Search results for: gastric banding
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 177

Search results for: gastric banding

177 The Role of Gastric Decompression on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Orthognathic Surgery

Authors: Minna Salim, James Brady

Abstract:

Postoperative nausea and pain (PONV) are adverse effects following surgical procedures. It is especially pronounced in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery, as their mouth is closed postoperatively using wires or rubber bands. Postoperative mouth closure increases the discomfort and risk of complications associated with nausea and vomiting. Many surgeons and institutions apply gastric decompression in hopes of aspirating stomach contents and, therefore, decreasing PONV incidence. This review observed that PONV incidence was not affected by gastric decompression overall. However, the effect of gastric decompression on PONV in orthognathic surgery was variable. This paper aims to summarize the findings of gastric decompression on PONV and to determine the need for it in orthognathic surgery.

Keywords: gastric decompression, nasogastric tube, orthognathic surgery, postoperative nausea, vomiting

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176 Modelling and Analysis of Shear Banding in Flow of Complex Fluids

Authors: T. Chinyoka

Abstract:

We present the Johnson-Segalman constitutive model to capture certain fluid flow phenomena that has been experimentally observed in the flow of complex polymeric fluids. In particular, experimentally observed phenomena such as shear banding, spurt and slip are explored and/or explained in terms of the non-monotonic shear-stress versus shear-rate relationships. We also explore the effects of the inclusion of physical flow aspects such as wall porosity on shear banding. We similarly also explore the effects of the inclusion of mathematical modelling aspects such as stress diffusion into the stress constitutive models in order to predict shear-stress (or shear-rate) paths. We employ semi-implicit finite difference methods for all the computational solution procedures.

Keywords: Johnson-Segalman model, diffusive Johnson-Segalman model, shear banding, finite difference methods, complex fluid flow

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175 Antigastritic Effect of Starch from Manihot utilissima on Male Wistar Rats Induced Aspirin

Authors: Naela Nabiela, Ahmad Hilmi Fahmi, M. Sukron, Ayu Elita Sari, Yusran, Suparmi

Abstract:

Aspirin is one of NSAIDs (non-steroid inflammatory drugs), can cause gastric ulcer as an side effect of prolonged consumption. The effort to prevent the increase of gastric HCl level can by treating with amylopectin was reported that can cover the gastric mucose. However, the effect of amylopectin in starch from Manihot utilissima which is believed as traditional treatment gastric ulcer have not been clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of starch formed as syrup to HCl level and gastric histopatology. This experiment post test only control group design used 42 male wistar rats divided into 7 groups. All groups, except first group, were induced by 60 mg/100gBW/day aspirin for 3 days. The following day for 2 days each group was treated by starch syrup at dosed 0.45% w/v, 0.9% w/v, 1.8% w/v, 0% w/v, and sucralfate. Respectively, HCl level were measured by acidi-alkalimetri titration method, while the gastric histopathology were prepared by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The result shows that aspirin induction can increase the HCl level as 0,00767 N. Starch syrup at dose 1.8% w/v was effective to reduce HCl level and the grade of second gastric necrosis. It can be conclude that starch syrup is potention as a treatment to cure gastric ulcer caused by NSAIDs side effect.

Keywords: concentration of HCl stomach, gastric histopathology, gastritis, starch

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174 Immunoliposomes for Co-Delivery of Doxorubicin and Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Sirna Inhibit of Gastric Cancer Growth

Authors: Jie Gao

Abstract:

The combination of chemotherapy with gene therapy is highly effective in cancer therapy. To achieve combined therapeutic effects in human gastric cancer over expressing EGFR, we developed targeted LPD (liposome-polycation-DNA complex) conjugated with anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) Fab’ for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) siRNA (DOX-RRM2-TLPD). The results showed that EGFR was over expressed in several gastric cancer cell lines and gastric cancer tissues. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) results showed that RRM2 expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer than in non-gastric cancer tissue, and RRM2 siRNA inhibited the proliferation of several gastric cancer cells, indicating that RRM2 is a candidate target for gastric cancer therapy. Confocal studies and flow cytometry showed that DOX-RRM2-TLPD delivered DOX and RRM2 siRNA to EGFR over expressing gastric cancer cells specifically and efficiently both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced therapeutic effects (cytotoxicity and apoptosis) compared with single-drug loaded or non-targeted controls, including DOX-NC-TLPD (targeted LPD co-delivering DOX and negative control siRNA), RRM2-TLPD (targeted LPD delivering RRM2 siRNA) and DOX-RRM2-NTLPD (non-targeted LPD co-delivering DOX and RRM2 siRNA). The in vivo antitumor assay showed that the average weight of the gastric cancer in mice treated with DOX-RRM2-TLPD was significantly lighter than that of mice treated with other controls. DOX-RRM2-TLPD represents an effective approach for combined therapy of gastric cancer over expressing EGFR.

