Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: micro-mixer

11 Robust Design of Electroosmosis Driven Self-Circulating Micromixer for Biological Applications

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Emily Earl, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

One of the issues that arises with microscale lab-on-a-chip technology is that the laminar flow within the microchannels limits the mixing of fluids. To combat this, micromixers have been introduced as a means to try and incorporate turbulence into the flow to better aid the mixing process. This study presents an electroosmotic micromixer that balances vortex generation and degeneration with the inlet flow velocity to greatly increase the mixing efficiency. A comprehensive parametric study was performed to evaluate the role of the relevant parameters on the mixing efficiency. It was observed that the suggested micromixer is perfectly suited for biological applications due to its low pressure drop (below 10 Pa) and low shear rate. The proposed micromixer with optimized working parameters is able to attain a mixing efficiency of 95% in a span of 0.5 seconds using a frequency of 10 Hz, a voltage of 0.7 V, and an inlet velocity of 0.366 mm/s.

Keywords: microfluidics, active mixer, pulsed AC electroosmosis flow, micromixer

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10 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi

Abstract:

Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer

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9 Longitudinal Vortices Mixing in Three-Stream Micromixers with Two Inlets

Authors: Yi-Tun Huang, Chih-Yang Wu, Shu-Wei Huang

Abstract:

In this work, we examine fluid mixing in a full three-stream mixing channel with longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) built on the channel bottom by numerical simulation and experiment. The effects of the asymmetrical arrangement and the attack angle of the LVGs on fluid mixing are investigated. The results show that the micromixer with LVGs at a small asymmetry index (defined by the ratio of the distance from the center plane of the gap between the winglets to the center plane of the main channel to the width of the main channel) is superior to the micromixer with symmetric LVGs and that with LVGs at a large asymmetry index. The micromixer using five mixing modules of the LVGs with an attack angle between 16.5 degrees and 22.5 degrees can achieve excellent mixing over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Here, we call a section of channel with two pairs of staggered asymmetrical LVGs a mixing module. Besides, the micromixer with LVGs at a small attack angle is more efficient than that with a larger attack angle when pressure losses are taken into account.

Keywords: microfluidics, mixing, longitudinal vortex generators, two stream interfaces

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8 Development and Comparative Analysis of a New C-H Split and Recombine Micromixer

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte

Abstract:

In the present study, a new passive micromixer based on SAR principle, combining the operation concepts of known Chain and H mixers, called C-H micromixer, is developed and studied. The efficiency and the pressure drop of the C-H mixer along with two known SAR passive mixers named Chain and Tear-drop were investigated numerically at Reynolds numbers up to 100, taking into account species transport. At the same time experimental tests of the Chain and Tear-drop mixers were carried out at low Reynolds number, in the 0.1≤Re≤4.2 range. Numerical and experimental results coincide considerably, which validate the numerical simulation approach. Results show that mixing efficiency of the Tear-drop mixer is good except at the middle range of Reynolds number but pressure drop is too high; conversely the Chain mixer has moderate pressure drop but relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle Re numbers. Whereas, the C-H mixer gives excellent mixing efficiency at all range of Re numbers. In addition, the C-H mixer shows respectively about 3 and 2 times lower pressure drop than the Tear-drop mixer and the Chain mixer.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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7 3D-Printing Compressible Macroporous Polymer Using Poly-Pickering-High Internal Phase Emulsions as Micromixer

Authors: Hande Barkan-Ozturk, Angelika Menner, Alexander Bismarck

Abstract:

Microfluidic mixing technology grew rapidly in the past few years due to its many advantages over the macro-scale mixing, especially the ability to use small amounts of internal volume and also very high surface-to-volume ratio. The Reynold number identify whether the mixing is operated by the laminar or turbulence flow. Therefore, mixing with very fast kinetic can be achieved by diminishing the channel dimensions to decrease Reynold number and the laminar flow can be accomplished. Moreover, by using obstacles in the micromixer, the mixing length and the contact area between the species have been increased. Therefore, the channel geometry and its surface property have great importance to reach satisfactory mixing results. Since poly(-merised) High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) have more than 74% porosity and their pores are connected each other with pore throats, which cause high permeability, they are ideal candidate to build a micromixer. The HIPE precursor is commonly produced by using an overhead stirrer to obtain relatively large amount of emulsion in batch process. However, we will demonstrate that a desired amount of emulsion can be prepared continuously with micromixer build from polyHIPE, and such HIPE can subsequently be employed as ink in 3D printing process. In order to produce the micromixer a poly-Pickering(St-co-DVB)HIPE with 80% porosity was prepared with modified silica particles as stabilizer and surfactant Hypermer 2296 to obtain open porous structure and after coating of the surface, the three 1/16' ' PTFE tubes to transfer continuous (CP) and internal phases (IP) and the other is to collect the emulsion were placed. Afterwards, the two phases were injected in the ratio 1:3 CP:IP with syringe dispensers, respectively, and highly viscoelastic H(M)IPE, which can be used as an ink in 3D printing process, was gathered continuously. After the polymerisation of the resultant emulsion, polyH(M)IPE has interconnected porous structure identical to the monolithic polyH(M)IPE indicating that the emulsion can be prepared constantly with poly-Pickering-HIPE as micromixer and it can be used to prepare desired pattern with a 3D printer. Moreover, the morphological properties of the emulsion can be adjustable by changing flow ratio, flow speed and structure of the micromixer.

Keywords: 3D-Printing, emulsification, macroporous polymer, micromixer, polyHIPE

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6 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: curved channel, microfluidics, mixing, non-newtonian fluids, vortex

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5 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni

Abstract:

This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics®, electrokinetic, electroosmotic, microfluidics, zeta potential

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4 Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Mixing Enhancement by Stimulation of Ferrofluid under Magnetic Field

Authors: Neda Azimi, Masoud Rahimi, Faezeh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to investigate the effect of ferrofluid stimulation on hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of two immiscible liquid phases in a Y-micromixer. The main purpose of this work was to develop a numerical model that is able to simulate hydrodynamic of the ferrofluid flow under magnetic field and determine its effect on mass transfer characteristics. A uniform external magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The volume of fluid (VOF) approach was used for simulating the multiphase flow of ferrofluid and two-immiscible liquid flows. The geometric reconstruction scheme (Geo-Reconstruct) based on piecewise linear interpolation (PLIC) was used for reconstruction of the interface in the VOF approach. The mass transfer rate was defined via an equation as a function of mass concentration gradient of the transported species and added into the phase interaction panel using the user-defined function (UDF). The magnetic field was solved numerically by Fluent MHD module based on solving the magnetic induction equation method. CFD results were validated by experimental data and good agreements have been achieved, which maximum relative error for extraction efficiency was about 7.52 %. It was showed that ferrofluid actuation by a magnetic field can be considered as an efficient mixing agent for liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer in microdevices.

Keywords: CFD modeling, hydrodynamic, micromixer, ferrofluid, mixing

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3 Numerical Analysis of Fluid Mixing in Three Split and Recombine Micromixers at Different Inlets Volume Ratio

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, M. Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte

Abstract:

Numerical simulation were carried out to study the mixing of miscible liquid at different inlets volume ratio (1 to 3) within two existing mixers namely Chain, Tear-drop and one new “C-H” mixer. The new passive C-H micromixer is developed based on split and recombine principles, combining the operation concepts of known Chain mixer and H mixer. The mixing performances of the three micromixers were predicted by a preliminary numerical analysis of the flow patterns inside the channel in terms of the segregation or distribution of path lines. Afterward, the efficiency and the pressure drop were investigated numerically, taking into account species transport. All numerical calculations were computed at a wide range of Reynolds number from 1 to 100. Among the presented three micromixers, tear-drop provides fairly good efficiency except in the middle range of Re numbers but has high-pressure drop. In addition, inlets flow ratio has a significant influence on efficiency, especially at the Re number range of 10 to 50, Moreover maximum increase of efficiency is almost 10% when inlets flow ratio is increased by 1. Chain mixer presents relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle range of Re numbers (5≤Re≤50) but has reasonable pressure drop. Furthermore, Chain mixer shows almost no dependence on inlets flow ratio. Whereas, C-H mixer poses excellent mixing efficiency (more than 93%) for all range of Re numbers and causes the lowest pressure drop, On top of that efficiency has slight dependency on inlets flow ratio. In addition, C-H mixer shows respectively about three and two times lower pressure drop than Tear-drop and Chain mixers.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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2 Magnetofluidics for Mass Transfer and Mixing Enhancement in a Micro Scale Device

Authors: Majid Hejazian, Nam-Trung Nguyen

Abstract:

Over the past few years, microfluidic devices have generated significant attention from industry and academia due to advantages such as small sample volume, low cost and high efficiency. Microfluidic devices have applications in chemical, biological and industry analysis and can facilitate assay of bio-materials and chemical reactions, separation, and sensing. Micromixers are one of the important microfluidic concepts. Micromixers can work as stand-alone devices or be integrated in a more complex microfluidic system such as a lab on a chip (LOC). Micromixers are categorized as passive and active types. Passive micromixers rely only on the arrangement of the phases to be mixed and contain no moving parts and require no energy. Active micromixers require external fields such as pressure, temperature, electric and acoustic fields. Rapid and efficient mixing is important for many applications such as biological, chemical and biochemical analysis. Achieving fast and homogenous mixing of multiple samples in the microfluidic devices has been studied and discussed in the literature recently. Improvement in mixing rely on effective mass transport in microscale, but are currently limited to molecular diffusion due to the predominant laminar flow in this size scale. Using magnetic field to elevate mass transport is an effective solution for mixing enhancement in microfluidics. The use of a non-uniform magnetic field to improve mass transfer performance in a microfluidic device is demonstrated in this work. The phenomenon of mixing ferrofluid and DI-water streams has been reported before, but mass transfer enhancement for other non-magnetic species through magnetic field have not been studied and evaluated extensively. In the present work, permanent magnets were used in a simple microfluidic device to create a non-uniform magnetic field. Two streams are introduced into the microchannel: one contains fluorescent dye mixed with diluted ferrofluid to induce enhanced mass transport of the dye, and the other one is a non-magnetic DI-water stream. Mass transport enhancement of fluorescent dye is evaluated using fluorescent measurement techniques. The concentration field is measured for different flow rates. Due to effect of magnetic field, a body force is exerted on the paramagnetic stream and expands the ferrofluid stream into non-magnetic DI-water flow. The experimental results demonstrate that without a magnetic field, both magnetic nanoparticles of the ferrofluid and the fluorescent dye solely rely on molecular diffusion to spread. The non-uniform magnetic field, created by the permanent magnets around the microchannel, and diluted ferrofluid can improve mass transport of non-magnetic solutes in a microfluidic device. The susceptibility mismatch between the fluids results in a magnetoconvective secondary flow towards the magnets and subsequently the mass transport of the non-magnetic fluorescent dye. A significant enhancement in mass transport of the fluorescent dye was observed. The platform presented here could be used as a microfluidics-based micromixer for chemical and biological applications.

Keywords: ferrofluid, mass transfer, micromixer, microfluidics, magnetic

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1 3-D Modeling of Particle Size Reduction from Micro to Nano Scale Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Himanshu Singh, Rishi Kant, Shantanu Bhattacharya

Abstract:

This paper adopts a top-down approach for mathematical modeling to predict the size reduction from micro to nano-scale through persistent etching. The process is simulated using a finite difference approach. Previously, various researchers have simulated the etching process for 1-D and 2-D substrates. It consists of two processes: 1) Convection-Diffusion in the etchant domain; 2) Chemical reaction at the surface of the particle. Since the process requires analysis along moving boundary, partial differential equations involved cannot be solved using conventional methods. In 1-D, this problem is very similar to Stefan's problem of moving ice-water boundary. A fixed grid method using finite volume method is very popular for modelling of etching on a one and two dimensional substrate. Other popular approaches include moving grid method and level set method. In this method, finite difference method was used to discretize the spherical diffusion equation. Due to symmetrical distribution of etchant, the angular terms in the equation can be neglected. Concentration is assumed to be constant at the outer boundary. At the particle boundary, the concentration of the etchant is assumed to be zero since the rate of reaction is much faster than rate of diffusion. The rate of reaction is proportional to the velocity of the moving boundary of the particle. Modelling of the above reaction was carried out using Matlab. The initial particle size was taken to be 50 microns. The density, molecular weight and diffusion coefficient of the substrate were taken as 2.1 gm/cm3, 60 and 10-5 cm2/s respectively. The etch-rate was found to decline initially and it gradually became constant at 0.02µ/s (1.2µ/min). The concentration profile was plotted along with space at different time intervals. Initially, a sudden drop is observed at the particle boundary due to high-etch rate. This change becomes more gradual with time due to declination of etch rate.

Keywords: particle size reduction, micromixer, FDM modelling, wet etching

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