Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9416

Search results for: flow characteristics

9416 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu


Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

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9415 Numerical Study for Examination of Flow Characteristics in Fractured Gas Reservoirs

Authors: M. K. Kim, C. H. Shin, W. G. Park


Recently, natural gas resources are issued due to alternative and eco-friendly energy policies, and development of even unconventional gas resources including tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas is being rapidly expanded from North America all over the world. For developing these gas reservoirs, it is necessary to investigate reservoir characteristics by using reservoir simulation. In reservoir simulation, calculation of permeability of fractured zone is very important to predict the gas production. However, it is difficult to accurately calculate the permeability by using conventional methods which use analytic solution for laminar flow. The flow in gas reservoirs exhibits complex flow behavior such as slip around the wall roughness effect and turbulence because the size of the apertures of fractures is ranged over various scales from nano-scale to centi-scale. Therefore, it is required to apply new reservoir flow analysis methods which can accurately consider complex gas flow owing to the geometric characteristics and distributions of various pores and flow paths within gas reservoirs. Hence, in this study, the flow characteristics and the relation between each characteristic variable was investigated and multi-effect was quantified when the fractures are compounded for devising a new calculation model of permeability of fractured zone in gas reservoirs by using CFD.

Keywords: fractured zone, gas reservoir, permeability, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
9414 Influence of Major Axis on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Elliptical Section

Authors: K. B. Rajasekarababu, J. Karthik, G. Vinayagamurthy


This paper is intended to explain the influence of major axis on aerodynamic characteristics of elliptical section. Many engineering applications such as off shore structures, bridge piers, civil structures and pipelines can be modelled as a circular cylinder but flow over complex bodies like, submarines, Elliptical wing, fuselage, missiles, and rotor blades, in which the parameters such as axis ratio can influence the flow characteristics of the wake and nature of separation. Influence of Major axis in Flow characteristics of elliptical sections are examined both experimentally and computationally in this study. For this research, four elliptical models with varying major axis [*AR=1, 4, 6, 10] are analysed. Experimental works have been conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel. Furthermore, flow characteristics on elliptical model are predicted from k-ε turbulence model using the commercial CFD packages by pressure based transient solver with Standard wall conditions.The analysis can be extended to estimation and comparison of Drag coefficient and Fatigue analysis of elliptical sections.

Keywords: elliptical section, major axis, aerodynamic characteristics, k-ε turbulence model

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
9413 Numerical Study of Effects of Air Dam on the Flow Field and Pressure Distribution of a Passenger Car

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Ji Ho Ahn, Byung Il You, Gyo Woo Lee


Everything that is attached to the outside of the vehicle to improve the driving performance of the vehicle by changing the flow characteristics of the surrounding air or to pursue the external personality is called a tuning part. Typical tuning components include front or rear air dam, also known as spoilers, splitter, and side air dam. Particularly, the front air dam prevents the airflow flowing into the lower portion of the vehicle and increases the amount of air flow to the side and front of the vehicle body, thereby reducing lift force generation that lifts the vehicle body, and thus, improving the steering and driving performance of the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anterior air dam in the flow around a sedan passenger car using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of flow velocity, trajectory of fluid particles on static pressure distribution and pressure distribution on body surface were investigated by varying flow velocity and size of air dam. As a result, it has been confirmed that the front air dam improves the flow characteristics, thereby reducing the generation of lift force of the vehicle, so it helps in steering and driving characteristics.

Keywords: numerical study, air dam, flow field, pressure distribution

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9412 Passenger Flow Characteristics of Seoul Metropolitan Subway Network

Authors: Kang Won Lee, Jung Won Lee


Characterizing the network flow is of fundamental importance to understand the complex dynamics of networks. And passenger flow characteristics of the subway network are very relevant for an effective transportation management in urban cities. In this study, passenger flow of Seoul metropolitan subway network is investigated and characterized through statistical analysis. Traditional betweenness centrality measure considers only topological structure of the network and ignores the transportation factors. This paper proposes a weighted betweenness centrality measure that incorporates monthly passenger flow volume. We apply the proposed measure on the Seoul metropolitan subway network involving 493 stations and 16 lines. Several interesting insights about the network are derived from the new measures. Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we also find out that monthly passenger flow between any two stations follows a power-law distribution and other traffic characteristics such as congestion level and throughflow traffic follow exponential distribution.