Keywords: gene therapy, chemotherapy, immunoliposomes, gastric cancer

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173 Totally Robotic Gastric Bypass Using Modified Lonroth Technique

Authors: Arun Prasad

Abstract:

Background: Robotic Bariatric Surgery is a good option for the super obese where laparoscopy demands challenging technical skills. Gastric bypass can be difficult due to inability of the robot to work in two quadrants at the same time. Lonroth technique of gastric bypass involves a totally supracolic surgery where all anastomosis are done in one quadrant only. Methods: We have done 78 robotic gastric bypass surgeries using the modified Lonroth technique. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Gastric pouch is made first followed by the gastrojejunostomy that is a four layered sutured anastomosis. Jejuno jejunostomy is then performed followed by a leak test and then the jejunum is divided. A 150 cm biliopancreatic limb and a 75 cm alimentary limb are finally obtained. Mesenteric and Petersen’s defects are then closed. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken in the first 5 cases was 130 minutes. This reduced to a mean of 95 minutes in the last five cases. There were no intraoperative or post operative complications. Conclusions: While a hybrid technique of partly laparoscopic and partly robotic gastric bypass has been done at many centres, we feel using the modified Lonroth technique, a totally robotic gastric bypass surgery fully utilizes the potential of robotic bariatric surgery.

Keywords: robot, bariatric, totally robotic, gastric bypass

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172 One-Stage Conversion of Adjustable Gastric Band to One-Anastomosis Gastric Bypass Versus Sleeve Gastrectomy : A Single-Center Experience With a Short and Mid-term Follow-up

Authors: Basma Hussein Abdelaziz Hassan, Kareem Kamel, Philobater Bahgat Adly Awad, Karim Fahmy

Abstract:

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band was one of the most applied and common bariatric procedures in the last 8 years. However; the failure rate was very high, reaching approximately 60% of the patients not achieving the desired weight loss. Most patients sought another revisional surgery. In which, we compared two of the most common weight loss surgeries performed nowadays: the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic one- anastomosis gastric bypass. Objective: To compare the weight loss and postoperative outcomes among patients undergoing conversion laparoscopic one-anastomosis gastric bypass (cOAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (cSG) after a failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). Patients and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2020 to June 2022 at a single medical center, which included 77 patients undergoing single-stage conversion to (cOAGB) vs (cSG). Patients were reassessed for weight loss, comorbidities remission, and post-operative complications at 6, 12, and 18 months. Results: There were 77 patients with failed LAGB in our study. Group (I) was 43 patients who underwent cOAGB and Group (II) was 34 patients who underwent cSG. The mean age of the cOAGB group was 38.58. While in the cSG group, the mean age was 39.47 (p=0.389). Of the 77 patients, 10 (12.99%) were males and 67 (87.01%) were females. Regarding Body mass index (BMI), in the cOAGB group the mean BMI was 41.06 and in the cSG group the mean BMI was 40.5 (p=0.042). The two groups were compared postoperative in relation to EBWL%, BMI, and the co-morbidities remission within 18 months follow-up. The BMI was calculated post-operative at three visits. After 6 months of follow-up, the mean BMI in the cOAGB group was 34.34, and the cSG group was 35.47 (p=0.229). In 12-month follow-up, the mean BMI in the cOAGB group was 32.69 and the cSG group was 33.79 (p=0.2). Finally, the mean BMI after 18 months of follow-up in the cOAGB group was 30.02, and in the cSG group was 31.79 (p=0.001). Both groups had no statistically significant values at 6 and 12 months follow-up with p-values of 0.229, and 0.2 respectively. However, patients who underwent cOAGB after 18 months of follow-up achieved lower BMI than those who underwent cSG with a statistically significant p-value of 0.005. Regarding EBWL% there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. After 6 months of follow-up, the mean EBWL% in the cOAGB group was 35.9% and the cSG group was 33.14%. In the 12-month follow-up, the EBWL % mean in the cOAGB group was 52.35 and the cSG group was 48.76 (p=0.045). Finally, the mean EBWL % after 18 months of follow-up in the cOAGB group was 62.06 ±8.68 and in the cSG group was 55.58 ±10.87 (p=0.005). Regarding comorbidities remission; Diabetes mellitus remission was found in 22 (88%) patients in the cOAGB group and 10 (71.4%) patients in the cSG group with (p= 0.225). Hypertension remission was found in 20 (80%) patients in the cOAGB group and 14 (82.4%) patients in the cSG group with (p=1). In addition, dyslipidemia remission was found in 27(87%) patients in cOAGB group and 17(70%) patients in the cSG group with (p=0.18). Finally, GERD remission was found in about 15 (88.2%) patients in the cOAGB group and 6 (60%) patients in the cSG group with (p=0.47). There are no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the post-operative data outcomes. Conclusion: This study suggests that the conversion of LAGB to either cOAGB or cSG could be feasibly performed in a single-stage operation. cOAGB had a significant difference as regards the weight loss results than cSG among the mid-term follow-up. However, there is no significant difference in the postoperative complications and the resolution of the co-morbidities. Therefore, cOAGB could provide a reliable alternative but needs to be substantiated in future long-term studies.

Keywords: laparoscopic, gastric banding, one-anastomosis gastric bypass, Sleeve gastrectomy, revisional surgery, weight loss

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171 Evaluation of the Role of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNA H19 as a Promising Biomarker in Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elbanna, Abeer Ibrahim, Gihan Khedr

Abstract:

Background: H19 is one of the long non coding RNAs (LncRNA) that is related to the progression of many diseases including cancers. This work was carried out to study the level of the long non-coding RNA; H119, in plasma of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to assess its significance in their clinical management. Methods: A total of sixty-two participants were enrolled in the present study. The first group included thirty-two GC patients, while the second group was formed of thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers serving as a control group. Plasma samples were used to assess H19 gene expression using real time quantitative PCR technique. Results: H19 expression was up-regulated in GC patients with positive correlation to TNM cancer stages. Conclusions: Up-regulation of H19 is closely associated with gastric cancer and correlates well with tumor staging. Convenient, efficient quantification of H19 in plasma using real time PCR technique implements its role as a potential noninvasive prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer, that predicts patient’s outcome and most importantly as a novel target in gastric cancer treatment with better performance achieved on using both CEA and H19 simultaneously.

