Search results for: one-anastomosis gastric bypass
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 255

Search results for: one-anastomosis gastric bypass

255 Totally Robotic Gastric Bypass Using Modified Lonroth Technique

Authors: Arun Prasad

Abstract:

Background: Robotic Bariatric Surgery is a good option for the super obese where laparoscopy demands challenging technical skills. Gastric bypass can be difficult due to inability of the robot to work in two quadrants at the same time. Lonroth technique of gastric bypass involves a totally supracolic surgery where all anastomosis are done in one quadrant only. Methods: We have done 78 robotic gastric bypass surgeries using the modified Lonroth technique. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Gastric pouch is made first followed by the gastrojejunostomy that is a four layered sutured anastomosis. Jejuno jejunostomy is then performed followed by a leak test and then the jejunum is divided. A 150 cm biliopancreatic limb and a 75 cm alimentary limb are finally obtained. Mesenteric and Petersen’s defects are then closed. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken in the first 5 cases was 130 minutes. This reduced to a mean of 95 minutes in the last five cases. There were no intraoperative or post operative complications. Conclusions: While a hybrid technique of partly laparoscopic and partly robotic gastric bypass has been done at many centres, we feel using the modified Lonroth technique, a totally robotic gastric bypass surgery fully utilizes the potential of robotic bariatric surgery.

Keywords: robot, bariatric, totally robotic, gastric bypass

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254 Robotic Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery

Authors: Arun Prasad, Abhishek Tiwari, Rekha Jaiswal, Vivek Chaudhary

Abstract:

Background: Robotic Roux en Y gastric bypass is being done for some time but is technically difficult, requiring operating in both the sub diaphragmatic and infracolic compartments of the abdomen. This can mean a dual docking of the robot or a hybrid partial laparoscopic and partial robotic surgery. The Mini /One anastomosis /omega loop gastric bypass (MGB) has the advantage of having all dissection and anastomosis in the supracolic compartment and is therefore suitable technically for robotic surgery. Methods: We have done 208 robotic mini gastric bypass surgeries. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Distal stomach is stapled from the lesser curve followed by a vertical sleeve upwards leading to a long sleeve pouch. Jejunum is taken at 200 cm from the duodenojejunal junction and brought up to do a side to side gastrojejunostomy. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken was 85 minutes. There were major intraoperative or post operative complications. No patient needed conversion or re-explorative surgery. Mean excess weight loss over a period of 2 year was about 75%. There was no mortality. Patient satisfaction score was high and was attributed to the good weight loss and minimal dietary modifications that were needed after the procedure. Long term side effects were anemia and bile reflux in a small number of patients. Conclusions: MGB / OAGB is gaining worldwide interest as a short simple procedure that has been shown to very effective and safe bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of robotic surgery for this procedure. This is the first report of totally robotic mini gastric bypass.

Keywords: MGB, mini gastric bypass, OAGB, robotic bariatric surgery

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253 One-Stage Conversion of Adjustable Gastric Band to One-Anastomosis Gastric Bypass Versus Sleeve Gastrectomy : A Single-Center Experience With a Short and Mid-term Follow-up

Authors: Basma Hussein Abdelaziz Hassan, Kareem Kamel, Philobater Bahgat Adly Awad, Karim Fahmy

Abstract:

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band was one of the most applied and common bariatric procedures in the last 8 years. However; the failure rate was very high, reaching approximately 60% of the patients not achieving the desired weight loss. Most patients sought another revisional surgery. In which, we compared two of the most common weight loss surgeries performed nowadays: the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic one- anastomosis gastric bypass. Objective: To compare the weight loss and postoperative outcomes among patients undergoing conversion laparoscopic one-anastomosis gastric bypass (cOAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (cSG) after a failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). Patients and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2020 to June 2022 at a single medical center, which included 77 patients undergoing single-stage conversion to (cOAGB) vs (cSG). Patients were reassessed for weight loss, comorbidities remission, and post-operative complications at 6, 12, and 18 months. Results: There were 77 patients with failed LAGB in our study. Group (I) was 43 patients who underwent cOAGB and Group (II) was 34 patients who underwent cSG. The mean age of the cOAGB group was 38.58. While in the cSG group, the mean age was 39.47 (p=0.389). Of the 77 patients, 10 (12.99%) were males and 67 (87.01%) were females. Regarding Body mass index (BMI), in the cOAGB group the mean BMI was 41.06 and in the cSG group the mean BMI was 40.5 (p=0.042). The two groups were compared postoperative in relation to EBWL%, BMI, and the co-morbidities remission within 18 months follow-up. The BMI was calculated post-operative at three visits. After 6 months of follow-up, the mean BMI in the cOAGB group was 34.34, and the cSG group was 35.47 (p=0.229). In 12-month follow-up, the mean BMI in the cOAGB group was 32.69 and the cSG group was 33.79 (p=0.2). Finally, the mean BMI after 18 months of follow-up in the cOAGB group was 30.02, and in the cSG group was 31.79 (p=0.001). Both groups had no statistically significant values at 6 and 12 months follow-up with p-values of 0.229, and 0.2 respectively. However, patients who underwent cOAGB after 18 months of follow-up achieved lower BMI than those who underwent cSG with a statistically significant p-value of 0.005. Regarding EBWL% there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. After 6 months of follow-up, the mean EBWL% in the cOAGB group was 35.9% and the cSG group was 33.14%. In the 12-month follow-up, the EBWL % mean in the cOAGB group was 52.35 and the cSG group was 48.76 (p=0.045). Finally, the mean EBWL % after 18 months of follow-up in the cOAGB group was 62.06 ±8.68 and in the cSG group was 55.58 ±10.87 (p=0.005). Regarding comorbidities remission; Diabetes mellitus remission was found in 22 (88%) patients in the cOAGB group and 10 (71.4%) patients in the cSG group with (p= 0.225). Hypertension remission was found in 20 (80%) patients in the cOAGB group and 14 (82.4%) patients in the cSG group with (p=1). In addition, dyslipidemia remission was found in 27(87%) patients in cOAGB group and 17(70%) patients in the cSG group with (p=0.18). Finally, GERD remission was found in about 15 (88.2%) patients in the cOAGB group and 6 (60%) patients in the cSG group with (p=0.47). There are no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the post-operative data outcomes. Conclusion: This study suggests that the conversion of LAGB to either cOAGB or cSG could be feasibly performed in a single-stage operation. cOAGB had a significant difference as regards the weight loss results than cSG among the mid-term follow-up. However, there is no significant difference in the postoperative complications and the resolution of the co-morbidities. Therefore, cOAGB could provide a reliable alternative but needs to be substantiated in future long-term studies.

