Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Girts Zageris

6 Mathematical Modelling of Slag Formation in an Entrained-Flow Gasifier

Authors: Girts Zageris, Vadims Geza, Andris Jakovics


Gasification processes are of great interest due to their generation of renewable energy in the form of syngas from biodegradable waste. It is, therefore, important to study the factors that play a role in the efficiency of gasification and the longevity of the machines in which gasification takes place. This study focuses on the latter, aiming to optimize an entrained-flow gasifier by reducing slag formation on its walls to reduce maintenance costs. A CFD mathematical model for an entrained-flow gasifier is constructed – the model of an actual gasifier is rendered in 3D and appropriately meshed. Then, the turbulent gas flow in the gasifier is modeled with the realizable k-ε approach, taking devolatilization, combustion and coal gasification into account. Various such simulations are conducted, obtaining results for different air inlet positions and by tracking particles of varying sizes undergoing devolatilization and gasification. The model identifies potential problematic zones where most particles collide with the gasifier walls, indicating risk regions where ash deposits could most likely form. In conclusion, the effects on the formation of an ash layer of air inlet positioning and particle size allowed in the main gasifier tank are discussed, and possible solutions for decreasing a number of undesirable deposits are proposed. Additionally, an estimate of the impact of different factors such as temperature, gas properties and gas content, and different forces acting on the particles undergoing gasification is given.

Keywords: biomass particles, gasification, slag formation, turbulence k-ε modelling

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5 Numerical Modelling of Surface Waves Generated by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field for Silicon Refinement Process

Authors: V. Geza, J. Vencels, G. Zageris, S. Pavlovs


One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus. Therefore, a new approach could address this problem. We propose an approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which includes coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

Keywords: numerical modelling, silicon refinement, surface waves, VOF method

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4 Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints

Authors: Ivan Balázs, Jindřich Melcher


Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional buckling assessment.

Keywords: beam, buckling, numerical analysis, stability, steel

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3 Best Option for Countercyclical Capital Buffer Implementation: Scenarios for Baltic States

Authors: Ģirts Brasliņš, Ilja Arefjevs, Nadežda Tarakanova


The objective of countercyclical capital buffer is to encourage banks to build up buffers in good times that can be drawn down in bad times. The aim of the report is to assess such decisions by banks derived from three approaches. The approaches are the aggregate credit-to-GDP ratio, credit growth as well as banking sector profits. The approaches are implemented for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania for the time period 2000-2012. The report compares three approaches and analyses their relevance to the Baltic states by testing the correlation between a growth in studied variables and a growth of corresponding gaps. Methods used in the empirical part of the report are econometric analysis as well as economic analysis, development indicators, relative and absolute indicators and other methods. The research outcome is a cross-Baltic comparison of two alternative approaches to establish or release a countercyclical capital buffer by banks and their implications for each Baltic country.

Keywords: basel III, countercyclical capital buffer, banks, credit growth, baltic states

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2 The Effect of Porous Alkali Activated Material Composition on Buffer Capacity in Bioreactors

Authors: Girts Bumanis, Diana Bajare


With demand for primary energy continuously growing, search for renewable and efficient energy sources has been high on agenda of our society. One of the most promising energy sources is biogas technology. Residues coming from dairy industry and milk processing could be used in biogas production; however, low efficiency and high cost impede wide application of such technology. One of the main problems is management and conversion of organic residues through the anaerobic digestion process which is characterized by acidic environment due to the low whey pH (<6) whereas additional pH control system is required. Low buffering capacity of whey is responsible for the rapid acidification in biological treatments; therefore alkali activated material is a promising solution of this problem. Alkali activated material is formed using SiO2 and Al2O3 rich materials under highly alkaline solution. After material structure forming process is completed, free alkalis remain in the structure of materials which are available for leaching and could provide buffer capacity potential. In this research porous alkali activated material was investigated. Highly porous material structure ensures gradual leaching of alkalis during time which is important in biogas digestion process. Research of mixture composition and SiO2/Na2O and SiO2/Al2O ratio was studied to test the buffer capacity potential of alkali activated material. This research has proved that by changing molar ratio of components it is possible to obtain a material with different buffer capacity, and this novel material was seen to have considerable potential for using it in processes where buffer capacity and pH control is vitally important.

Keywords: alkaline material, buffer capacity, biogas production, bioreactors

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1 Evaluation of Pozzolanic Properties of Micro and Nanofillers Origin from Waste Products

Authors: Laura Vitola, Diana Bajare, Genadijs Sahmenko, Girts Bumanis


About 8 % of CO2 emission in the world is produced by concrete industry therefore replacement of cement in concrete composition by additives with pozzolanic activity would give a significant impact on the environment. Material which contains silica SiO2 or amorphous silica SiO2 together with aluminum dioxide Al2O3 is called pozzolana type additives in the concrete industry. Pozzolana additives are possible to obtain from recycling industry and different production by-products such as processed bulb boric silicate (DRL type) and lead (LB type) glass, coal combustion bottom ash, utilized brick pieces and biomass ash, thus solving utilization problem which is so important in the world, as well as practically using materials which previously were considered as unusable. In the literature, there is no summarized method which could be used for quick waste-product pozzolana activity evaluation without the performance of wide researches related to the production of innumerable concrete contents and samples in the literature. Besides it is important to understand which parameters should be predicted to characterize the efficiency of waste-products. Simple methods of pozzolana activity increase for different types of waste-products are also determined. The aim of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of the different types of waste materials and industrial by-products (coal combustion bottom ash, biomass ash, waste glass, waste kaolin and calcined illite clays), and determine which parameters have the greatest impact on pozzolanic activity. By using materials, which previously were considered as unusable and landfilled, in concrete industry basic utilization problems will be partially solved. The optimal methods for treatment of waste materials and industrial by–products were detected with the purpose to increase their pozzolanic activity and produce substitutes for cement in the concrete industry. Usage of mentioned pozzolanic allows us to replace of necessary cement amount till 20% without reducing the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: cement substitutes, micro and nano fillers, pozzolanic properties, specific surface area, particle size, waste products

Procedia PDF Downloads 333