Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: aspen HYSYS

55 Flowsheet Development, Simulation and Optimization of Carbon-Di-Oxide Removal System at Natural Gas Reserves by Aspen–Hysys Process Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Nusrat Jahan

Abstract:

Natural gas is a cleaner fuel compared to the others. But it needs some treatment before it is in a state to be used. So natural gas purification is an integral part of any process where natural gas is used as raw material or fuel. There are several impurities in natural gas that have to be removed before use. CO2 is one of the major contaminants. In this project we have removed CO2 by amine process by using MEA solution. We have built up the whole amine process for removing CO2 in Aspen Hysys and simulated the process. At the end of simulation we have got very satisfactory results by using MEA solution for the removal of CO2. Simulation result shows that amine absorption process enables to reduce CO2 content from NG by 58%. HYSYS optimizer allowed us to get a perfect optimized plant. After optimization the profit of existing plant is increased by 2.34 %.Simulation and optimization by Aspen-HYSYS simulator makes available us to enormous information which will help us to further research in future.

Keywords: Aspen–Hysys, CO2 removal, flowsheet development, MEA solution, natural gas optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
54 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Small Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: M. I. Abdelhamid, A. O. Ghallab, R. S. Ettouney, M. A. El-Rifai

Abstract:

An optimization scheme based on COM server is suggested for communication between Genetic Algorithm (GA) toolbox of MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS. The structure and details of the proposed framework are discussed. The power of the developed scheme is illustrated by its application to the optimization of a recently developed natural gas liquefaction process in which Aspen HYSYS was used for minimization of the power consumption by optimizing the values of five operating variables. In this work, optimization by coupling between the GA in MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS model of the same process using the same five decision variables enabled improvements in power consumption by 3.3%, when 77% of the natural gas feed is liquefied. Also on inclusion of the flow rates of both nitrogen and carbon dioxide refrigerants as two additional decision variables, the power consumption decreased by 6.5% for a 78% liquefaction of the natural gas feed.

Keywords: stranded gas liquefaction, genetic algorithm, COM server, single nitrogen expansion, carbon dioxide pre-cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
53 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian

Abstract:

Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
52 A Simulation Model and Parametric Study of Triple-Effect Desalination Plant

Authors: Maha BenHamad, Ali Snoussi, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

A steady-state analysis of triple-effect thermal vapor compressor desalination unit was performed. A mathematical model based on mass, salinity and energy balances is developed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a connection between process simulator and process optimizer in order to study the influence of several operating variables on the performance and the produced water cost of the unit. A MATLAB program is used to solve the model equations, and Aspen HYSYS is used to model the plant. The model validity is examined against a commercial plant and showed a good agreement between industrial data and simulations results. Results show that the pressures of the last effect and the compressed vapor have an important influence on the produced cost, and the increase of the difference temperature in the condenser decreases the specific heat area about 22%.

Keywords: steady-state, triple effect, thermal vapor compressor, Matlab, Aspen Hysys

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
51 Aspen Plus Simulation of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide in a Plug Flow Reactor

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, K. C. Wasalathilake

Abstract:

This work presents the modelling and simulation of saponification of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a plug flow reactor using Aspen Plus simulation software. Plug flow reactors are widely used in the industry due to the non-mixing property. The use of plug flow reactors becomes significant when there is a need for continuous large scale reaction or fast reaction. Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion as the occurrence for side reactions is minimum. In this research Aspen Plus V8.0 has been successfully used to simulate the plug flow reactor. In order to simulate the process as accurately as possible HYSYS Peng-Robinson EOS package was used as the property method. The results obtained from the simulation were verified by the experiment carried out in the EDIBON plug flow reactor module. The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.98 and it proved that simulation results satisfactorily fit for the experimental model. The developed model can be used as a guide for understanding the reaction kinetics of a plug flow reactor.

