Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Cemre Polat

24 Experimental Investigation of Flow Structure around a Rectangular Cylinder in Different Configurations

Authors: Cemre Polat, Dogan B. Saydam, Mustafa Soyler, Coskun Ozalp

Abstract:

In this study, the flow structure was investigated by particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) method at Re = 26000 for two different rectangular cylinders placed perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction. After obtaining streamwise and spanwise velocity data, average vorticity, streamlines, velocity magnitude, turbulence kinetic energy, root mean square of streamwise and spanwise velocity fluctuations are calculated, and critical points of flow structure are explained. As a result of the study, it was seen that the vertical configuration has less effect on the flow structure in the back region of the body compared to the horizontal configuration. When the streamwise velocity component is examined in both configurations, it is seen that the negative velocity component is stronger on the long sides compared to the short sides. It has been observed that the vertically positioned cylinder expands the flow separation point compared to the horizontally positioned cylinder; also the vertical cylinder creates an increase in turbulence kinetic energy compared to the horizontal cylinder.

Keywords: bluff body, flow characteristics, PIV, rectangular cylinder

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23 Flow Visualization around a Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Cemre Polat, Mustafa Soyler, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp

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In this study, it was aimed to control the flow actively by giving an oscillating rotational motion to a vertically placed cylinder, and flow characteristics were determined. In the study, firstly, the flow structure around the flat cylinder was investigated with dye experiments, and then the cylinders with different oscillation angles (θ = 60°, θ = 120°, and θ = 180°) and different rotation speeds (15 rpm and 30 rpm) the flow structure around it was examined. Thus, the effectiveness of oscillation and rotation speed in flow control has been investigated. In the dye experiments, the dye/water mixture obtained by mixing Rhodamine 6G in powder form with water, which shines under laser light and allows detailed observation of the flow structure, was used. During the experiments, the dye was injected into the flow with the help of a thin needle at a distance that would not affect the flow from the front of the cylinder. In dye experiments, 100 frames per second were taken with a Canon brand EOS M50 (24MP) digital mirrorless camera at a resolution of 1280 * 720 pixels. Then, the images taken were analyzed, and the pictures representing the flow structure for each experiment were obtained. As a result of the study, it was observed that no separation points were formed at 180° swing angle at 15 rpm speed, 120° and 180° swing angle at 30 rpm, and the flow was controlled according to the fixed cylinder.

Keywords: active flow control, cylinder, flow visualization rotationally oscillating

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22 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

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21 Producing TPU/Propolis Nanofibrous Membrane as Wound Dressing

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Wound dressings have strategically and economic importance considering increase of chronic wounds in the world. In this study, TPU nanofibrous membranes containing propolis as wound dressing are produced by two different methods. Firstly, TPU solution and propolis extract were mixed and this solution was electrospun. The other method is that TPU/propolis blend was centrifugally spun. Properties of nanofibrous membranes obtained by these methods were compared. While realizing the experiments, both systems were optimized to produce nanofibers with nearly same average fiber diameter.

Keywords: nanofiber, wound dressing, electrospinning, centrifugal spinning

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20 Classification of Red, Green and Blue Values from Face Images Using k-NN Classifier to Predict the Skin or Non-Skin

Authors: Kemal Polat

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In this study, it has been estimated whether there is skin by using RBG values obtained from the camera and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier. The dataset used in this study has an unbalanced distribution and a linearly non-separable structure. This problem can also be called a big data problem. The Skin dataset was taken from UCI machine learning repository. As the classifier, we have used the k-NN method to handle this big data problem. For k value of k-NN classifier, we have used as 1. To train and test the k-NN classifier, 50-50% training-testing partition has been used. As the performance metrics, TP rate, FP Rate, Precision, recall, f-measure and AUC values have been used to evaluate the performance of k-NN classifier. These obtained results are as follows: 0.999, 0.001, 0.999, 0.999, 0.999, and 1,00. As can be seen from the obtained results, this proposed method could be used to predict whether the image is skin or not.

Keywords: k-NN classifier, skin or non-skin classification, RGB values, classification

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19 Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives

Authors: Tunca Gul Altuntas, Aziz Baydar, Cemre Acar, Sezen Yılmaz, Tulay Coban

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Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.

Keywords: antioxidant, indoles, piperazines, reactive oxygen species

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18 Tin and Tin-Copper Composite Nanorod Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Applications

Authors: B. D. Polat, Ö. Keleş

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Physical vapor deposition under conditions of an obliquely incident flux results in a film formation with an inclined columnar structure. These columns will be oriented toward the vapor source because of the self-shadowing effect, and they are homogenously distributed on the substrate surface because of the limited surface diffusion ability of ad-atoms when there is no additional substrate heating. In this work, the oblique angle electron beam evaporation technique is used to fabricate thin films containing inclined nanorods. The results demonstrate that depending on the thin film composition, the morphology of the nanorods changed as well. The galvanostatic analysis of these thin film anodes reveals that a composite CuSn nanorods having approximately 900mAhg-1 of initial discharge capacity, performs higher electrochemical performance compared to pure Sn nanorods containing anode material. The long cycle life and the advanced electrochemical properties of the nano-structured composite electrode might be attributed to its improved mechanical tolerance and enhanced electrical conductivity depending on the Cu presence in the nanorods.