Keywords: betweenness centrality, correlation coefficient, power-law distribution, Korea traffic DB

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
9411 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.

Keywords: open channel flow, Reynolds Number, roughness, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
9410 Numerical Investigation of the Flow Characteristics inside the Scrubber Unit

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Wet scrubbers have found widespread use in cleaning contaminated gas streams because of their ability to remove particulates and based on the applications of scrubbing of marine engine exhaust gases by spraying sea-water. In order to examine the flow characteristics inside the scrubber, the model is designated with flow properties of hot air and water sprayer. The flow dynamics of evaporation of hot air by the injection of water droplets is the key factor considered in this paper. The flow behavior inside the scrubber was investigated from the previous works and to sum up the evaporation rate with respect to the concentration of water droplets are predicted to bring out the competent modelling. The numerical analysis using CFD facilitates in understanding the problem better and empathies the behavior of the model over its entire operating envelope.

Keywords: concentration of water droplets, evaporation rate, scrubber, water sprayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
9409 Three-Dimensional CFD Modeling of Flow Field and Scouring around Bridge Piers

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, P. R. Maiti


In recent years, sediment scour near bridge piers and abutment is a serious problem which causes nationwide concern because it has resulted in more bridge failures than other causes. Scour is the formation of scour hole around the structure mounted on and embedded in erodible channel bed due to the erosion of soil by flowing water. The formation of scour hole around the structures depends upon shape and size of the pier, depth of flow as well as angle of attack of flow and sediment characteristics. The flow characteristics around these structures change due to man-made obstruction in the natural flow path which changes the kinetic energy of the flow around these structures. Excessive scour affects the stability of the foundation of the structure by the removal of the bed material. The accurate estimation of scour depth around bridge pier is very difficult. The foundation of bridge piers have to be taken deeper and to provide sufficient anchorage length required for stability of the foundation. In this study, computational model simulations using a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model were conducted to examine the mechanism of scour around a cylindrical pier. Subsequently, the flow characteristics around these structures are presented for different flow conditions. Mechanism of scouring phenomenon, the formation of vortex and its consequent effect is discussed for a straight channel. Effort was made towards estimation of scour depth around bridge piers under different flow conditions.

Keywords: bridge pier, computational fluid dynamics, multigrid, pier shape, scour

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9408 A Study on Urine Flow Characteristics in Ureter with Fluid-Structure Interaction

Authors: Myoung Je Song


Ureteral stent insertion is being used as one of the clinical interventional treatments due to stenosis and/or obstruction in the ureter. For the development of the ureteral stents, we have to know the flow patterns with and without peristalsis in the ureter. The purpose of this study is to understand the flow characteristics and movement of the ureter for the ureter model according to the presence or absence of peristalsis and to use it as fundamental information to design the optimal ureteral stent. In this study, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FSI (Fluid-Structure Interaction) approaches were applied and compared the flow characteristics in the ureter. The distribution of streamlines was different in the near ureteropelvic junction. As a result of analyzing the area change of the ureter, the area change was large at the frontal and posterior ends, and the frontal and posterior aspects of the area change were reversed. There was no significant difference in the flow rate at the ureter outlet, and the movement of the ureter was larger when peristalsis was considered. Finally, as an introductory stage for the development of ureteral stents, basic information about the ureters according to the presence or absence of peristalsis is acquired.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluid-structure interaction, peristalsis, urine flow

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9407 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

Authors: Chinsuk Hong


This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

Keywords: wall pressure fluctuation, boundary layer flow, transition, turbulent flow, axisymmetric body, flow noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
9406 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang


In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
9405 Comparison Analysis of CFD Turbulence Fluid Numerical Study for Quick Coupling

Authors: JoonHo Lee, KyoJin An, JunSu Kim, Young-Chul Park


In this study, the fluid flow characteristics and performance numerical study through CFD model of the Non-split quick coupling for flow control in hydraulic system equipment for the aerospace business group focused to predict. In this study, we considered turbulence models for the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for the CFD model of the Non-split Quick Coupling for aerospace business. In addition to this, the adequacy of the CFD model were verified by comparing with standard value. Based on this analysis, accurate the fluid flow characteristics can be predicted. It is, therefore, the design of the fluid flow characteristic contribute the reliability for the Quick Coupling which is required in industries on the basis of research results.