Keywords: aspen plus, modelling, plug flow reactor, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
50 Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Separation by Amine Solutions Using Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid and Peng-Robinson Models: Carbon Dioxide Absorption Efficiency

Authors: Arash Esmaeili, Zhibang Liu, Yang Xiang, Jimmy Yun, Lei Shao

Abstract:

A high pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption from a specific gas in a conventional column has been evaluated by the Aspen HYSYS simulator using a wide range of single absorbents and blended solutions to estimate the outlet CO2 concentration, absorption efficiency and CO2 loading to choose the most proper solution in terms of CO2 capture for environmental concerns. The property package (Acid Gas-Chemical Solvent) which is compatible with all applied solutions for the simulation in this study, estimates the properties based on an electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model for electrolyte thermodynamics and Peng-Robinson equation of state for the vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases. Among all the investigated single amines as well as blended solutions, piperazine (PZ) and the mixture of piperazine and monoethanolamine (MEA) have been found as the most effective absorbents respectively for CO2 absorption with high reactivity based on the simulated operational conditions.

Keywords: absorption, amine solutions, Aspen HYSYS, carbon dioxide, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
49 Simulation and Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Separation by Piperazine Blended Solutions Using E-NRTL and Peng-Robinson Models: Study of Regeneration Heat Duty

Authors: Arash Esmaeili, Zhibang Liu, Yang Xiang, Jimmy Yun, Lei Shao

Abstract:

A high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO₂) absorption from a specific off-gas in a conventional column has been evaluated for the environmental concerns by the Aspen HYSYS simulator using a wide range of single absorbents and piperazine (PZ) blended solutions to estimate the outlet CO₂ concentration, CO₂ loading, reboiler power supply, and regeneration heat duty to choose the most efficient solution in terms of CO₂ removal and required heat duty. The property package, which is compatible with all applied solutions for the simulation in this study, estimates the properties based on the electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model for electrolyte thermodynamics and Peng-Robinson equation of state for vapor phase and liquid hydrocarbon phase properties. The results of the simulation indicate that piperazine, in addition to the mixture of piperazine and monoethanolamine (MEA), demands the highest regeneration heat duty compared with other studied single and blended amine solutions, respectively. The blended amine solutions with the lowest PZ concentrations (5wt% and 10wt%) were considered and compared to reduce the cost of the process, among which the blended solution of 10wt%PZ+35wt%MDEA (methyldiethanolamine) was found as the most appropriate solution in terms of CO₂ content in the outlet gas, rich-CO₂ loading, and regeneration heat duty.

Keywords: absorption, amine solutions, aspen HYSYS, CO₂ loading, piperazine, regeneration heat duty

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
48 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali

Abstract:

The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
47 Gas Sweetening Process Simulation: Investigation on Recovering Waste Hydraulic Energy

Authors: Meisam Moghadasi, Hassan Ali Ozgoli, Foad Farhani

Abstract:

In this research, firstly, a commercial gas sweetening unit with methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) solution is simulated and comprised in an integrated model in accordance with Aspen HYSYS software. For evaluation purposes, in the second step, the results of the simulation are compared with operating data gathered from South Pars Gas Complex (SPGC). According to the simulation results, the considerable energy potential contributed to the pressure difference between absorber and regenerator columns causes this energy driving force to be applied in power recovery turbine (PRT). In the last step, the amount of waste hydraulic energy is calculated, and its recovery methods are investigated.

Keywords: gas sweetening unit, simulation, MDEA, power recovery turbine, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
46 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih

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Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
45 Simulation of Polymeric Precursors Production from Wine Industrial Organic Wastes

Authors: Tanapoom Phuncharoen, Tawiwat Sriwongsa, Kanita Boonruang, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

The production of dimethyl acetal, isovaleradehyde, and pyridine were simulated using Aspen Plus simulation. Upgrading cleaning water from wine industrial production is the main objective of the project. The winery waste composes of acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, water, isoamyl alcohol, and isobutanol. The project is separated into three parts; separation, reaction, and purification. Various processes were considered to maximize the profit along with obtaining high purity and recovery of each component with optimum heat duty. The results show a significant value of the product with purity more than 75% and recovery over 98%.