Keywords: laparoscopic, gastric banding, one-anastomosis gastric bypass, Sleeve gastrectomy, revisional surgery, weight loss

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252 The Role of Gastric Decompression on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Orthognathic Surgery

Authors: Minna Salim, James Brady

Abstract:

Postoperative nausea and pain (PONV) are adverse effects following surgical procedures. It is especially pronounced in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery, as their mouth is closed postoperatively using wires or rubber bands. Postoperative mouth closure increases the discomfort and risk of complications associated with nausea and vomiting. Many surgeons and institutions apply gastric decompression in hopes of aspirating stomach contents and, therefore, decreasing PONV incidence. This review observed that PONV incidence was not affected by gastric decompression overall. However, the effect of gastric decompression on PONV in orthognathic surgery was variable. This paper aims to summarize the findings of gastric decompression on PONV and to determine the need for it in orthognathic surgery.

Keywords: gastric decompression, nasogastric tube, orthognathic surgery, postoperative nausea, vomiting

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251 Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass

Authors: Young S. Bang, Dong H. Yoon, Seung H. Yoo

Abstract:

Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.

Keywords: CFD analysis, ECC bypass, hydraulic form loss coefficient, system thermal-hydraulic code

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250 Antigastritic Effect of Starch from Manihot utilissima on Male Wistar Rats Induced Aspirin

Authors: Naela Nabiela, Ahmad Hilmi Fahmi, M. Sukron, Ayu Elita Sari, Yusran, Suparmi

Abstract:

Aspirin is one of NSAIDs (non-steroid inflammatory drugs), can cause gastric ulcer as an side effect of prolonged consumption. The effort to prevent the increase of gastric HCl level can by treating with amylopectin was reported that can cover the gastric mucose. However, the effect of amylopectin in starch from Manihot utilissima which is believed as traditional treatment gastric ulcer have not been clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of starch formed as syrup to HCl level and gastric histopatology. This experiment post test only control group design used 42 male wistar rats divided into 7 groups. All groups, except first group, were induced by 60 mg/100gBW/day aspirin for 3 days. The following day for 2 days each group was treated by starch syrup at dosed 0.45% w/v, 0.9% w/v, 1.8% w/v, 0% w/v, and sucralfate. Respectively, HCl level were measured by acidi-alkalimetri titration method, while the gastric histopathology were prepared by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The result shows that aspirin induction can increase the HCl level as 0,00767 N. Starch syrup at dose 1.8% w/v was effective to reduce HCl level and the grade of second gastric necrosis. It can be conclude that starch syrup is potention as a treatment to cure gastric ulcer caused by NSAIDs side effect.

Keywords: concentration of HCl stomach, gastric histopathology, gastritis, starch

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249 Immunoliposomes for Co-Delivery of Doxorubicin and Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Sirna Inhibit of Gastric Cancer Growth

Authors: Jie Gao

Abstract:

The combination of chemotherapy with gene therapy is highly effective in cancer therapy. To achieve combined therapeutic effects in human gastric cancer over expressing EGFR, we developed targeted LPD (liposome-polycation-DNA complex) conjugated with anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) Fab’ for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) siRNA (DOX-RRM2-TLPD). The results showed that EGFR was over expressed in several gastric cancer cell lines and gastric cancer tissues. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) results showed that RRM2 expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer than in non-gastric cancer tissue, and RRM2 siRNA inhibited the proliferation of several gastric cancer cells, indicating that RRM2 is a candidate target for gastric cancer therapy. Confocal studies and flow cytometry showed that DOX-RRM2-TLPD delivered DOX and RRM2 siRNA to EGFR over expressing gastric cancer cells specifically and efficiently both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced therapeutic effects (cytotoxicity and apoptosis) compared with single-drug loaded or non-targeted controls, including DOX-NC-TLPD (targeted LPD co-delivering DOX and negative control siRNA), RRM2-TLPD (targeted LPD delivering RRM2 siRNA) and DOX-RRM2-NTLPD (non-targeted LPD co-delivering DOX and RRM2 siRNA). The in vivo antitumor assay showed that the average weight of the gastric cancer in mice treated with DOX-RRM2-TLPD was significantly lighter than that of mice treated with other controls. DOX-RRM2-TLPD represents an effective approach for combined therapy of gastric cancer over expressing EGFR.