Keywords: CFD, FEM, quick coupling, turbulence

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9404 Virtual Modelling of Turbulent Fibre Flow in a Low Consistency Refiner for a Sustainable and Energy Efficient Process

Authors: Simon Ingelsten, Anton Lundberg, Vijay Shankar, Lars-Olof Landström, Örjan Johansson


The flow in a low consistency disc refiner is simulated with the aim of identifying flow structures possibly being of importance for a future study to optimise the energy efficiency in refining processes. A simplified flow geometry is used, where a single groove of a refiner disc is modelled. Two different fibre models are used to simulate turbulent fibre suspension flow in the groove. The first model is a Bingham viscoplastic fluid model where the fibre suspension is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The second model is a new model proposed in a recent study where the suspended fibres effect on flow is accounted for through a modelled orientation distribution function (ODF). Both models yielded similar results with small differences. Certain flow characteristics that were expected and that was found in the literature were identified. Some of these flow characteristics may be of importance in a future process to optimise the refiner geometry to increase the energy efficiency. Further study and a more detailed flow model is; however, needed in order for the simulations to yield results valid for quantitative use in such an optimisation study. An outline of the next steps in such a study is proposed.

Keywords: disc refiner, fibre flow, sustainability, turbulence modelling

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9403 Structure of Turbulence Flow in the Wire-Wrappes Fuel Assemblies of BREST-OD-300

Authors: Dmitry V. Fomichev, Vladimir I. Solonin


In this paper, experimental and numerical study of hydrodynamic characteristics of the air coolant flow in the test wire-wrapped assembly is presented. The test assembly has 37 rods, which are similar to the real fuel pins of the BREST-OD-300 fuel assemblies geometrically. Air open loop test facility installed at the “Nuclear Power Plants and Installations” department of BMSTU was used to obtain the experimental data. The obtaining altitudinal distribution of static pressure in the near-wall test assembly as well as velocity and temperature distribution of coolant flow in the test sections can give us some new knowledge about the mechanism of formation of the turbulence flow structure in the wire wrapped fuel assemblies. Numerical simulations of the turbulence flow has been accomplished using ANSYS Fluent 14.5. Different non-local turbulence models have been considered, such as standard and RNG k-e models and k-w SST model. Results of numerical simulations of the flow based on the considered turbulence models give the best agreement with the experimental data and help us to carry out strong analysis of flow characteristics.

Keywords: wire-spaces fuel assembly, turbulent flow structure, computation fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
9402 Flow Visualization around a Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Cemre Polat, Mustafa Soyler, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, it was aimed to control the flow actively by giving an oscillating rotational motion to a vertically placed cylinder, and flow characteristics were determined. In the study, firstly, the flow structure around the flat cylinder was investigated with dye experiments, and then the cylinders with different oscillation angles (θ = 60°, θ = 120°, and θ = 180°) and different rotation speeds (15 rpm and 30 rpm) the flow structure around it was examined. Thus, the effectiveness of oscillation and rotation speed in flow control has been investigated. In the dye experiments, the dye/water mixture obtained by mixing Rhodamine 6G in powder form with water, which shines under laser light and allows detailed observation of the flow structure, was used. During the experiments, the dye was injected into the flow with the help of a thin needle at a distance that would not affect the flow from the front of the cylinder. In dye experiments, 100 frames per second were taken with a Canon brand EOS M50 (24MP) digital mirrorless camera at a resolution of 1280 * 720 pixels. Then, the images taken were analyzed, and the pictures representing the flow structure for each experiment were obtained. As a result of the study, it was observed that no separation points were formed at 180° swing angle at 15 rpm speed, 120° and 180° swing angle at 30 rpm, and the flow was controlled according to the fixed cylinder.