Keywords: biomarker, gastric, cancer, LncRNA

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170 Anti-Ulcer Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn Bark in Experimental Rats

Authors: Jagdish Baheti, Sampat Navale

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats and pylorus ligation gastric secretion in rats. Five groups of adult wistar rats were orally pre-treated respectively with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solution (ulcer control group), Omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group), and 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract in CMC solution (experimental groups), one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. Rats were sacrificed and the ulcer index, gastric volume, gastric pH, free acidity, total acidity of the gastric content was determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosal injury in both model. Histological studies revealed that ulcer control group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract which showed gastric mucosal protection, reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The present finding suggests that F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and histologically compared to the ulcer control group.

Keywords: Ficus bengalensis Linn., gastric ulcer, hydroalcoholic, pylorus ligation

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169 Shark Cartilage Modulate IL-23/IL-17 Axis by Increasing IFN-γ and Decreasing IL-4 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zareia, Hassan ZMB, Darush Moslemic, Amrollah Mostafa-Zaded

Abstract:

Introduction: Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, at least, in vitro. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the immune-effectiveness on imbalance between IL-23/IL-17 axis, as an inflammatory pathway and TGF/Foxp3 T regulatory as a inhibitory pathway of commercial shark cartilage that is available as a non-common dietary supplement in IRAN. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-4, and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: The simultaneously presented up-regulation IL-17A indicated, at least cytokine level without changing in TGF-β amount or CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T regulatory cells, that there are not a direct correlation between IL-23/IL-17 axis and Treg/TGF-β pathway in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage, but IL-23 was not expressed differentially in this group. So, accompany these changes, an imbalance between Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) evaluated in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we propose that shark cartilage, by reducing IL-4, decreasing IL-17 a central cytokine in angiogenesis and increasing γ-IFN amplify anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4+CD25+Foxp3high T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage, gastric cancer

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168 Cytogenetic Investigation of Patients with Disorder of Sexual Development Using G-Banding Karyotype and Fluorescence In situ Hybridization

Authors: Riksa Parikrama, Bremmy Laksono, Dadang S. H. Effendi

Abstract:

Disorder of sexual development (DSD) covers various conditions with a specific term such as Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and many more. The techniques to accurately diagnose those conditions has developed extensively. However, conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are still widely used in many genetic laboratories as the basic method to determine chromosomal condition of DSD patients. Cytogenetic study was conducted on 36 DSD patients in Cell Culture and Cytogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. Most of the patients referred to the laboratory diagnosed with primary amenorrhea, hypospadias, micropenis, genitalia ambiguity, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The study used G-banding technique to acquire complete karyotype and followed by FISH as either confirmation or comparison method. Among 36 patients, G-banding karyotype and FISH results showed that two were diagnosed with 45, X (Turner syndrome); three with 47, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome); five with 46, XX DSD; 22 with 46, XY DSD; and four with 46,XY complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. G-banding karyotype analysis were paired with FISH using X and Y chromosome probe produced similar results. The present analysis showed that FISH is a reliable method to attain a rapid and accurate chromosome analysis result of DSD patients. Nevertheless, conventional karyotype technique is still vital if other condition appeared in DSD patients in order to get more detailed karyotype result which FISH method cannot achieve.

Keywords: chromosome, DSD, FISH, karyotype

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167 Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Vijay R. Patil, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, K. R. Mahadik

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Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.

Keywords: andrographolide, Andrographis paniculata, in vitro, stability, gastric, Intestinal HPLC-PDA

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166 Post-Discharge Oral Nutritional Supplements Following Gastric Cancer Surgery: A systematic Review

Authors: Mohammad Mohammadi, Mohammad Pashmchi

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Background: Malnutrition commonly develops and worsens following gastric cancer surgery, particularly after discharge, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Former studies have primarily focused on patients during their hospital stay period, and there is limited evidence regarding the recommendation of nutritional interventions for patients after discharge from the hospital following gastric cancer surgery. This review is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of post-discharge dietary counseling with oral nutritional supplements (ONS), and dietary counseling alone on post-surgical nutritional outcomes in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. Methods: The four databases of Embase, PubMed, web of science, and google scholar were searched up to November 2022 for relevant randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Collaboration’s assessment tool for randomized trials was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Results: Compared to patients who only received dietary counseling, patients who received both dietary counseling and ONS had considerably higher SMI, BMI, and less weight loss and sarcopenia occurrence rate. The patients who had received dietary counseling and ONS had significantly lower risk of chemotherapy intolerance. No differences in the readmission rate between the two groups was found. In terms of the quality of life, concomitant dietary advice and ONS significantly was associated with lower appetite loss and fatigue rate, but there was no difference in the other outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Post-discharge dietary advice with ONS following gastric cancer surgery may improve skeletal muscle maintenance, nutritional outcomes, quality of life variables, and chemotherapy tolerance. This evidence supports the recommendation of post-discharge dietary advice with ONS for patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery.