Keywords: gene therapy, chemotherapy, immunoliposomes, gastric cancer

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248 Evaluation of the Role of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNA H19 as a Promising Biomarker in Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elbanna, Abeer Ibrahim, Gihan Khedr

Abstract:

Background: H19 is one of the long non coding RNAs (LncRNA) that is related to the progression of many diseases including cancers. This work was carried out to study the level of the long non-coding RNA; H119, in plasma of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to assess its significance in their clinical management. Methods: A total of sixty-two participants were enrolled in the present study. The first group included thirty-two GC patients, while the second group was formed of thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers serving as a control group. Plasma samples were used to assess H19 gene expression using real time quantitative PCR technique. Results: H19 expression was up-regulated in GC patients with positive correlation to TNM cancer stages. Conclusions: Up-regulation of H19 is closely associated with gastric cancer and correlates well with tumor staging. Convenient, efficient quantification of H19 in plasma using real time PCR technique implements its role as a potential noninvasive prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer, that predicts patient’s outcome and most importantly as a novel target in gastric cancer treatment with better performance achieved on using both CEA and H19 simultaneously.

Keywords: biomarker, gastric, cancer, LncRNA

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247 Anti-Ulcer Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn Bark in Experimental Rats

Authors: Jagdish Baheti, Sampat Navale

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats and pylorus ligation gastric secretion in rats. Five groups of adult wistar rats were orally pre-treated respectively with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solution (ulcer control group), Omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group), and 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract in CMC solution (experimental groups), one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. Rats were sacrificed and the ulcer index, gastric volume, gastric pH, free acidity, total acidity of the gastric content was determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosal injury in both model. Histological studies revealed that ulcer control group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract which showed gastric mucosal protection, reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The present finding suggests that F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and histologically compared to the ulcer control group.

Keywords: Ficus bengalensis Linn., gastric ulcer, hydroalcoholic, pylorus ligation

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246 Shark Cartilage Modulate IL-23/IL-17 Axis by Increasing IFN-γ and Decreasing IL-4 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zareia, Hassan ZMB, Darush Moslemic, Amrollah Mostafa-Zaded

Abstract:

Introduction: Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, at least, in vitro. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the immune-effectiveness on imbalance between IL-23/IL-17 axis, as an inflammatory pathway and TGF/Foxp3 T regulatory as a inhibitory pathway of commercial shark cartilage that is available as a non-common dietary supplement in IRAN. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-4, and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: The simultaneously presented up-regulation IL-17A indicated, at least cytokine level without changing in TGF-β amount or CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T regulatory cells, that there are not a direct correlation between IL-23/IL-17 axis and Treg/TGF-β pathway in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage, but IL-23 was not expressed differentially in this group. So, accompany these changes, an imbalance between Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) evaluated in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we propose that shark cartilage, by reducing IL-4, decreasing IL-17 a central cytokine in angiogenesis and increasing γ-IFN amplify anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4+CD25+Foxp3high T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage, gastric cancer

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245 Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Vijay R. Patil, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, K. R. Mahadik

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Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.

Keywords: andrographolide, Andrographis paniculata, in vitro, stability, gastric, Intestinal HPLC-PDA

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244 Post-Discharge Oral Nutritional Supplements Following Gastric Cancer Surgery: A systematic Review

Authors: Mohammad Mohammadi, Mohammad Pashmchi

Abstract:

Background: Malnutrition commonly develops and worsens following gastric cancer surgery, particularly after discharge, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Former studies have primarily focused on patients during their hospital stay period, and there is limited evidence regarding the recommendation of nutritional interventions for patients after discharge from the hospital following gastric cancer surgery. This review is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of post-discharge dietary counseling with oral nutritional supplements (ONS), and dietary counseling alone on post-surgical nutritional outcomes in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. Methods: The four databases of Embase, PubMed, web of science, and google scholar were searched up to November 2022 for relevant randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Collaboration’s assessment tool for randomized trials was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Results: Compared to patients who only received dietary counseling, patients who received both dietary counseling and ONS had considerably higher SMI, BMI, and less weight loss and sarcopenia occurrence rate. The patients who had received dietary counseling and ONS had significantly lower risk of chemotherapy intolerance. No differences in the readmission rate between the two groups was found. In terms of the quality of life, concomitant dietary advice and ONS significantly was associated with lower appetite loss and fatigue rate, but there was no difference in the other outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Post-discharge dietary advice with ONS following gastric cancer surgery may improve skeletal muscle maintenance, nutritional outcomes, quality of life variables, and chemotherapy tolerance. This evidence supports the recommendation of post-discharge dietary advice with ONS for patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery.

Keywords: gastric cancer surgery, oral nutritional supplements, malnutrition, gastric cancer

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243 Down-Regulated Gene Expression of GKN1 and GKN2 as Diagnostic Markers for Gastric Cancer

Authors: Amer A. Hasan, Mehri Igci, Ersin Borazan, Rozhgar A. Khailany, Emine Bayraktar, Ahmet Arslan

Abstract:

Gastric cancer (GC) has high morbidity and fatality rate in various countries and is still one of the most frequent and deadly diseases. Novel mitogenic and motogenic Gastrokine1 (GKN1) and Gastrokine 2 (GKN2) genes that are highly expressed in the normal stomach epithelium and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of stomach mucosal epithelial cells. Significant loss of copy number and mRNA transcript of GKN1 and GKN2 gene expression were frequently observed in all types of gastric cancer. In this study, 47 paired samples that were grouped according to the types of gastric cancer and the clinical characteristics of the patients, including gender and average of age were investigated with gene expression analysis and mutation screening by monetering RT-PCR, SSCP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Both GKN1 and GKN2 genes were observed significantly reduced found by (Wilcoxon signed rank test; p<0.05). As a result of gene screening, no mutation (no different genotype) was detected. It is considered that gene mutations are not the cause of inactivation of gastrokines. In conclusion, the mRNA expression level of GKN1 and GKN2 genes statistically was decreased regardless the gender, age or cancer type of patients. Reduced of gastrokine genes seems to occur at the initial steps of cancer development. In order to understand the investigation between gastric cancer and diagnostic biomarker; further analysis is necessary.