Keywords: active flow control, cylinder, flow visualization rotationally oscillating

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9401 Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in a Vertical Annular Two Phase Flow Changing the Gas-Liquid Density Ratio

Authors: Shoji Mori, Kunito Okuyama


Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provides the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρL/ρG =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it is found that and interfacial shear stress collapse not only tF ave but also tF max and tF min successfully under the same liquid mass flow rate conditions irrespective of ρL/ρG, and moreover a non-dimensional parameter tends to collapse tF max,tF ave,and tF min in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρL/ρG:31~763,We:10~1800,ReL:500 ~ 2200).

Keywords: two phase flow, liquid film, annular flow, disturbance wave

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9400 Numerical Investigation of the Diffuser: Geometrical Parameters Effect on Flow Characteristics for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine

Authors: Hany El Said Fawaz


This study deals with numerical simulation using a commercial package 'ANSYS FLUENT 14.5' for flow characteristics of a flanged diffuser wind turbine. Influence of geometrical parameters such as flange height, diffuser length, and expansion angle on the lift and drag performance were investigated. As the angle of expansion increases, a considerable flow acceleration through the diffuser occur at expansion angle ranged from 0° and 12° due to the presence of undisturbed streamlines. after that flow circulation is developed near the diffuser outlet and increase with increasing expansion angle which causes a negligible effect of expansion angle. The effect of diffuser length on flow behavior shows that when the diffuser length ratio is less than 1.25, flow acceleration is observed and increased with diffuser length ratio. After this value, the flow field at diffuser outlet is characterized by a recirculation zone. The diffuser flange has an impact effect of the flow behavior as a low pressure zone is developed behind the flange, while a high pressure zone is generated in front of it. As the flange height increase, the intensity of both low and high pressure regions increase which tend to accelerate the flow inside the diffuser till flange height ratio reaches to 0.75.

Keywords: wind turbine, flanged diffuser, expansion angle, diffuser length

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9399 Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics inside the External Gear Pump Using Urea Liquid Medium

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


In selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, the injection system is provided with unique dosing pump to govern the urea injection phenomenon. The urea based operating liquid from the AdBlue tank links up directly with the dosing pump unit to furnish appropriate high pressure for examining the flow characteristics inside the liquid pump. This work aims in demonstrating the importance of external gear pump to provide pertinent high pressure and respective mass flow rate for each rotation. Numerical simulations are conducted using immersed solid method technique for better understanding of unsteady flow characteristics within the pump. Parametric analyses have been carried out for the gear speed and mass flow rate to find the behavior of pressure fluctuations. In the simulation results, the outlet pressure achieves maximum magnitude with the increase in rotational speed and the fluctuations grow higher.

Keywords: AdBlue tank, external gear pump, immersed solid method, selective catalytic reduction

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9398 Investigation of Flow Characteristics on Upstream and Downstream of Orifice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: War War Min Swe, Aung Myat Thu, Khin Cho Thet, Zaw Moe Htet, Thuzar Mon


The main parameter of the orifice hole diameter was designed according to the range of throttle diameter ratio which gave the required discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient is determined by difference diameter ratios. The value of discharge coefficient is 0.958 occurred at throttle diameter ratio 0.5. The throttle hole diameter is 80 mm. The flow analysis is done numerically using ANSYS 17.0, computational fluid dynamics. The flow velocity was analyzed in the upstream and downstream of the orifice meter. The downstream velocity of non-standard orifice meter is 2.5% greater than that of standard orifice meter. The differential pressure is 515.379 Pa in standard orifice.

Keywords: CFD-CFX, discharge coefficients, flow characteristics, inclined

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9397 Modeling of Leaks Effects on Transient Dispersed Bubbly Flow

Authors: Mohand Kessal, Rachid Boucetta, Mourad Tikobaini, Mohammed Zamoum


Leakage problem of two-component fluids flow is modeled for a transient one-dimensional homogeneous bubbly flow and developed by taking into account the effect of a leak located at the middle point of the pipeline. The corresponding three conservation equations are numerically resolved by an improved characteristic method. The obtained results are explained and commented in terms of physical impact on the flow parameters.