Keywords: gastric cancer surgery, oral nutritional supplements, malnutrition, gastric cancer

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165 Down-Regulated Gene Expression of GKN1 and GKN2 as Diagnostic Markers for Gastric Cancer

Authors: Amer A. Hasan, Mehri Igci, Ersin Borazan, Rozhgar A. Khailany, Emine Bayraktar, Ahmet Arslan

Abstract:

Gastric cancer (GC) has high morbidity and fatality rate in various countries and is still one of the most frequent and deadly diseases. Novel mitogenic and motogenic Gastrokine1 (GKN1) and Gastrokine 2 (GKN2) genes that are highly expressed in the normal stomach epithelium and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of stomach mucosal epithelial cells. Significant loss of copy number and mRNA transcript of GKN1 and GKN2 gene expression were frequently observed in all types of gastric cancer. In this study, 47 paired samples that were grouped according to the types of gastric cancer and the clinical characteristics of the patients, including gender and average of age were investigated with gene expression analysis and mutation screening by monetering RT-PCR, SSCP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Both GKN1 and GKN2 genes were observed significantly reduced found by (Wilcoxon signed rank test; p<0.05). As a result of gene screening, no mutation (no different genotype) was detected. It is considered that gene mutations are not the cause of inactivation of gastrokines. In conclusion, the mRNA expression level of GKN1 and GKN2 genes statistically was decreased regardless the gender, age or cancer type of patients. Reduced of gastrokine genes seems to occur at the initial steps of cancer development. In order to understand the investigation between gastric cancer and diagnostic biomarker; further analysis is necessary.

Keywords: gastric cancer, diagnostic biomarker, nucleotide sequencing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR

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164 Mechanisms of Atiulcerogenic Activity of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Somayeh Fani, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

Costus speciosus is an important Malaysian medicinal plant commonly used traditionally in the treatment of many aliments. The present investigation is designed to elucidate preventive effects of ethanolic extracts of C. speciosus rhizome against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Five groups of rats were orally pre-treated with vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal control group (Group 1), ethanol as ulcer control group (Group 2), omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) (Group 3), and 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. speciosus extract (experimental groups) (Group 4 and 5), respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to Group 1 rats and absolute ethanol was given orally to Group 2-5 rats to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed. Grossly, ulcer control group exhibited severe of gastric mucosal hemorrhagic injury and increased in ulcer area, whereas groups pre-treated with omeprazole or plant’s rhizomes exhibited the significant reduction of gastric mucosal injury. Significant increase in the pH and mucous of gastric content was observed in rats re-treated with C. speciosus rhizome. Histology, ulcer control rats, demonstrated remarkable disruption of gastric mucosa, increased in edema and inflammatory cells infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with rhizomes extract. Periodic acid Schiff staining for glycoprotein, rats pre-fed with C. speciosus C. displayed remarkably intense uptake of magenta color by glandular gastric mucosa compared with ulcer control rats. Immunostaining of gastric epithelium, rats pre-treatment with rhizome extract provide evidence of up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control animals. Gastric tissue homogenate, C. speciosus significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), increased the level of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation after ethanol administration. Acute toxicity test did not show any signs of toxicity. The mechanisms implicated the gasrtoprotective property of C. speciosus depend upon the antisecretory activity, increased in gastric mucus glycoprotein, up-regulation of HSP70 protein and down-regulation of Bax proteins, reduction in the lipid peroxidation and increase in the level of NP-SH and antioxidant enzymes activity in gastic homogenate.

Keywords: antioxidant, Costus speciosus, gastric ulcer, histology, omeprazole

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163 Early Gastric Cancer Prediction from Diet and Epidemiological Data Using Machine Learning in Mizoram Population

Authors: Brindha Senthil Kumar, Payel Chakraborty, Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu, Arindam Maitra, Prem Nath

Abstract:

Gastric cancer is predominantly caused by demographic and diet factors as compared to other cancer types. The aim of the study is to predict Early Gastric Cancer (ECG) from diet and lifestyle factors using supervised machine learning algorithms. For this study, 160 healthy individual and 80 cases were selected who had been followed for 3 years (2016-2019), at Civil Hospital, Aizawl, Mizoram. A dataset containing 11 features that are core risk factors for the gastric cancer were extracted. Supervised machine algorithms: Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multilayer perceptron, and Random Forest were used to analyze the dataset using Python Jupyter Notebook Version 3. The obtained classified results had been evaluated using metrics parameters: minimum_false_positives, brier_score, accuracy, precision, recall, F1_score, and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. Data analysis results showed Naive Bayes - 88, 0.11; Random Forest - 83, 0.16; SVM - 77, 0.22; Logistic Regression - 75, 0.25 and Multilayer perceptron - 72, 0.27 with respect to accuracy and brier_score in percent. Naive Bayes algorithm out performs with very low false positive rates as well as brier_score and good accuracy. Naive Bayes algorithm classification results in predicting ECG showed very satisfactory results using only diet cum lifestyle factors which will be very helpful for the physicians to educate the patients and public, thereby mortality of gastric cancer can be reduced/avoided with this knowledge mining work.