Keywords: gastric cancer, diagnostic biomarker, nucleotide sequencing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR

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242 M-Number of Aortic Cannulas Applied During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim

Abstract:

A standardized system to describe the pressure-flow characteristics of a given cannula has recently been proposed and has been termed ‘the M-number’. Using three different sizes of aortic cannulas in 50 pediatric cardiac patients on hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, we analyzed the correlation between experimentally and clinically derived M-numbers, and found this was positive. Clinical M-numbers were typically 0.35 to 0.55 greater than experimental M-numbers, and correlated inversely with a patient's temperature change; this was most probably due to increased blood viscosity, arising from hypothermia. This inverse relationship was more marked in higher M-number cannulas. The clinical data obtained in this study suggest that experimentally derived M-numbers correlate strongly with clinical performance of the cannula, and that the influence of temperature is significant.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass, M-number, aortic cannula, pressure-flow characteristics

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241 Numerical Studies on Bypass Thrust Augmentation Using Convective Heat Transfer in Turbofan Engine

Authors: R. Adwaith, J. Gopinath, Vasantha Kohila B., R. Chandru, Arul Prakash R.

Abstract:

The turbofan engine is a type of air breathing engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion produces thrust mainly from the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core. The present research has developed an effective method numerically by increasing the thrust generated from the bypass air. This thrust increase is brought about by heating the walls of the bypass valve from the combustion chamber using convective heat transfer method. It is achieved computationally by the use external heat to enhance the velocity of bypass air of turbofan engines. The bypass valves are either heated externally using multicell tube resistor which convert electricity generated by dynamos into heat or heat is transferred from the combustion chamber. This increases the temperature of the flow in the valves and thereby increase the velocity of the flow that enters the nozzle of the engine. As a result, mass-flow of air passing the core engine for producing more thrust can be significantly reduced thereby saving considerable amount of Jet fuel. Numerical analysis has been carried out on a scaled down version of a typical turbofan bypass valve, where the valve wall temperature has been increased to 700 Kelvin. It is observed from the analysis that, the exit velocity contributing to thrust has significantly increased by 10 % due to the heating of by-pass valve. The degree of optimum increase in the temperature, and the corresponding effect in the increase of jet velocity is calculated to determine the operating temperature range for efficient increase in velocity. The technique used in the research increases the thrust by using heated by-pass air without extracting much work from the fuel and thus improve the efficiency of existing turbofan engines. Dimensional analysis has been carried to prove the accuracy of the results obtained numerically.

Keywords: turbofan engine, bypass valve, multi-cell tube, convective heat transfer, thrust

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240 Mechanisms of Atiulcerogenic Activity of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Somayeh Fani, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

Costus speciosus is an important Malaysian medicinal plant commonly used traditionally in the treatment of many aliments. The present investigation is designed to elucidate preventive effects of ethanolic extracts of C. speciosus rhizome against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Five groups of rats were orally pre-treated with vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal control group (Group 1), ethanol as ulcer control group (Group 2), omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) (Group 3), and 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. speciosus extract (experimental groups) (Group 4 and 5), respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to Group 1 rats and absolute ethanol was given orally to Group 2-5 rats to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed. Grossly, ulcer control group exhibited severe of gastric mucosal hemorrhagic injury and increased in ulcer area, whereas groups pre-treated with omeprazole or plant’s rhizomes exhibited the significant reduction of gastric mucosal injury. Significant increase in the pH and mucous of gastric content was observed in rats re-treated with C. speciosus rhizome. Histology, ulcer control rats, demonstrated remarkable disruption of gastric mucosa, increased in edema and inflammatory cells infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with rhizomes extract. Periodic acid Schiff staining for glycoprotein, rats pre-fed with C. speciosus C. displayed remarkably intense uptake of magenta color by glandular gastric mucosa compared with ulcer control rats. Immunostaining of gastric epithelium, rats pre-treatment with rhizome extract provide evidence of up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control animals. Gastric tissue homogenate, C. speciosus significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), increased the level of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation after ethanol administration. Acute toxicity test did not show any signs of toxicity. The mechanisms implicated the gasrtoprotective property of C. speciosus depend upon the antisecretory activity, increased in gastric mucus glycoprotein, up-regulation of HSP70 protein and down-regulation of Bax proteins, reduction in the lipid peroxidation and increase in the level of NP-SH and antioxidant enzymes activity in gastic homogenate.