Keywords: fluid transients, pipelines leaks, method of characteristics, leakage problem

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9396 Experimental and Computational Investigation of Flow Field and Thermal Behavior of a Mechanical Seal

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Masoomeh Shadab, Rohallah Torabi


Turbulent flow inside the seal chamber of a pump operating at nearly high Reynolds number is investigated. A comparison of a 3-D computational model for flow and thermal analysis of a mechanical seal with experimental thermal results is presented. The computational model adequately predicts the flow field in the seal chamber and thermal characteristics with the rotating and stationary rings and the twister flow around the seal parts by solving N-S and energy equations in ANSYS-CFX software. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) is applied as a turbulence model for this purpose. Experimental work is discussed which quantifies the temperature of five different points of the working fluid in chamber, mass flow at inlet and the fluid pressure at inlet and outlet. Experimental measurements are combined with computational modeling to obtain local and average heat transfer characteristics. Numerical results of three cases including different flush rates are reported.

Keywords: mechanical seal, CFD_CFX, reynolds stress model, flow field, heat transfer analysis, stream line, heat transfer coefficient, heat flux, nusselt

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9395 Flow Control Optimisation Using Vortex Generators in Turbine Blade

Authors: J. Karthik, G. Vinayagamurthy


Aerodynamic flow control is achieved by interaction of flowing medium with corresponding structure so that its natural flow state is disturbed to delay the transition point. This paper explains the aerodynamic effect and optimized design of Vortex Generators on the turbine blade to achieve maximum flow control. The airfoil is chosen from NREL [National Renewable Energy Laboratory] S-series airfoil as they are characterized with good lift characteristics and lower noise. Vortex generators typically chosen are Ogival, Rectangular, Triangular and Tapered Fin shapes attached near leading edge. Vortex generators are typically distributed from the primary to tip of the blade section. The design wind speed is taken as 6m/s and the computational analysis is executed. The blade surface is simulated using k- ɛ SST model and results are compared with X-FOIL results. The computational results are validated using Wind Tunnel Testing of the blade corresponding to the design speed. The effect of Vortex generators on the flow characteristics is studied from the results of analysis. By comparing the computational and test results of all shapes of Vortex generators; the optimized design is achieved for effective flow control corresponding to the blade.

Keywords: flow control, vortex generators, design optimisation, CFD

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9394 CFD Effect of the Tidal Grating in Opposite Directions

Authors: N. M. Thao, I. Dolguntseva, M. Leijon


Flow blockages referring to the increase in flow are considered as a vital equipment for marine current energy conversion. However, the shape of these devices will result in extracted energy under the operation. The present work investigates the effect of two configurations of a grating, convergent and divergent that located upstream, to the water flow velocity. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation studies the flow characteristics by using the ANSYS Fluent solver for these specified arrangements of the grating. The results indicate that distinct features of flow velocity between “convergent” and “divergent” grating placements are up to in confined conditions. Furthermore, the velocity in case of granting is higher than that of the divergent grating.

Keywords: marine current energy, converter, turbine granting, RANS simulation, water flow velocity

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9393 MHD Flow in a Curved Duct with FCI under a Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Yue Yan, Chang Nyung Kim


The numerical investigation of the three-dimensional liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a curved duct with flow channel insert (FCI) is presented in this paper, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the duct. The interdependency of the flow variables is examined in terms of the flow velocity, current density, electric potential and pressure. The electromagnetic characteristics of the LM MHD flows are reviewed with an introduction of the electric-field component and electro-motive component of the current. The influence of the existence of the FCI on the fluid flow is investigated in detail. The case with FCI slit located near the side layer yields smaller pressure gradient with stable flow field.

Keywords: curved duct, flow channel insert, liquid-metal, magnetohydrodynamic

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9392 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam


Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: method of characteristics, nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable mach number

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9391 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim


The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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9390 Computational Study of Passive Scalar Diffusion of a Counterflowing round Jet

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Georges Le Palec


Round jets have been widely studied due to their important application in industry. Many configurations of round jet were encountered in literature as free jet, co-flow jet, couterflowing jet and cross flow jet. In this paper, we are concerned with turbulent round jet in uniform counterflow stream which is known to enhance mixing and dispersion efficiency owing to flow reversal. This type of flow configuration is a typical application in environmental engineering such as the disposal of wastewater into seas or rivers. A computational study of a turbulent circular jet discharging into a uniform counterflow is conducted in order to investigate the characteristics of the diffusion field of the jet effluent. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of jet-to-current velocity ratios; low, medium and high velocity ratios. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is used in the comparison with available experimental measurements. The decay of the center line velocity and the dynamic proprieties of the flow together with the centerline dilution of the passive scalar and the other characteristics of the concentration field are computationally analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: Counterflow stream, jet, velocity, concentration