Keywords: Early Gastric cancer, Machine Learning, Diet, Lifestyle Characteristics

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162 Role of Giardia lamblia Infection in the Pathogenesis of Gastritis in Patients with Dyspepsia

Authors: Aly Kassem, Eman A. Sabet, Hanaa A. El-Hady, Doha S. Mohamed, Abeer Sheneef, Mona Fattouh, Mamdouh M. Esmat

Abstract:

Objective: Giardia lamblia parasite is the most common protozoal infection in human. Concomitant Helecobacter Pylori (H. pylori) and Giardia lamblia infection is common for their similar mode of transmission and strong correlation to socioeconomic levels. Only few reports had described gastric giardiasis. Our aim was to detect H. pylori and Giardia in gastric antral mucosal biopsies from patients with dyspepsia. The impact of both pathogens on clinical, endoscopic and histopathogical changes was studied. Methods: 48 patients with dyspepsia (group1) and 28 control patients (patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD for reasons other than dyspepsia), (group 2) were studied. Endoscopic data were reported and gastric biopsy specimens were obtained for subsequent PCR assay for both organisms and for histopathological and electron microscopic examination. Results: Endoscopic antral gastritis and duodenal lesions were found in both groups, however, they were significantly more frequently in group 1 (p= 0.002 and P= 0.0005 respectively). Esophageal lesions, nodular antral gastritis, gastric ulcers and superficial corpal gastritis were found only in group 1. PCR detected H. pylori infection in 58% Vs 64 % for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P: NS). Giardia infection was present in 67 % Vs 42 % for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P=0.0003, Odd ratio=2.6). Co-infection with H. pylori and Giardia was present in 33% of group 1 Vs 36% for group 2 (P:NS). Abnormal histologic findings were found in both groups, however, intestinal metaplasia was found in group 1 only. Cellular abnormalities in the form of cytoplasmic vacuoles, mitochondrial destruction or nuclear abnormalities were found by Electron microscopic study in infected subjects of both groups. Conclusion: H. pylori is not the only gastric pathogen in our community, gastric giardiasis is another pathogen. Its contribution might be a factor in persistent dyspepsia after H. pylori eradication.

Keywords: dyspepsia, gastritis, Giardia lamblia, H. pylori

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161 In vivo Activity of Pathogenic Bacteria on Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Padam Kant, Ch. V. Rao

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Gastric ulcer is a major global health threat, and it is the leading cause of stomach cancer death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori bacteriumis the most important etiologic factor for gastric ulcer. This infection is highly pervasive in South Asian developing countries, especially in India, Nepal, Srilanka etc. due to diversification in geographic area. Pathophysiology of gastric mucosal damage associated with non-invasive bacterium has not justified in detail, but it leads to change in histopathology, immunochemistry of the gastric and duodenal reason of host. The mechanism responsible for bacteria tissue tropism and mucosal damage in stomach variance during the disease is not clearly described and understood scientifically in treatment and control of pathogenic organisms. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against aggression by pathogens. 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one and 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde are polyphenolic compound obtained from popular Indian medicinal plants ghavpatta (ArgeriaspeciosaLinn.f) andBael (Aeglemarmelos) have long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. They have promising effects on ulcer, as detailed investigation has made in our laboratory. Therefore, the aim of present study is to explore membrane –dependent morphogenesis of H. pylori and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death. Based on this we analyzed immune gene expression in stomach of experimental animals with H. pylori, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(q RT-PCR). This revealed rapid induction of prostaglandin, interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated genes in the infected animal. Ultrastructural changes associated with H. pylori will be taken for advanced studies. This investigation shows that the biomarkers eradicate H. pylori bacterium caused gastric ulcer which is a major risk factor for gastric cancer.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, immunochemistry, polyphenols

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160 Epidemiological-Anatomopathological-Immunohistochemical Profile of Gastric Cancer throughout Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, R. L. Bouchouka, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi

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The stomach cancer or gastric cancer is an aggressive cancer with a significant geographic disparity. The decrease in frequency is attributed to refrigeration, which has several beneficial consequences, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of salt, which was widely used as a food preservative, and less contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds. The infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa usually evolving into stomach cancer in 80% of cases. Methodology: This epidemiological and analytical study concerns 65 patients (46 men and 19 women) with gastric adenocarcinomas with an average age of 56.5 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.4. Results and Discussion: In this series, the clinical symptoms are dominated by epigastralgia (72.31%), vomiting (27,69%), and slimming (24,62%). The FOGD (Oeso-Gastro Duodenal Fibroscopy) performed in the 65 patients revealed a predominance of the antro-pyloric localization in 19 cases (i.e., 29.23%) and anulcerative budding appearance in 33 subjects (50,77%). Histologically, the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is found in 30.77% of patients, followed by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with 26.15% of patients. The immunohistochemical study revealed a positive labeling of half of the T cells by anti-CD3 AC, and a positive labeling of anti-CD20 AC in a diffuse and intense manner, with the presence of CD20-positive lymphoepithelial lesions compatible with CD20 a low grade MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: This framework of analysis revealed some risk factors for gastric cancer, such as food, hygiene, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and family history.

Keywords: cancer, Helicobacter pylori, immunohistochemistry, stomach

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159 Effect of Psychological Stress to the Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil Edwin Nurdin