Keywords: Cu-Sn thin film, oblique angle deposition, lithium ion batteries, anode

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17 Feature Weighting Comparison Based on Clustering Centers in the Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Kemal Polat

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In this paper, three feature weighting methods have been used to improve the classification performance of diabetic retinopathy (DR). To classify the diabetic retinopathy, features extracted from the output of several retinal image processing algorithms, such as image-level, lesion-specific and anatomical components, have been used and fed them into the classifier algorithms. The dataset used in this study has been taken from University of California, Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. Feature weighting methods including the fuzzy c-means clustering based feature weighting, subtractive clustering based feature weighting, and Gaussian mixture clustering based feature weighting, have been used and compered with each other in the classification of DR. After feature weighting, five different classifier algorithms comprising multi-layer perceptron (MLP), k- nearest neighbor (k-NN), decision tree, support vector machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes have been used. The hybrid method based on combination of subtractive clustering based feature weighting and decision tree classifier has been obtained the classification accuracy of 100% in the screening of DR. These results have demonstrated that the proposed hybrid scheme is very promising in the medical data set classification.

Keywords: machine learning, data weighting, classification, data mining

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16 Design of a Graphical User Interface for Data Preprocessing and Image Segmentation Process in 2D MRI Images

Authors: Enver Kucukkulahli, Pakize Erdogmus, Kemal Polat

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The 2D image segmentation is a significant process in finding a suitable region in medical images such as MRI, PET, CT etc. In this study, we have focused on 2D MRI images for image segmentation process. We have designed a GUI (graphical user interface) written in MATLABTM for 2D MRI images. In this program, there are two different interfaces including data pre-processing and image clustering or segmentation. In the data pre-processing section, there are median filter, average filter, unsharp mask filter, Wiener filter, and custom filter (a filter that is designed by user in MATLAB). As for the image clustering, there are seven different image segmentations for 2D MR images. These image segmentation algorithms are as follows: PSO (particle swarm optimization), GA (genetic algorithm), Lloyds algorithm, k-means, the combination of Lloyds and k-means, mean shift clustering, and finally BBO (Biogeography Based Optimization). To find the suitable cluster number in 2D MRI, we have designed the histogram based cluster estimation method and then applied to these numbers to image segmentation algorithms to cluster an image automatically. Also, we have selected the best hybrid method for each 2D MR images thanks to this GUI software.

Keywords: image segmentation, clustering, GUI, 2D MRI

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15 Estimation of Seismic Drift Demands for Inelastic Shear Frame Structures

Authors: Ali Etemadi, Polat H. Gulkan

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The drift spectrum derived through the continuous shear-beam and wave propagation theory is known to be useful appliance to measure of the demand of pulse like near field ground motions on building structures. As regards, many of old frame buildings with poor or non-ductile column elements, pass the elastic limits and blurt the post yielding hysteresis degradation responses when subjected to such impulsive ground motions. The drift spectrum which, is based on a linear system cannot be predicted the overestimate drift demands arising from inelasticity in an elastic plastic systems. A simple procedure to estimate the drift demands in shear-type frames which, respond over the elastic limits is described and effect of hysteresis degradation behavior on seismic demands is clarified. Whereupon the modification factors are proposed to incorporate the hysteresis degradation effects parametrically. These factors are defined with respected to the linear systems. The method can be applicable for rapid assessment of existing poor detailed, non-ductile buildings.

Keywords: drift spectrum, shear-type frame, stiffness and strength degradation, pinching, smooth hysteretic model, quasi static analysis

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14 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat

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There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

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13 A Decision Support System to Detect the Lumbar Disc Disease on the Basis of Clinical MRI

Authors: Yavuz Unal, Kemal Polat, H. Erdinc Kocer

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In this study, a decision support system comprising three stages has been proposed to detect the disc abnormalities of the lumbar region. In the first stage named the feature extraction, T2-weighted sagittal and axial Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) were taken from 55 people and then 27 appearance and shape features were acquired from both sagittal and transverse images. In the second stage named the feature weighting process, k-means clustering based feature weighting (KMCBFW) proposed by Gunes et al. Finally, in the third stage named the classification process, the classifier algorithms including multi-layer perceptron (MLP- neural network), support vector machine (SVM), Naïve Bayes, and decision tree have been used to classify whether the subject has lumbar disc or not. In order to test the performance of the proposed method, the classification accuracy (%), sensitivity, specificity, precision, recall, f-measure, kappa value, and computation times have been used. The best hybrid model is the combination of k-means clustering based feature weighting and decision tree in the detecting of lumbar disc disease based on both sagittal and axial MR images.