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9389 CFD Analysis of the Blood Flow in Left Coronary Bifurcation with Variable Angulation

Authors: Midiya Khademi, Ali Nikoo, Shabnam Rahimnezhad Baghche Jooghi


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death globally. Most CVDs can be prevented by avoiding habitual risk factors. Separate from the habitual risk factors, there are some inherent factors in each individual that can increase the risk potential of CVDs. Vessel shapes and geometry are influential factors, having great impact on the blood flow and the hemodynamic behavior of the vessels. In the present study, the influence of bifurcation angle on blood flow characteristics is studied. In order to approach this topic, by simplifying the details of the bifurcation, three models with angles 30°, 45°, and 60° were created, then by using CFD analysis, the response of these models for stable flow and pulsatile flow was studied. In the conducted simulation in order to eliminate the influence of other geometrical factors, only the angle of the bifurcation was changed and other parameters remained constant during the research. Simulations are conducted under dynamic and stable condition. In the stable flow simulation, a steady velocity of 0.17 m/s at the inlet plug was maintained and in dynamic simulations, a typical LAD flow waveform is implemented. The results show that the bifurcation angle has an influence on the maximum speed of the flow. In the stable flow condition, increasing the angle lead to decrease the maximum flow velocity. In the dynamic flow simulations, increasing the bifurcation angle lead to an increase in the maximum velocity. Since blood flow has pulsatile characteristics, using a uniform velocity during the simulations can lead to a discrepancy between the actual results and the calculated results.

Keywords: coronary artery, cardiovascular disease, bifurcation, atherosclerosis, CFD, artery wall shear stress

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9388 Air Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distributions for Staggered Wing Shaped Tubes Bundle

Authors: Sayed A. Elsayed, Emad Z. Ibrahim, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief


An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics and pressure drop distributions of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. Three cases of the tubes arrangements with various angles of attack, row angles of attack and 90° cone angles were employed at the considered Rea range. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the values of Pdc were increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: wing-shaped tubes, cross-flow cooling, staggered arrangement, CFD

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9387 Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure-Thermal Coupling Dynamics Simulation Model of a Gas-Filled Fluid-Resistance Damper and Experimental Verification

Authors: Wenxue Xu


Fluid resistance damper is an important damping element to attenuate vehicle vibration. It converts vibration energy into thermal energy dissipation through oil throttling. It is a typical fluid-solid-heat coupling problem. A complete three-dimensional flow-structure-thermal coupling dynamics simulation model of a gas-filled fluid-resistance damper was established. The flow-condition-based interpolation (FCBI) method and direct coupling calculation method, the unit's FCBI-C fluid numerical analysis method and iterative coupling calculation method are used to achieve the damper dynamic response of the piston rod under sinusoidal excitation; the air chamber inflation pressure, spring compression characteristics, constant flow passage cross-sectional area and oil parameters, etc. The system parameters, excitation frequency, and amplitude and other excitation parameters are analyzed and compared in detail for the effects of differential pressure characteristics, velocity characteristics, flow characteristics and dynamic response of valve opening, floating piston response and piston rod output force characteristics. Experiments were carried out on some simulation analysis conditions. The results show that the node-based FCBI (flow-condition-based interpolation) fluid numerical analysis method and direct coupling calculation method can better guarantee the conservation of flow field calculation, and the calculation step is larger, but the memory is also larger; if the chamber inflation pressure is too low, the damper will become cavitation. The inflation pressure will cause the speed characteristic hysteresis to increase, and the sealing requirements are too strict. The spring compression characteristics have a great influence on the damping characteristics of the damper, and reasonable damping characteristic needs to properly design the spring compression characteristics; the larger the cross-sectional area of the constant flow channel, the smaller the maximum output force, but the more stable when the valve plate is opening.

Keywords: damper, fluid-structure-thermal coupling, heat generation, heat transfer

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