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Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Most patients with FD complain of symptoms related to the intake of meals. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and had an effect on ulcers associated Hp, and may also trigger worsen symptoms in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal. Cells in mucosal gastric stimulate the production of several cytokines, which might associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The cascade of biological events leading to stress-induced FD remains poorly understood. Aim of Study: To determine the prion-flammatory cytokine IL-6, and Helicobacter pylori activity on mucosal gastric of FD and their association with psychological stress. Methods: The subjects of this study were dyspeptic patients who visited M. Djamil General Hospital and in two Community Health Centers in Padang. On the basis of the stress index scale to identify psychological stress by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 42), subjects were divided into two groups of 20 each, stress groups and non-stress groups. All diagnoses were confirmed by review of cortisol and esophagogastroduodenoscopy reports. Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were taken during diagnostic procedures. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosal. The data were statistically analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. All procedures of this study were approved by Research Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty Andalas University. Results: In this study, we enrolled 40 FD patients (26 woman and 14 men) in range between 35-56 years old. Cortisol level of blood FD patients as parameter of stress hormone which taken in the morning was significantly higher in stress group than non-stress group. The expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa was significantly higher in stress group in compared to non-stress group (p<0,05). Helicobacter pylori activity in gastric mucosal in stress group were significantly higher than non-stress group. Conclusion: The present study showed that psychological stress can induce gastric mucosal inflammation and increase of Helicobacter pylori activity.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, interleukin-6, psychological stress

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158 Robotic Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery

Authors: Arun Prasad, Abhishek Tiwari, Rekha Jaiswal, Vivek Chaudhary

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Background: Robotic Roux en Y gastric bypass is being done for some time but is technically difficult, requiring operating in both the sub diaphragmatic and infracolic compartments of the abdomen. This can mean a dual docking of the robot or a hybrid partial laparoscopic and partial robotic surgery. The Mini /One anastomosis /omega loop gastric bypass (MGB) has the advantage of having all dissection and anastomosis in the supracolic compartment and is therefore suitable technically for robotic surgery. Methods: We have done 208 robotic mini gastric bypass surgeries. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Distal stomach is stapled from the lesser curve followed by a vertical sleeve upwards leading to a long sleeve pouch. Jejunum is taken at 200 cm from the duodenojejunal junction and brought up to do a side to side gastrojejunostomy. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken was 85 minutes. There were major intraoperative or post operative complications. No patient needed conversion or re-explorative surgery. Mean excess weight loss over a period of 2 year was about 75%. There was no mortality. Patient satisfaction score was high and was attributed to the good weight loss and minimal dietary modifications that were needed after the procedure. Long term side effects were anemia and bile reflux in a small number of patients. Conclusions: MGB / OAGB is gaining worldwide interest as a short simple procedure that has been shown to very effective and safe bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of robotic surgery for this procedure. This is the first report of totally robotic mini gastric bypass.

Keywords: MGB, mini gastric bypass, OAGB, robotic bariatric surgery

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157 Case Report and Discussion of Natural History of Bouveret Syndrome

Authors: Parul Garg

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Bouveret Syndrome is a rare presentation described as Gastric Outlet Obstruction secondary to Gallstone Ileus. Here we describe the 3-year progression of disease from cholelithiasis to gallstone ileus with relevant imaging findings. The patient was treated under an Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery service with surgical intervention in the form of a laparoscopic assisted procedure with midline laparotomy. She recovered well and was discharged 1 week post operatively. No complications occurred.

Keywords: Cholelithiasis, Bouveret syndrome, Gallstone Ileus, gastric outlet obstruction

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156 Numerical Investigation of a New Two-Fluid Model for Semi-Dilute Polymer Solutions

Authors: Soroush Hooshyar, Mohamadali Masoudian, Natalie Germann

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Many soft materials such as polymer solutions can develop localized bands with different shear rates, which are known as shear bands. Using the generalized bracket approach of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we recently developed a new two-fluid model to study shear banding for semi-dilute polymer solutions. The two-fluid approach is an appropriate means for describing diffusion processes such as Fickian diffusion and stress-induced migration. In this approach, it is assumed that the local gradients in concentration and, if accounted for, also stress generate a nontrivial velocity difference between the components. Since the differential velocity is treated as a state variable in our model, the implementation of the boundary conditions arising from the derivative diffusive terms is straightforward. Our model is a good candidate for benchmark simulations because of its simplicity. We analyzed its behavior in cylindrical Couette flow, a rectilinear channel flow, and a 4:1 planar contraction flow. The latter problem was solved using the OpenFOAM finite volume package and the impact of shear banding on the lip and salient vortices was investigated. For the other smooth geometries, we employed a standard Chebyshev pseudospectral collocation method. The results showed that the steady-state solution is unique with respect to initial conditions, deformation history, and the value of the diffusivity constant. However, smaller the value of the diffusivity constant is, the more time it takes to reach the steady state.

Keywords: nonequilibrium thermodynamics, planar contraction, polymer solutions, shear banding, two-fluid approach

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155 IL-23, an Inflammatory Cytokine, Decreased by Shark Cartilage and Vitamin A Oral Treatment in Patient with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zarei, Hassan zm, Abolghasem Ajami, Darush Moslemi, Narges Afsary, Amrollah Mostafa-zade

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Introduction: IL-23 is responsible for the differentiation and expansion of Th17/ThIL-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, may be IL-23/IL17 axis involve in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as RA, MS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asthma. TGF-β is also share for the differentiation Th17 producing IL-17 and CD4+CD25+Foxp3hiT regulatory cells from naïve CD4+ T cells which are involved in the regulation of immune response, maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis ,and the control of autoimmunity and cancer surveillance. Therefore, T regulatory cells play a key role in autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, infectious disease, and the induction of transplantation tolerance. Vitamin A and it's derivatives (retinoids) inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some types of cancers in oral cavity,head and neck, breast, skin, liver, and blood cells. Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, in vitro. Our purpose is whether simultaneous oral treatment vitamin A and shark cartilage can modulate IL-23/IL-17 and CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory cell/TGF-β pathways and Th1/Th2 immunity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23,IL-17,TGF-β,IL-4 and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: An imbalance between IL-17 secretion and TGF-β/Foxp3 t regulatory cell pathway and so, Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) was not seen in patients with gastric cancer treated by vitamin A and shark cartilage. But, the simultaneously presented down-regulation of IL-23 indicated, at least cytokine level. Conclusion: Il-23, as a pro-angiogenesis cytokine, probably, help to tumor growth. Hence, suggested that down-regulation of IL-23, at least cytokine level, is useful for anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage and gastric cancer

