Hartree–Fock formalism (BHF) have also been compared. It should be noted that in most of phenomenological density model used to reproduce the p-11Li differential elastic scattering cross sections data, the calculated matter radius lies between 2.964 and 3.55 fm. The calculated results with phenomenological BGP model density and with nucleon density calculated in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) reproduces p-9Li and p-11Li experimental data quite nicely as compared to Gaussian- Gaussian or Gaussian-Oscillator densities at all energies under consideration. In the approach described here, no free/adjustable parameter has been employed to reproduce the elastic scattering data as against the well-known optical model based studies that involve at least four to six adjustable parameters to match the experimental data. Calculated reaction cross sections σR for p-11Li at these energies are quite large as compared to estimated values reported by earlier works though so far no experimental studies have been performed to measure it.

Keywords: Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil density, Coulomb modified Glauber model, halo nucleus, optical limit approximation

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402 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

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401 Neutron Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steels: An Applied Methodology for Nanoindentation and Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies

Authors: P. Bublíkova, P. Halodova, H. K. Namburi, J. Stodolna, J. Duchon, O. Libera

Abstract:

Neutron radiation-induced microstructural changes cause degradation of mechanical properties and the lifetime reduction of reactor internals during nuclear power plant operation. Investigating the effects of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of the irradiated material (hardening, embrittlement) is challenging and time-consuming. Although the fast neutron spectrum has the major influence on microstructural properties, the thermal neutron effect is widely investigated owing to Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking firstly observed in BWR stainless steels. In this study, 300-series austenitic stainless steels used as material for NPP's internals were examined after neutron irradiation at ~ 15 dpa. Although several nanoindentation experimental publications are available to determine the mechanical properties of ion irradiated materials, less is available on neutron irradiated materials at high dpa tested in hot-cells. In this work, we present particular methodology developed to determine the mechanical properties of neutron irradiated steels by nanoindentation technique. Furthermore, radiation-induced damage in the specimens was investigated by High Resolution - Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) that showed the defect features, particularly Frank loops, cavity microstructure, radiation-induced precipitates and radiation-induced segregation. The results of nanoindentation measurements and associated nanoscale defect features showed the effect of irradiation-induced hardening. We also propose methodologies to optimized sample preparation for nanoindentation and microscotructural studies.

Keywords: nanoindentation, thermal neutrons, radiation hardening, transmission electron microscopy

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400 Measurement of Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section of ₆₀Nd K X-Rays Elements with 26 ≤ Z≤ 90

Authors: Govind Sharma, Harpreet S. Kainth

Abstract:

Rayleigh scattering differential cross sections have been measured for the 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays. These measurements have been done in 44 elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90 at an angle of 1390. The measurements are performed by using a radiation source consisting of an annular 60Nd foil excited by the 59.54 KeV γ-ray photons from 241Am radioactive source. The Nd Kα2, Kβ1,3 X-ray photons from the 60Nd annular foil (secondary photon source) are made to scatter from the target and the scattered photons are detected using Canberra made low energy Germanium (LEGe) detector. The measured Rayleigh scattering cross sections are compared with the theoretical MF, MFASF and the SM values. The noticeable deviations are observed from the MF, MFASF and SM values for 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays.

Keywords: Photon-electron interaction, Rayleigh scattering, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray

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399 Static Light Scattering Method for the Analysis of Raw Cow's Milk

Authors: V. Villa-Cruz, H. Pérez-Ladron de Guevara, J. E. Diaz-Díaz

Abstract:

Static Light Scattering (SLS) was used as a method to analyse cow's milk raw, coming from the town of Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico. This method is based on the analysis of the dispersion of light laser produced by a set of particles in solution. Based on the above, raw milk, which contains particles of fat globules, with a diameter of 2000 nm and particles of micelles of protein with 300 nm in diameter were analyzed. For this, dilutions of commercial milk were made (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.3%) to obtain a pattern of laser light scattering and also made measurements of raw cow's milk. Readings were taken in a sweep initial angle 10° to 170°, results were analyzed with the program OriginPro 7. The SLS method gives us an estimate of the percentage of fat content in milk samples. It can be concluded that the SLS method, is a quick method of analysis to detect adulteration in raw cow's milk.

Keywords: light scattering, milk analysis, adulteration in milk, micelles, OriginPro

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398 Study of the Phenomenon Nature of Order and Disorder in BaMn(Fe/V)F7 Fluoride Glass by the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Sidi Mohamed Mesli, Mohamed Habchi, Mohamed Kotbi, Rafik Benallal, Abdelali Derouiche

Abstract:

Fluoride glasses with a nominal composition of BaMnMF7 (M = FeV assuming isomorphous replacement) have been structurally modelled through the simultaneous simulation of their neutron diffraction patterns by a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) model and by a Rietveld for disordered materials (RDM) method. Model is consistent with an expected network of interconnected [MF6] polyhedra. The RMC results are accompanied by artificial satellite peaks. To remedy this problem, we use an extension of the RMC algorithm, which introduces an energy penalty term in acceptance criteria. This method is called the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC) method. The idea of this paper is to apply the (HRMC) method to the title glasses, in order to make a study of the phenomenon nature of order and disorder by displaying and discussing the partial pair distribution functions (PDFs) g(r). We suggest that this method can be used to describe average correlations between components of fluoride glass or similar system.

Keywords: fluoride glasses, RMC simulation, neutron scattering, hybrid RMC simulation, Lennard-Jones potential, partial pair distribution functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 280