Keywords: dimethyl acetal, pyridine, wine, aspen plus, isovaleradehyde, polymeric precursors

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
44 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
43 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
42 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
41 Fluidised Bed Gasification of Multiple Agricultural Biomass-Derived Briquettes

Authors: Rukayya Ibrahim Muazu, Aiduan Li Borrion, Julia A. Stegemann

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Biomass briquette gasification is regarded as a promising route for efficient briquette use in energy generation, fuels and other useful chemicals, however, previous research work has focused on briquette gasification in fixed bed gasifiers such as updraft and downdraft gasifiers. Fluidised bed gasifier has the potential to be effectively sized for medium or large scale. This study investigated the use of fuel briquettes produced from blends of rice husks and corn cobs biomass residues, in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier. The study adopted a combination of numerical equations and Aspen Plus simulation software to predict the product gas (syngas) composition based on briquette's density and biomass composition (blend ratio of rice husks to corn cobs). The Aspen Plus model was based on an experimentally validated model from the literature. The results based on a briquette size of 32 mm diameter and relaxed density range of 500 to 650 kg/m3 indicated that fluidisation air required in the gasifier increased with an increase in briquette density, and the fluidisation air showed to be the controlling factor compared with the actual air required for gasification of the biomass briquettes. The mass flowrate of CO2 in the predicted syngas composition, increased with an increase in the air flow rate, while CO production decreased and H2 was almost constant. The H2/CO ratio for various blends of rice husks and corn cobs did not significantly change at the designed process air, but a significant difference of 1.0 for H2/CO ratio was observed at higher air flow rate, and between 10/90 to 90/10 blend ratio of rice husks to corn cobs. This implies the need for further understanding of biomass variability and hydrodynamic parameters on syngas composition in biomass briquette gasification.

Keywords: aspen plus, briquettes, fluidised bed, gasification, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
40 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously

Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen

Abstract:

Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.

Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO₂ cycle, transcritical CO₂ cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
39 Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle Technology to Exploit Low-Grade Waste Heat to Power Generation in Indian Industry

Authors: Bipul Krishna Saha, Basab Chakraborty, Ashish Alex Sam, Parthasarathi Ghosh

Abstract:

The demand for energy is cumulatively increasing with time.  Since the availability of conventional energy resources is dying out gradually, significant interest is being laid on searching for alternate energy resources and minimizing the wastage of energy in various fields.  In such perspective, low-grade waste heat from several industrial sources can be reused to generate electricity. The present work is to further the adoption of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology in Indian industrial sector.  The present paper focuses on extending the previously reported idea to the next level through a comparative review with three different working fluids using practical data from an Indian industrial plant. For comprehensive study in the simulation platform of Aspen Hysys®, v8.6, the waste heat data has been collected from a current coke oven gas plant in India.  A parametric analysis of non-regenerative ORC and regenerative ORC is executed using the working fluids R-123, R-11 and R-21 for subcritical ORC system.  The primary goal is to determine the optimal working fluid considering various system parameters like turbine work output, obtained system efficiency, irreversibility rate and second law efficiency under applied multiple heat source temperature (160 °C- 180 °C).  Selection of the turbo-expanders is one of the most crucial tasks for low-temperature applications in ORC system. The present work is an attempt to make suitable recommendation for the appropriate configuration of the turbine. In a nutshell, this study justifies the proficiency of integrating the ORC technology in Indian perspective and also finds the appropriate parameter of all components integrated in ORC system for building up an ORC prototype.

Keywords: organic Rankine cycle, regenerative organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, Indian industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
38 Krill-Herd Step-Up Approach Based Energy Efficiency Enhancement Opportunities in the Offshore Mixed Refrigerant Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: Kinza Qadeer, Muhammad Abdul Qyyum, Moonyong Lee

Abstract:

Natural gas has become an attractive energy source in comparison with other fossil fuels because of its lower CO₂ and other air pollutant emissions. Therefore, compared to the demand for coal and oil, that for natural gas is increasing rapidly world-wide. The transportation of natural gas over long distances as a liquid (LNG) preferable for several reasons, including economic, technical, political, and safety factors. However, LNG production is an energy-intensive process due to the tremendous amount of power requirements for compression of refrigerants, which provide sufficient cold energy to liquefy natural gas. Therefore, one of the major issues in the LNG industry is to improve the energy efficiency of existing LNG processes through a cost-effective approach that is 'optimization'. In this context, a bio-inspired Krill-herd (KH) step-up approach was examined to enhance the energy efficiency of a single mixed refrigerant (SMR) natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process, which is considered as a most promising candidate for offshore LNG production (FPSO). The optimal design of a natural gas liquefaction processes involves multivariable non-linear thermodynamic interactions, which lead to exergy destruction and contribute to process irreversibility. As key decision variables, the optimal values of mixed refrigerant flow rates and process operating pressures were determined based on the herding behavior of krill individuals corresponding to the minimum energy consumption for LNG production. To perform the rigorous process analysis, the SMR process was simulated in Aspen Hysys® software and the resulting model was connected with the Krill-herd approach coded in MATLAB. The optimal operating conditions found by the proposed approach significantly reduced the overall energy consumption of the SMR process by ≤ 22.5% and also improved the coefficient of performance in comparison with the base case. The proposed approach was also compared with other well-proven optimization algorithms, such as genetic and particle swarm optimization algorithms, and was found to exhibit a superior performance over these existing approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, Krill-herd, LNG, optimization, single mixed refrigerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
37 Retrofitting Cement Plants with Oxyfuel Technology for Carbon Capture

Authors: Peloriadi Konstantina, Fakis Dimitris, Grammelis Panagiotis

Abstract:

Methods for carbon capture and storage (CCS) can play a key role in the reduction of industrial CO₂ emissions, especially in the cement industry, which accounts for 7% of global emissions. Cement industries around the world have committed to address this problem by reaching carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The aim of the work to be presented was to contribute to the decarbonization strategy by integrating the 1st generation oxyfuel technology in cement production plants. This technology has been shown to improve fuel efficiency while providing one of the most cost-effective solutions when compared to other capture methods. A validated simulation of the cement plant was thus used as a basis to develop an oxyfuel retrofitted cement process. The process model for the oxyfuel technology is developed on the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) PLUSTM simulation software. This process consists of an Air Separation Unit (ASU), an oxyfuel cement plant with coal and alternative solid fuel (ASF) as feedstock, and a carbon dioxide processing unit (CPU). A detailed description and analysis of the CPU will be presented, including the findings of a literature review and simulation results, regarding the effects of flue gas impurities during operation. Acknowledgment: This research has been conducted in the framework of the EU funded AC2OCEM project, which investigates first and the second generation oxyfuel concepts.

Keywords: oxyfuel technology, carbon capture and storage, CO₂ processing unit, cement, aspen plus

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
36 Investigations into the Efficiencies of Steam Conversion in Three Reactor Chemical Looping

Authors: Ratnakumar V. Kappagantula, Gordon D. Ingram, Hari B. Vuthaluru

Abstract:

This paper analyzes a three reactor chemical looping process for hydrogen production from natural gas, allowing for carbon dioxide capture through chemical looping technology. An oxygen carrier is circulated to separate carbon dioxide, to reduce steam for hydrogen production and to supply oxygen for combustion. In this study, the emphasis is placed on the steam conversion in the steam reactor by investigating the hydrogen efficiencies of the complete system at steam conversions of 15.8% and 50%. An Aspen Plus model was developed for a Three Reactor Chemical Looping process to study the effects of operational parameters on hydrogen production is investigated. Maximum hydrogen production was observed under stoichiometric conditions. Different conversions in the steam reactor, which was modelled as a Gibbs reactor, were found when Gibbs-identified products and user identified products were chosen. Simulations were performed for different oxygen carriers, which consist of an active metal oxide on an inert support material. For the same metal oxide mass flowrate, the fuel reactor temperature decreased for different support materials in the order: aluminum oxide (Al2O3) > magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) > zirconia (ZrO2). To achieve the same fuel reactor temperature for the same oxide mass flow rate, the inert mass fraction was found to be 0.825 for ZrO2, 0.7 for MgAl2O4 and 0.6 for Al2O3. The effect of poisoning of the oxygen carrier was also analyzed. With 3000 ppm sulfur-based impurities in the feed gas, the hydrogen product energy rate of the process were found to decrease by 0.4%.