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154 Antioxydant Properties and Gastroprotective Effect of Rosa canina Aqueous Extract against Alcohol-Induced Ulceration and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

Authors: H. Sebai, M. A. Jabria, D. Wannes, H. Tounsi, L. Marzouki

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We aimed in the present study to investigate the protective effects of Tunisian Rosa canina aqueous extract (RCAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and oxidative stress in a rat model. In this respect, adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH, EtOH plus various doses of RCAE, EtOH plus famotidine and EtOH + gallic acid. Phytochemical and biochemical analysis were performed using colorimetric methods. We found that RCAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins, and exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In vivo, the results showed that oral administration of EtOH caused macroscopic and histological changes in gastric mucosa. These injuries are accompanied by an oxidative stress status as assessed by an increase of lipid peroxidation as well as a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Alcohol intoxication also induced intracellular mediators deregulation as assessed by an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium and free iron levels in gastric mucosa. More, importantly, RCAE pretreatment reversed all macroscopic, histological and biochemical changes induced by EtOH administration. In conclusion, we suggest that RCAE has potent protective effects on acute ethanol-induced gastric ulceration related in part in part its antioxidant properties and its opposite effect on intracellular mediators. Indeed, Rosa canina can be offered as a food additive to protect against alcohol consumption-induced gastric and oxidative damage.

Keywords: alcohol, antioxidant properties, food additive, gastric ulceration, rat model, Rosa canina

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153 Exploring the Optimum Temperature and Diet for Growth and Gastric Emptying Time of Juvenile Malabar Blood Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus)

Authors: Sabuj Kanti Mazumder, Mazlan Abd Ghaffar, Simon Kumar Das

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In this study, we analyzed the effects of water temperature and diet on the growth properties and gastric emptying period of juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) over a 30day experimental period. Fish were collected from a local hatchery of Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia and immediately transferred to flow-through sea water system and subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (formulated pellet and shrimp). Body weight gain, food consumption, food conversion ratio, food consumption efficiency, specific growth rate, relative growth rate, daily growth rate, and gastric emptying period were significantly influenced by temperature and diet (P<0.05). The best food conversion ratio was with the shrimp group recorded at 30°C (1.33±0.08). The highest growth rate was observed in the shrimp group at 30°C (3.97±0.57% day-1), and the lowest was observed in the formulated pellet group at 22°C (1.63±0.29% day-1). No significant difference was observed between the groups subjected to temperatures of 26 and 30°C. Similarly, the lowest gastric emptying period was detected in the shrimp group at 30°C (16h), where the proportion of meal residues in the stomach decreased from 100% to less than 8% after 12h of starvation. A significantly longer gastric emptying period was observed in the formulated pellet group at 22°C (28h). Overall, the best results were observed on shrimp group subjected to a 30°C temperature. The data obtained from this study suggest that a shrimp diet fed on L. malabaricus at 30°C will optimize the commercial production of this commercially important fish species.

Keywords: aquaculture, diet, digestion rate, growth, Malabar blood snapper

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152 Scenario of Some Minerals and Impact of Promoter Hypermethylation of DAP-K Gene in Gastric Carcinoma Patients of Kashmir Valley

Authors: Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Iqra Reyaz, Falaque ul Afshan, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Muneeb U. Rehman, Manzoor R. Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Sonallah, Sheikh Bilal, Ishraq Hussain

Abstract:

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, with a wide variation in incidence rates across different geographical areas. The current view of cancer is that a malignancy arises from a transformation of the genetic material of a normal cell, followed by successive mutations and by chain of alterations in genes such as DNA repair genes, oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes. Minerals are necessary for the functioning of several transcriptional factors, proteins that recognize certain DNA sequences and have been found to play a role in gastric cancer. Material Methods:The present work was a case control study and its aim was to ascertain the role of minerals and promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands of DAP-K gene in Gastric cancer patients among the Kashmiri population. Serum was extracted from all the samples and mineral estimation was done by AAS from serum, DNA was also extracted and was modified using bisulphite modification kit. Methylation-specific PCR was used for the analysis of the promoter hypermethylation status of DAP-K gene. The epigenetic analysis revealed that unlike other high risk regions, Kashmiri population has a different promoter hypermethylation profile of DAP-K gene and has different mineral profile. Results: In our study mean serum copper levels were significantly different for the two genders (p<0.05), while as no significant differences were observed for iron and zinc levels. In Methylation-specific PCR the methylation status of the promoter region of DAP-K gene was as 67.50% (27/40) of the gastric cancer tissues showed methylated DAP-K promoter and 32.50% (13/40) of the cases however showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter. Almost all 85% (17/20) of the histopathologically confirmed normal tissues showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter except only in 3 cases where DAP-K promoter was found to be methylated. The association of promoter hypermethylation with gastric cancer was evaluated by χ2 (Chi square) test and was found to be significant (P=0.0006). Occurrence of DAP-K methylation was found to be unequally distributed in males and females with more frequency in males than in females but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.7635, Odds ratio=1.368 and 95% C.I=0.4197 to 4.456). When the frequency of DAP-K promoter methylation was compared with clinical staging of the disease, DAP-K promoter methylation was found to be certainly higher in Stage III/IV (85.71%) compared to Stage I/ II (57.69%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.0673). These results suggest that DAP-K aberrant promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri population contributes to the process of carcinogenesis in Gastric cancer and is reportedly one of the commonest epigenetic changes in the development of Gastric cancer.