Keywords: antioxidant, Costus speciosus, gastric ulcer, histology, omeprazole

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239 Predicting the Quality of Life on the Basis of Perceived Social Support among Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Azadeh Yaraghchi, Reza Bagherian Sararoodi, Niknaz Salehi Moghadam, Mohammad Hossein Mandegar, Adis Kraskian Mujembari, Omid Rezaei

Abstract:

Background: Quality of life is one of the most important consequences of disease in psychosomatic disorders. Many psychological factors are considered in predicting quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The present study was aimed to determine the relationship between perceived social support and quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: The population included 82 patients who had undergone CABG from October 2014 to May 2015 in four different hospitals in Tehran. The patients were evaluated with Multi-dimension scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and after three months follow up were evaluated by Short-Form quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). The obtained data were analyzed through Pearson correlation test and multiple variable regression models. Findings: A relationship between perceived social support and quality of life in patients with CABG was observed (r=0.374, p<0.01). The results showed that 22.4% of variation in quality of life is predicted by perceived social support components (p<0.01, R2 =0.224). Conclusion: Based on the results, perceived social support is one of the predictors of quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft. Accordingly, these results can be useful in conceiving proactive policies, detecting high risk patients and planning for psychological interventions.

Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft, perceived social support, psychological factors, quality of life

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238 Effect of Colloid Versus Crystalloid Administration in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Prime Solution on Tissue and Organ Perfusionm

Authors: Mohammad Java Esmaeily

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Background: We evaluate the effects of tissue and organ perfusion during and after coronary artery bypass graft surgery with either colloid (Voluven) or crystalloid (Lactated ringers) as a prime solution. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized-controlled trial study, 70 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned to receive either colloid (Voluven) or crystalloid (Lactated ringer's) as a prime solution for initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass machine procedure. Tissue and organ perfusion markers, including lactate, troponin I, liver and renal function tests and electrolytes, were measured sequentially before induction (T1) to the second days after surgery (T5). Results: With the exception of chloride and potassium levels, no significant differences were detected in other measurements, and laboratory results were identical entirely in the two groups. Conclusion: Voluven® (hydroxyethyl starch, HES 130/0.4) has a not significant difference in comparison with crystalloid (Lactated ringer's) as priming solution on the basis of organ and tissue perfusion tests assessment.

Keywords: prime, colloid, crystalloid, lactate, troponin, hydroxyethyl starch

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237 Early Gastric Cancer Prediction from Diet and Epidemiological Data Using Machine Learning in Mizoram Population

Authors: Brindha Senthil Kumar, Payel Chakraborty, Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu, Arindam Maitra, Prem Nath

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Gastric cancer is predominantly caused by demographic and diet factors as compared to other cancer types. The aim of the study is to predict Early Gastric Cancer (ECG) from diet and lifestyle factors using supervised machine learning algorithms. For this study, 160 healthy individual and 80 cases were selected who had been followed for 3 years (2016-2019), at Civil Hospital, Aizawl, Mizoram. A dataset containing 11 features that are core risk factors for the gastric cancer were extracted. Supervised machine algorithms: Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multilayer perceptron, and Random Forest were used to analyze the dataset using Python Jupyter Notebook Version 3. The obtained classified results had been evaluated using metrics parameters: minimum_false_positives, brier_score, accuracy, precision, recall, F1_score, and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. Data analysis results showed Naive Bayes - 88, 0.11; Random Forest - 83, 0.16; SVM - 77, 0.22; Logistic Regression - 75, 0.25 and Multilayer perceptron - 72, 0.27 with respect to accuracy and brier_score in percent. Naive Bayes algorithm out performs with very low false positive rates as well as brier_score and good accuracy. Naive Bayes algorithm classification results in predicting ECG showed very satisfactory results using only diet cum lifestyle factors which will be very helpful for the physicians to educate the patients and public, thereby mortality of gastric cancer can be reduced/avoided with this knowledge mining work.

Keywords: Early Gastric cancer, Machine Learning, Diet, Lifestyle Characteristics

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236 Role of Giardia lamblia Infection in the Pathogenesis of Gastritis in Patients with Dyspepsia

Authors: Aly Kassem, Eman A. Sabet, Hanaa A. El-Hady, Doha S. Mohamed, Abeer Sheneef, Mona Fattouh, Mamdouh M. Esmat

Abstract:

Objective: Giardia lamblia parasite is the most common protozoal infection in human. Concomitant Helecobacter Pylori (H. pylori) and Giardia lamblia infection is common for their similar mode of transmission and strong correlation to socioeconomic levels. Only few reports had described gastric giardiasis. Our aim was to detect H. pylori and Giardia in gastric antral mucosal biopsies from patients with dyspepsia. The impact of both pathogens on clinical, endoscopic and histopathogical changes was studied. Methods: 48 patients with dyspepsia (group1) and 28 control patients (patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD for reasons other than dyspepsia), (group 2) were studied. Endoscopic data were reported and gastric biopsy specimens were obtained for subsequent PCR assay for both organisms and for histopathological and electron microscopic examination. Results: Endoscopic antral gastritis and duodenal lesions were found in both groups, however, they were significantly more frequently in group 1 (p= 0.002 and P= 0.0005 respectively). Esophageal lesions, nodular antral gastritis, gastric ulcers and superficial corpal gastritis were found only in group 1. PCR detected H. pylori infection in 58% Vs 64 % for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P: NS). Giardia infection was present in 67 % Vs 42 % for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P=0.0003, Odd ratio=2.6). Co-infection with H. pylori and Giardia was present in 33% of group 1 Vs 36% for group 2 (P:NS). Abnormal histologic findings were found in both groups, however, intestinal metaplasia was found in group 1 only. Cellular abnormalities in the form of cytoplasmic vacuoles, mitochondrial destruction or nuclear abnormalities were found by Electron microscopic study in infected subjects of both groups. Conclusion: H. pylori is not the only gastric pathogen in our community, gastric giardiasis is another pathogen. Its contribution might be a factor in persistent dyspepsia after H. pylori eradication.