Keywords: aspen plus, chemical looping combustion, inert support balls, oxygen carrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
35 Preliminary Study of Water-Oil Separation Process in Three-Phase Separators Using Factorial Experimental Designs and Simulation

Authors: Caroline M. B. De Araujo, Helenise A. Do Nascimento, Claudia J. Da S. Cavalcanti, Mauricio A. Da Motta Sobrinho, Maria F. Pimentel

Abstract:

Oil production is often followed by the joint production of water and gas. During the journey up to the surface, due to severe conditions of temperature and pressure, the mixing between these three components normally occurs. Thus, the three phases separation process must be one of the first steps to be performed after crude oil extraction, where the water-oil separation is the most complex and important step, since the presence of water into the process line can increase corrosion and hydrates formation. A wide range of methods can be applied in order to proceed with oil-water separation, being more commonly used: flotation, hydrocyclones, as well as the three phase separator vessels. Facing what has been presented so far, it is the aim of this paper to study a system consisting of a three-phase separator, evaluating the influence of three variables: temperature, working pressure and separator type, for two types of oil (light and heavy), by performing two factorial design plans 23, in order to find the best operating condition. In this case, the purpose is to obtain the greatest oil flow rate in the product stream (m3/h) as well as the lowest percentage of water in the oil stream. The simulation of the three-phase separator was performed using Aspen Hysys®2006 simulation software in stationary mode, and the evaluation of the factorial experimental designs was performed using the software Statistica®. From the general analysis of the four normal probability plots of effects obtained, it was observed that interaction effects of two and three factors did not show statistical significance at 95% confidence, since all the values were very close to zero. Similarly, the main effect "separator type" did not show significant statistical influence in any situation. As in this case, it has been assumed that the volumetric flow of water, oil and gas were equal in the inlet stream, the effect separator type, in fact, may not be significant for the proposed system. Nevertheless, the main effect “temperature” was significant for both responses (oil flow rate and mass fraction of water in the oil stream), considering both light and heavy oil, so that the best operation condition occurs with the temperature at its lowest level (30oC), since the higher the temperature, the liquid oil components pass into the vapor phase, going to the gas stream. Furthermore, the higher the temperature, the higher the formation water vapor, so that ends up going into the lighter stream (oil stream), making the separation process more difficult. Regarding the “working pressure”, this effect showed to be significant only for the oil flow rate, so that the best operation condition occurs with the pressure at its highest level (9bar), since a higher operating pressure, in this case, indicated a lower pressure drop inside the vessel, generating lower level of turbulence inside the separator. In conclusion, the best-operating condition obtained for the proposed system, at the studied range, occurs for temperature is at its lowest level and the working pressure is at its highest level.

Keywords: factorial experimental design, oil production, simulation, three-phase separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
34 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
33 Pinch Analysis of Triple Pressure Reheat Supercritical Combined Cycle Power Plant

Authors: Sui Yan Wong, Keat Ping Yeoh, Chi Wai Hui

Abstract:

In this study, supercritical steam is introduced to Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) in an attempt to further optimize energy recovery. Subcritical steam is commonly used in the CCPP, operating at maximum pressures around 150-160 bar. Supercritical steam is an alternative to increase heat recovery during vaporization period of water. The idea of improvement using supercritical steam is further examined with the use of exergy, pinch analysis and Aspen Plus simulation.

Keywords: exergy, pinch, combined cycle power plant, supercritical steam

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
32 Nozzle-to-Surface Distances Effect on Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Impinging Jets

Authors: Aspen W. Glaspell, Victoria J. Rouse, Brian K. Friedrich, Kyosung Choo

Abstract:

Heat transfer of two-phase impinging jet on a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The effects of the nozzle-to-surface distance and volumetric quality on the Nusselt number are considered. The results show that the normalized stagnation Nusselt number drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-surface distance due to the jet deflection effect. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-surface distance.