Keywords: gastric cancer, minerals, AAS, hypermethylation, CpG islands, DAP-K gene

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151 A Case of Iatrogenic Esophageal Perforation in an Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonate

Authors: Ya-Ching Fu, An-Kuo Chou, Boon-Fatt Tan, Chi-Nien Chen, Wen-Chien Yang, Pou-Leng Cheong

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Blind oro-/naso-pharyngeal suction and feeding tube placement are very common practices in neonatal intensive care unit. Though esophageal perforation is a rare complication of these instrumentations, its prevalence is highest in extremely premature neonates. Due to its association with significant morbidity (including respiratory deterioration, pneumothorax, and sepsis) and even mortality, it is an important issue to prevent this iatrogenic complication in the field of premature care. We demonstrate an esophageal perforation in an extreme-low-birth-weight neonate after oro-gastric tube placement. This female baby weighing 680 grams was delivered by caesarean section at 25 weeks of gestational age. She initially received oro-tracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation which was smoothly weaned to non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation at 7-day-old. However, after insertion of a 5-French oro-gastric tube, the baby’s condition suddenly worsened with apnea requiring mechanical ventilation. Her chest radiogram showed the oro-gastric tube in right pleural space, and thus another oro-gastric tube was replaced, and its position was radiographically confirmed. The malpositioned tube was then removed. The baby received 2-week course of intravenous antibiotics for her esophageal perforation. Feeding was then reintroduced and increased to full feeds in a smooth course. She was discharged at 107-day-old. Esophageal perforation in newborn is very rare. Sudden respiratory deterioration in a neonate after naso-/oro-gastric tube placement should alarm us to consider esophageal perforation, and further radiological investigation is required for the diagnosis. Tube materials, patient condition, and age are major risk factors of esophageal perforation. The use of softer tube material, such as silicone, in extreme premature baby might prevent this fetal complication.

Keywords: esophageal perforation, preterm, newborn, feeding tube

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150 Safety and Efficacy of Laparoscopic D2 Gastrectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancers Single Unit Experience

Authors: S. M. P Manjula, Ishara Amarathunga, Aryan Nath Koura, Jaideepraj Rao

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Background: Laparoscopic D2 Gastrectomy for non metastatic advanced Gastric cancer (AGC) has become a controversial topic as there are confronting ideas from experts in the field. Lack of consensus are mainly due to non feasibility of the dissection and safety and efficacy. Method: Data from all D2 Gastrectomies performed (both Subtotal and Total Gastrectomies) in our unit from 2009 December to 2013 December were retrospectively analysed. Computor database was prospectively maintained. Pathological stage two A (iiA) and above considered advanced Gastric cancers, who underwent curative intent D2 Gastrectomy were included for analysis(n=46). Four patients excluded from the study as peritoneal fluid cytology came positive for cancer cells and one patient exempted as microscopic resection margin positive(R1) after curative resection. Thirty day morbidity and mortality, operative time, lymph nodes harvest and survival (disease free and overall) analyzed. Results: Complete curative resection achieved in 40 patients. Mean age of the study population was 62.2 (32-88) and male to female ratio was 23: 17. Thirty day mortality (1/40) and morbidity (6/40). Average operative time 203.7 minutes (185- 400) and average lymphnodes harvest was 40.5 (18-91). Disease free survival of the AGC in this study population was 16.75 months (1-49). Average hospital stay was 6.8 days (3-31). Conclusion: Laparoscopic dissection is effective feasible and safe in AGC.

Keywords: laparoscopy, advanced gastric cancer, safety, efficacy

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149 Implication of Oxidative Stress and Intracellular Mediators in the Protective Effect of Artemisia campestris against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rat Model

Authors: Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Haifa Tounsi, Lamjed Marzouki

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Artemisia campestris has been widely used in Tunisian traditional medicine for its health beneficial effects. However, the present study aims at evaluating the antiulcer effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well as the mechanism of action involved in such gastroprotection. In this respect, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, aspirin (ASPR), ASPR + various doses of ACAE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), ASPR+ famotidine and ASPR+ caffeic acid. Animals were pre-treated with ACAE extract during 10 days. We firstly showed that aspirin administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level, a decrease of sulfhydryl -(SH) groups content and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Pre-treatment with ACAE protected against aspirin-induced gastric oxidative stress. More importantly, aspirin administration increased plasma and tissue hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), free iron and calcium levels while the ACAE pre-treatment reversed all aspirin-induced intracellular mediators disturbance. The results of the present study clearly indicated that AEAC gastroprotection might be related, at least in part, to its antioxidant properties as well as to various gastric mucosal defense mechanisms, including the protection of gastric sulfhydryls and an opposite effect on some intracellular mediators such as free iron, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium. However, our data confirm the use of Artemisia campestris extracts in the Tunisian traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Artemisia campestris, oxidative stress, sulfhydryl groups, Fenton reaction, rat

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148 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere

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The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

Procedia PDF Downloads 378