Keywords: dyspepsia, gastritis, Giardia lamblia, H. pylori

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235 In vivo Activity of Pathogenic Bacteria on Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Padam Kant, Ch. V. Rao

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Gastric ulcer is a major global health threat, and it is the leading cause of stomach cancer death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori bacteriumis the most important etiologic factor for gastric ulcer. This infection is highly pervasive in South Asian developing countries, especially in India, Nepal, Srilanka etc. due to diversification in geographic area. Pathophysiology of gastric mucosal damage associated with non-invasive bacterium has not justified in detail, but it leads to change in histopathology, immunochemistry of the gastric and duodenal reason of host. The mechanism responsible for bacteria tissue tropism and mucosal damage in stomach variance during the disease is not clearly described and understood scientifically in treatment and control of pathogenic organisms. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against aggression by pathogens. 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one and 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde are polyphenolic compound obtained from popular Indian medicinal plants ghavpatta (ArgeriaspeciosaLinn.f) andBael (Aeglemarmelos) have long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. They have promising effects on ulcer, as detailed investigation has made in our laboratory. Therefore, the aim of present study is to explore membrane –dependent morphogenesis of H. pylori and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death. Based on this we analyzed immune gene expression in stomach of experimental animals with H. pylori, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(q RT-PCR). This revealed rapid induction of prostaglandin, interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated genes in the infected animal. Ultrastructural changes associated with H. pylori will be taken for advanced studies. This investigation shows that the biomarkers eradicate H. pylori bacterium caused gastric ulcer which is a major risk factor for gastric cancer.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, immunochemistry, polyphenols

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234 Epidemiological-Anatomopathological-Immunohistochemical Profile of Gastric Cancer throughout Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, R. L. Bouchouka, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi

Abstract:

The stomach cancer or gastric cancer is an aggressive cancer with a significant geographic disparity. The decrease in frequency is attributed to refrigeration, which has several beneficial consequences, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of salt, which was widely used as a food preservative, and less contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds. The infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa usually evolving into stomach cancer in 80% of cases. Methodology: This epidemiological and analytical study concerns 65 patients (46 men and 19 women) with gastric adenocarcinomas with an average age of 56.5 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.4. Results and Discussion: In this series, the clinical symptoms are dominated by epigastralgia (72.31%), vomiting (27,69%), and slimming (24,62%). The FOGD (Oeso-Gastro Duodenal Fibroscopy) performed in the 65 patients revealed a predominance of the antro-pyloric localization in 19 cases (i.e., 29.23%) and anulcerative budding appearance in 33 subjects (50,77%). Histologically, the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is found in 30.77% of patients, followed by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with 26.15% of patients. The immunohistochemical study revealed a positive labeling of half of the T cells by anti-CD3 AC, and a positive labeling of anti-CD20 AC in a diffuse and intense manner, with the presence of CD20-positive lymphoepithelial lesions compatible with CD20 a low grade MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: This framework of analysis revealed some risk factors for gastric cancer, such as food, hygiene, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and family history.

Keywords: cancer, Helicobacter pylori, immunohistochemistry, stomach

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233 Effect of Psychological Stress to the Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil Edwin Nurdin

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Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Most patients with FD complain of symptoms related to the intake of meals. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and had an effect on ulcers associated Hp, and may also trigger worsen symptoms in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal. Cells in mucosal gastric stimulate the production of several cytokines, which might associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The cascade of biological events leading to stress-induced FD remains poorly understood. Aim of Study: To determine the prion-flammatory cytokine IL-6, and Helicobacter pylori activity on mucosal gastric of FD and their association with psychological stress. Methods: The subjects of this study were dyspeptic patients who visited M. Djamil General Hospital and in two Community Health Centers in Padang. On the basis of the stress index scale to identify psychological stress by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 42), subjects were divided into two groups of 20 each, stress groups and non-stress groups. All diagnoses were confirmed by review of cortisol and esophagogastroduodenoscopy reports. Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were taken during diagnostic procedures. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosal. The data were statistically analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. All procedures of this study were approved by Research Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty Andalas University. Results: In this study, we enrolled 40 FD patients (26 woman and 14 men) in range between 35-56 years old. Cortisol level of blood FD patients as parameter of stress hormone which taken in the morning was significantly higher in stress group than non-stress group. The expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa was significantly higher in stress group in compared to non-stress group (p<0,05). Helicobacter pylori activity in gastric mucosal in stress group were significantly higher than non-stress group. Conclusion: The present study showed that psychological stress can induce gastric mucosal inflammation and increase of Helicobacter pylori activity.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, interleukin-6, psychological stress

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232 Roller Pump-Induced Tubing Rupture during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: W. G. Kim, C. H. Jo

Abstract:

We analyzed the effects of variations in the diameter of silicone rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings on the likelihood of tubing rupture during modeling of accidental arterial line clamping in cardiopulmonary bypass with a roller pump. A closed CPB circuit constructed with a roller pump was tested with both PVC and silicone rubber tubings of 1/2, 3/8, and 1/4 inch internal diameter. Arterial line pressure was monitored, and an occlusive clamp was placed across the tubing distal to the pressure monitor site to model an accidental arterial line occlusion. A CCD camera with 512(H) x 492(V) pixels was installed above the roller pump to measure tubing diameters at pump outlet, where the maximum deformations (distension) of the tubings occurred. Quantitative measurement of the changes of tubing diameters with the change of arterial line pressure was performed using computerized image processing techniques. A visible change of tubing diameter was generally noticeable by around 250 psi of arterial line pressure, which was already very high. By 1500 psi, the PVC tubings showed an increase of diameter of between 5-10 %, while the silicone rubber tubings showed an increase between 20-25 %. Silicone rubber tubings of all sizes showed greater distensibility than PVC tubings of equivalent size. In conclusion, although roller-pump induced tubing rupture remains a theoretical problem during cardiopulmonary bypass in terms of the inherent mechanism of the pump, in reality such an occurrence is impossible in real clinical conditions.

Keywords: roller pump, tubing rupture, cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial line

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231 Case Report and Discussion of Natural History of Bouveret Syndrome

Authors: Parul Garg

Abstract:

Bouveret Syndrome is a rare presentation described as Gastric Outlet Obstruction secondary to Gallstone Ileus. Here we describe the 3-year progression of disease from cholelithiasis to gallstone ileus with relevant imaging findings. The patient was treated under an Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery service with surgical intervention in the form of a laparoscopic assisted procedure with midline laparotomy. She recovered well and was discharged 1 week post operatively. No complications occurred.

Keywords: Cholelithiasis, Bouveret syndrome, Gallstone Ileus, gastric outlet obstruction

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230 Enhancing Single Channel Minimum Quantity Lubrication through Bypass Controlled Design for Deep Hole Drilling with Small Diameter Tool

Authors: Yongrong Li, Ralf Domroes

Abstract:

Due to significant energy savings, enablement of higher machining speed as well as environmentally friendly features, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) has been used for many machining processes efficiently. However, in the deep hole drilling field (small tool diameter D < 5 mm) and long tool (length L > 25xD) it is always a bottle neck for a single channel MQL system. The single channel MQL, based on the Venturi principle, faces a lack of enough oil quantity caused by dropped pressure difference during the deep hole drilling process. In this paper, a system concept based on a bypass design has explored its possibility to dynamically reach the required pressure difference between the air inlet and the inside of aerosol generator, so that the deep hole drilling demanded volume of oil can be generated and delivered to tool tips. The system concept has been investigated in static and dynamic laboratory testing. In the static test, the oil volume with and without bypass control were measured. This shows an oil quantity increasing potential up to 1000%. A spray pattern test has demonstrated the differences of aerosol particle size, aerosol distribution and reaction time between single channel and bypass controlled single channel MQL systems. A dynamic trial machining test of deep hole drilling (drill tool D=4.5mm, L= 40xD) has been carried out with the proposed system on a difficult machining material AlSi7Mg. The tool wear along a 100 meter drilling was tracked and analyzed. The result shows that the single channel MQL with a bypass control can overcome the limitation and enhance deep hole drilling with a small tool. The optimized combination of inlet air pressure and bypass control results in a high quality oil delivery to tool tips with a uniform and continuous aerosol flow.

Keywords: deep hole drilling, green production, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL), near dry machining

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229 Early and Mid-Term Results of Anesthetic Management of Minimal Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using One Lung Ventilation

Authors: Devendra Gupta, S. P. Ambesh, P. K Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG) is a less invasive method of performing surgical revascularization. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) provides many anesthetic challenges including one lung ventilation (OLV), managing myocardial ischemia, and pain. We present an early and midterm result of the use of this technique with OLV. Method: We enrolled 62 patients for analysis operated between 2008 and 2012. Patients were anesthetized and left endobronchial tube was placed. During the procedure left lung was isolated and one lung ventilation was maintained through right lung. Operation was performed utilizing off pump technique of coronary artery bypass grafting through a minimal invasive incision. Left internal mammary artery graft was done for single vessel disease and radial artery was utilized for other grafts if required. Postoperative ventilation was done with single lumen endotracheal tube. Median follow-up is 2.5 years (6 months to 4 years). Results: Median age was 58.5 years (41-77) and all were male. Single vessel disease was present in 36, double vessel in 24 and triple vessel disease in 2 patients. All the patients had normal left ventricular size and function. In 2 cases difficulty were encounter in placement of endobronchial tube. In 1 case cuff of endobronchial tube was ruptured during intubation. High airway pressure was developed on OLV in 1 case and surgery was accomplished with two lung anesthesia with low tidal volume. Mean postoperative ventilation time was 14.4 hour (11-22). There was no perioperative and 30 day mortality. Conversion to median sternotomy to complete the operation was done in 3.23% (2 out of 62 patients). One patient had acute myocardial infarction postoperatively and there were no deaths during follow-up. Conclusion: MICABG is a safe and effective method of revascularization with OLV in low risk candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting.