Keywords: jet impingement, water jet, air assisted, circular jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
31 Continuous Catalytic Hydrogenation and Purification for Synthesis Non-Phthalate

Authors: Chia-Ling Li

Abstract:

The scope of this article includes the production of 10,000 metric tons of non-phthalate per annum. The production process will include hydrogenation, separation, purification, and recycling of unprocessed feedstock. Based on experimental data, conversion and selectivity were chosen as reaction model parameters. The synthesis and separation processes of non-phthalate and phthalate were established by using Aspen Plus software. The article will be divided into six parts: estimation of physical properties, integration of production processes, purification case study, utility consumption, economic feasibility study and identification of bottlenecks. The purities of products was higher than 99.9 wt. %. Process parameters have important guiding significance to the commercialization of hydrogenation of phthalate.

Keywords: economic analysis, hydrogenation, non-phthalate, process simulation

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30 Use of Cassava Waste and Its Energy Potential

Authors: I. Inuaeyen, L. Phil, O. Eni

Abstract:

Fossil fuels have been the main source of global energy for many decades, accounting for about 80% of global energy need. This is beginning to change however with increasing concern about greenhouse gas emissions which comes mostly from fossil fuel combustion. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide are responsible for stimulating climate change. As a result, there has been shift towards more clean and renewable energy sources of energy as a strategy for stemming greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. The production of bio-products such as bio-fuel, bio-electricity, bio-chemicals, and bio-heat etc. using biomass materials in accordance with the bio-refinery concept holds a great potential for reducing high dependence on fossil fuel and their resources. The bio-refinery concept promotes efficient utilisation of biomass material for the simultaneous production of a variety of products in order to minimize or eliminate waste materials. This will ultimately reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. In Nigeria, cassava solid waste from cassava processing facilities has been identified as a vital feedstock for bio-refinery process. Cassava is generally a staple food in Nigeria and one of the most widely cultivated foodstuff by farmers across Nigeria. As a result, there is an abundant supply of cassava waste in Nigeria. In this study, the aim is to explore opportunities for converting cassava waste to a range of bio-products such as butanol, ethanol, electricity, heat, methanol, furfural etc. using a combination of biochemical, thermochemical and chemical conversion routes. . The best process scenario will be identified through the evaluation of economic analysis, energy efficiency, life cycle analysis and social impact. The study will be carried out by developing a model representing different process options for cassava waste conversion to useful products. The model will be developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. Process economic analysis will be done using Aspen Icarus software. So far, comprehensive survey of literature has been conducted. This includes studies on conversion of cassava solid waste to a variety of bio-products using different conversion techniques, cassava waste production in Nigeria, modelling and simulation of waste conversion to useful products among others. Also, statistical distribution of cassava solid waste production in Nigeria has been established and key literatures with useful parameters for developing different cassava waste conversion process has been identified. In the future work, detailed modelling of the different process scenarios will be carried out and the models validated using data from literature and demonstration plants. A techno-economic comparison of the various process scenarios will be carried out to identify the best scenario using process economics, life cycle analysis, energy efficiency and social impact as the performance indexes.

Keywords: bio-refinery, cassava waste, energy, process modelling

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29 Simulation of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee

Abstract:

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery indusrty. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its nonlinearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flowsheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flowsheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

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28 Inverted Diameter-Limit Thinning: A Promising Alternative for Mixed Populus tremuloides Stands Management

Authors: Ablo Paul Igor Hounzandji, Benoit Lafleur, Annie DesRochers

Abstract:

Introduction: Populus tremuloides [Michx] regenerates rapidly and abundantly by root suckering after harvest, creating stands with interconnected stems. Pre-commercial thinning can be used to concentrate growth on fewer stems to reach merchantability faster than un-thinned stands. However, conventional thinning methods are typically designed to reach even spacing between residual stems (1,100 stem ha⁻¹, evenly distributed), which can lead to treated stands consisting of weaker/smaller stems compared to the original stands. Considering the nature of P. tremuloides's regeneration, with large underground biomass of interconnected roots, aiming to keep the most vigorous and largest stems, regardless of their spatial distribution, inverted diameter-limit thinning could be more beneficial to post-thinning stand productivity because it would reduce the imbalance between roots and leaf area caused by thinning. Aims: This study aimed to compare stand and stem productivity of P. tremuloides stands thinned with a conventional thinning treatment (CT; 1,100 stem ha⁻¹, evenly distributed), two levels of inverted diameter-limit thinning (DL1 and DL2, keeping the largest 1100 or 2200 stems ha⁻¹, respectively, regardless of their spatial distribution) and a control unthinned treatment. Because DL treatments can create substantial or frequent gaps in the thinned stands, we also aimed to evaluate the potential of this treatment to recreate mixed conifer-broadleaf stands by fill-planting Picea glauca seedlings. Methods: Three replicate 21 year-old sucker-regenerated aspen stands were thinned in 2010 according to four treatments: CT, DL1, DL2, and un-thinned control. Picea glauca seedlings were underplanted in gaps created by the DL1 and DL2 treatments. Stand productivity per hectare, stem quality (diameter and height, volume stem⁻¹) and survival and height growth of fill-planted P. glauca seedlings were measured 8 year post-treatments. Results: Productivity, volume, diameter, and height were better in the treated stands (CT, DL1, and DL2) than in the un-thinned control. Productivity of CT and DL1 stands was similar 4.8 m³ ha⁻¹ year⁻¹. At the tree level, diameter and height of the trees in the DL1 treatment were 5% greater than those in the CT treatment. The average volume of trees in the DL1 treatment was 11% higher than the CT treatment. Survival after 8 years of fill planted P. glauca seedlings was 2% greater in the DL1 than in the DL2 treatment. DL1 treatment also produced taller seedlings (+20 cm). Discussion: Results showed that DL treatments were effective in producing post-thinned stands with larger stems without affecting stand productivity. In addition, we showed that these treatments were suitable to introduce slower growing conifer seedlings such as Picea glauca in order to re-create or maintain mixed stands despite the aggressive nature of P. tremuloides sucker regeneration.

Keywords: Aspen, inverted diameter-limit, mixed forest, populus tremuloides, silviculture, thinning

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27 A Simulation Study for Potential Natural Gas Liquids Recovery Processes under Various Upstream Conditions

Authors: Mesfin Getu Woldetensay

Abstract:

Representatives and commercially viable natural gas liquids (NGLs) recovery processes were studied under various feed conditions that are classified as lean and rich. The conventional turbo- expander process scheme (ISS) was taken as a base case. The performance of this scheme was compared against with the gas sub-cooled process (GSP), cold residue-gas (CRR) and recycle split-vapor (RSV), enhanced NGL recovery process (IPSI-1) and enhanced NGL recovery process with internal refrigeration (IPSI-2). The development made for the GSP, CRR and RSV are at the top section of the demethanizer column whereas the IPSI-1 and IPSI-2 improvement focus in the lower section. HYSYS process flowsheet was initially developed for all the processes including the ISS under a common criteria that could help to demonstrate the performance comparison. Accordingly, a number of simulation runs were made for the selected eight types of feed. Results show that the reboiler duty requirement using rich feeds for GSP, CRR and RSV is quite high compared to IPSI-1 and IPSI-2. The latter shows relatively lower duty due to the presence of self-refrigeration system that allows the inlet feed to be used for achieving cooling without the need to use propane refrigerant. The energy consumption for lean feed is much lower than that of the rich feed in all process schemes.

Keywords: composition, lean, rich, duty

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26 Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns

Authors: Hamadi Cherif, Christophe Coquelet, Paolo Stringari, Denis Clodic, Laura Pellegrini, Stefania Moioli, Stefano Langè

Abstract:

Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.

Keywords: biogas, hydrogen sulfide, reactive absorption, sodium hydroxide, structured packed column

Procedia PDF Downloads 210