Keywords: lumbar disc abnormality, lumbar MRI, lumbar spine, hybrid models, hybrid features, k-means clustering based feature weighting

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12 Combination of Diuretics and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Leading Severe Hyponatremia: A Case Report

Authors: Esra Bora, Alper Omeroglu, Zeynep Pelin Polat, Oguzhan Kara, Fatih Akdogan, Sema Ucak Basat

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Hyponatremia is one of the most encountered electrolyte imbalance among all medical fields. It has a wide range of symptoms as well as complications from fatigue to loss of consciousness. Although a lot of factors can cause low sodium levels in serum, combining specific medications can lead to severe hyponatremia in a rapid onset which can cause high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this case report was to underline that prescribing specific medications disregarding their side effects can cause this common electrolyte imbalance but in a more severe manner. In this case report, we present a 46-year-old male patient with a serum sodium level of 104 mEq/L who consumed hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension and was under treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depression. The patient had tonic-clonic seizures at the second hour of the treatment and intubation was needed due to loss of consciousness and hypoxia. After proper replacement of sodium with hypertonic solutions in intensive care unit for nine days, extubation indicated. Even in healthy young males, hyponatremia due to two separately prescribed medications can lead life-threatening hyponatremia. Physicians should be aware of the side effects of diuretics, especially hydrochlorothiazides and SSRIs and their combinations.

Keywords: diuretics, hydrochlorothiazide, hyponatremia, SSRI

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11 Intelligent Recognition of Diabetes Disease via FCM Based Attribute Weighting

Authors: Kemal Polat

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In this paper, an attribute weighting method called fuzzy C-means clustering based attribute weighting (FCMAW) for classification of Diabetes disease dataset has been used. The aims of this study are to reduce the variance within attributes of diabetes dataset and to improve the classification accuracy of classifier algorithm transforming from non-linear separable datasets to linearly separable datasets. Pima Indians Diabetes dataset has two classes including normal subjects (500 instances) and diabetes subjects (268 instances). Fuzzy C-means clustering is an improved version of K-means clustering method and is one of most used clustering methods in data mining and machine learning applications. In this study, as the first stage, fuzzy C-means clustering process has been used for finding the centers of attributes in Pima Indians diabetes dataset and then weighted the dataset according to the ratios of the means of attributes to centers of theirs. Secondly, after weighting process, the classifier algorithms including support vector machine (SVM) and k-NN (k- nearest neighbor) classifiers have been used for classifying weighted Pima Indians diabetes dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed attribute weighting method (FCMAW) has obtained very promising results in the classification of Pima Indians diabetes dataset.

Keywords: fuzzy C-means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering based attribute weighting, Pima Indians diabetes, SVM

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10 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

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Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

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9 Analyzing of Arch Steel Beams with Pre-Stressed Cables

Authors: Erkan Polat, Barlas Ozden Caglayan

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By day-to-day developed techniques, it is possible to pass through larger openings by using smaller beam-column sections. Parallel to this trend, it is aimed to produce not only smaller but also economical and architecturally more attractive beams. This study aims to explain the structural behavior of arch steel beam reinforced by using post-tension cable. Due to the effect of post-stressed cable, the arch beam load carrying capacity increases and an optimized section in a smaller size can be obtained with a better architectural view. It also allows better mechanical and applicational solutions for buildings. For better understanding the behavior of the reinforced beam, steel beam and arch steel beam with post-tensioned cable are all modeled and analyzed by using SAP2000 Finite element computer program and compared with each other. Also, full scale test specimens were prepared to test for figuring out the structural behavior and compare the results with the computer model results. Test results are very promising. The similarity of the results between the test and computer analysis shows us that there are no extra knowledge and effort of engineer is needed to calculate such beams. The predicted (and proved by tests) beam carrying capacity is 35% higher than the unreinforced beam carrying capacity. Even just three full scale tests were completed, it is seen that the ratio (%35) may be increased ahead by adjusting the cable post-tension force of beams in much smaller sizes.

Keywords: arch steel beams, pre-stressed cables, finite element, specimen Test

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8 A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World

Authors: Ahmet Akdemir, Güzide Karakuş, Leyla Polat

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Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.