Keywords: MIDCABG, one lung ventilation, coronary artery bypass grafting, endobronchial tube

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228 IL-23, an Inflammatory Cytokine, Decreased by Shark Cartilage and Vitamin A Oral Treatment in Patient with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zarei, Hassan zm, Abolghasem Ajami, Darush Moslemi, Narges Afsary, Amrollah Mostafa-zade

Abstract:

Introduction: IL-23 is responsible for the differentiation and expansion of Th17/ThIL-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, may be IL-23/IL17 axis involve in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as RA, MS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asthma. TGF-β is also share for the differentiation Th17 producing IL-17 and CD4+CD25+Foxp3hiT regulatory cells from naïve CD4+ T cells which are involved in the regulation of immune response, maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis ,and the control of autoimmunity and cancer surveillance. Therefore, T regulatory cells play a key role in autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, infectious disease, and the induction of transplantation tolerance. Vitamin A and it's derivatives (retinoids) inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some types of cancers in oral cavity,head and neck, breast, skin, liver, and blood cells. Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, in vitro. Our purpose is whether simultaneous oral treatment vitamin A and shark cartilage can modulate IL-23/IL-17 and CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory cell/TGF-β pathways and Th1/Th2 immunity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23,IL-17,TGF-β,IL-4 and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: An imbalance between IL-17 secretion and TGF-β/Foxp3 t regulatory cell pathway and so, Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) was not seen in patients with gastric cancer treated by vitamin A and shark cartilage. But, the simultaneously presented down-regulation of IL-23 indicated, at least cytokine level. Conclusion: Il-23, as a pro-angiogenesis cytokine, probably, help to tumor growth. Hence, suggested that down-regulation of IL-23, at least cytokine level, is useful for anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage and gastric cancer

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227 Antioxydant Properties and Gastroprotective Effect of Rosa canina Aqueous Extract against Alcohol-Induced Ulceration and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

Authors: H. Sebai, M. A. Jabria, D. Wannes, H. Tounsi, L. Marzouki

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We aimed in the present study to investigate the protective effects of Tunisian Rosa canina aqueous extract (RCAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and oxidative stress in a rat model. In this respect, adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH, EtOH plus various doses of RCAE, EtOH plus famotidine and EtOH + gallic acid. Phytochemical and biochemical analysis were performed using colorimetric methods. We found that RCAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins, and exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In vivo, the results showed that oral administration of EtOH caused macroscopic and histological changes in gastric mucosa. These injuries are accompanied by an oxidative stress status as assessed by an increase of lipid peroxidation as well as a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Alcohol intoxication also induced intracellular mediators deregulation as assessed by an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium and free iron levels in gastric mucosa. More, importantly, RCAE pretreatment reversed all macroscopic, histological and biochemical changes induced by EtOH administration. In conclusion, we suggest that RCAE has potent protective effects on acute ethanol-induced gastric ulceration related in part in part its antioxidant properties and its opposite effect on intracellular mediators. Indeed, Rosa canina can be offered as a food additive to protect against alcohol consumption-induced gastric and oxidative damage.

Keywords: alcohol, antioxidant properties, food additive, gastric ulceration, rat model, Rosa canina

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226 Bariatric Surgery Referral as an Alternative to Fundoplication in Obese Patients Presenting with GORD: A Retrospective Hospital-Based Cohort Study

Authors: T. Arkle, D. Pournaras, S. Lam, B. Kumar

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Introduction: Fundoplication is widely recognised as the best surgical option for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in the general population. However, there is controversy surrounding the use of conventional fundoplication in obese patients. Whilst the intra-operative failure of fundoplication, including wrap disruption, is reportedly higher in obese individuals, the more significant issue surrounds symptom recurrence post-surgery. Could a bariatric procedure be considered in obese patients for weight management, to treat the GORD, and to also reduce the risk of recurrence? Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a widely performed bariatric procedure, has been shown to be highly successful both in controlling GORD symptoms and in weight management in obese patients. Furthermore, NICE has published clear guidelines on eligibility for bariatric surgery, with the main criteria being type 3 obesity or type 2 obesity with the presence of significant co-morbidities that would improve with weight loss. This study aims to identify the proportion of patients who undergo conventional fundoplication for GORD and/or hiatus hernia, which would have been eligible for bariatric surgery referral according to NICE guidelines. Methods: All patients who underwent fundoplication procedures for GORD and/or hiatus hernia repair at a single NHS foundation trust over a 10-year period will be identified using the Trust’s health records database. Pre-operative patient records will be used to find BMI and the presence of significant co-morbidities at the time of consideration for surgery. This information will be compared to NICE guidelines to determine potential eligibility for the bariatric surgical referral at the time of initial surgical intervention. Results: A total of 321 patients underwent fundoplication procedures between January 2011 and December 2020; 133 (41.4%) had available data for BMI or to allow BMI to be estimated. Of those 133, 40 patients (30%) had a BMI greater than 30kg/m², and 7 (5.3%) had BMI >35kg/m². One patient (0.75%) had a BMI >40 and would therefore be automatically eligible according to NICE guidelines. 4 further patients had significant co-morbidities, such as hypertension and osteoarthritis, which likely be improved by weight management surgery and therefore also indicated eligibility for referral. Overall, 3.75% (5/133) of patients undergoing conventional fundoplication procedures would have been eligible for bariatric surgical referral, these patients were all female, and the average age was 60.4 years. Conclusions: Based on this Trust’s experience, around 4% of obese patients undergoing fundoplication would have been eligible for bariatric surgical intervention. Based on current evidence, in class 2/3 obese patients, there is likely to have been a notable proportion with recurrent disease, potentially requiring further intervention. These patient’s may have benefitted more through undergoing bariatric surgery, for example a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, addressing both their obesity and GORD. Use of patient written notes to obtain BMI data for the 188 patients with missing BMI data and further analysis to determine outcomes following fundoplication in all patients, assessing for incidence of recurrent disease, will be undertaken to strengthen conclusions.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, GORD, Nissen fundoplication, nice guidelines

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