Keywords: aviation, drone, drone in business, unmanned aerial vehicle

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7 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

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This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: crispy salad, glasshouse, intercropping, tomato

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6 Seed Priming Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Germination and Emergence

Authors: Pakize Ozlem Kurt Polat, Gizem Metin, Koksal Yagdi

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In order to evaluate the effect of the different sources of salt on germination and early growth of five wheat cultivars (Katea, Bezostaja, Koksal-2000, Golia, Pehlivan) an experiment was conducted at the seed laboratory of the Uludag University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Field Crops in Bursa/Turkey. Seeds were applied in five different resources media (KCl % 2, KCl %4, KNO₃ %0,5, KH₂PO₄ %0,5, PEG %10) and distilled water as the control). The seed was fully immersed in priming media at a temperature of 24ᵒC for durations of 12 and 24hours. Six different agronomic characters (seed germination, stem length, stem weight, radicle length, fresh weight, dry weight) were measured in 7th days and 14th days. Maximum seed germination percentage of seven days are Pehlivan was observed when the seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ and Katea by distilled water as a control. The most stem length and stem weight were obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 with Katea and Bezostja immersed in priming media at 12h intervals beginning 7d after planting. Seeds were applied KH₂PO₄ %0,5 media produced maximum radicle length by Koksal and dry weight by Katea. The freshest weight obtains in Katea by KNO₃ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h. The most germination percent, dry weight, stem length of fourteen days was observed in Katea which subjected to KH₂PO₄ %0,5 solution. The most radicle length was observed Katea and Koksal in media of KH₂PO₄ %0,5. The most stem length was obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 and KNO₃ with Katea and Bezostaja. When the applied chemicals and all days examined KH₂PO₄ %0,5 treatment in fourteen days and immersed for the duration of 24 hours had better effects than other medias, seven days treatments and 12hours immersed. As a result of this research, the best response of media for the wheat germination can be said that the KH₂PO₄ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h intervals beginning 14 days after planting.

Keywords: germination, priming, seedling growth, wheat

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5 Electrical and Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Systems

Authors: Yasin Polat, Yılmaz Dağdemir, Mehmet Arı

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Samarium (III) oxide and Ytterbium (III) oxide doped Bismuth trioxide solid solutions, the nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary system were obtained with x=5, 20 mol %, and y=5, 20 mol % dopant concentrations have been synthesized in air atmosphere with solid state reaction. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the samples have been investigated by 4-point probe technique by heating and cooling process. Doped-Bi2O3 materials of solid electrolyte systems are good oxygen anions O2-conductors which have collected much attention as potential solid ceramic electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their relatively high oxygen ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.(Bi2O3)-based electrolytes have also wide other technological applications in devices with high economical interest such as oxygen sensors, ceramic membranes for oxygen separation, oxygen pumps, catalyzing of some heterogeneous reactions, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons, and additive material in paints. In recent years, many experimental researches have mostly focused on improving of the Bi-based electrolytes which have high oxide ionic conductivity at low temperatures and better performance as alternatives to traditional stabilized zirconia has taken place. Generally, these systems are much better solid electrolytes than well-known stabilized zirconia, because some of the bismuth trioxide phases exhibit higher ion conductivity than other oxide ionic conductors. Crystal structure of the Nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y has been determined by X-Ray powder diffractions (XRD) measurements before and after electrical conductivity measurements of the samples. Surface and grain structure properties of the samples were determined by SEM analysis. The samples which synthesized in this study can be used in industrial applications such as electrolytes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

Keywords: 4-point probe technique, bismuth trioxide, solid state reaction, solid oxide fuel cell

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4 Bioproduction of L(+)-Lactic Acid and Purification by Ion Exchange Mechanism

Authors: Zelal Polat, Şebnem Harsa, Semra Ülkü

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Lactic acid exists in nature optically in two forms, L(+), D(-)-lactic acid, and has been used in food, leather, textile, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Moreover, L(+)-lactic acid constitutes the raw material for the production of poly-L-lactic acid which is used in biomedical applications. Microbially produced lactic acid was aimed to be recovered from the fermentation media efficiently and economically. Among the various downstream operations, ion exchange chromatography is highly selective and yields a low cost product recovery within a short period of time. In this project, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 was used for the production of L(+)-lactic acid from whey by fermentation at pH 5.5 and 37°C that took 12 hours. The product concentration was 50 g/l with 100% L(+)-lactic acid content. Next, the suitable resin was selected due to its high sorption capacity with rapid equilibrium behavior. Dowex marathon WBA, weakly basic anion exchanger in OH form reached the equilibrium in 15 minutes. The batch adsorption experiments were done approximately at pH 7.0 and 30°C and sampling was continued for 20 hours. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and pH was investigated and their influence was found to be unimportant. All the adsorption/desorption experiments were applied to both model lactic acid and biomass free fermentation broth. The ion exchange equilibria of lactic acid and L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth on Dowex marathon WBA was explained by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum exchange capacity (qm) for model lactic acid was 0.25 g La/g wet resin and for fermentation broth 0.04 g La/g wet resin. The equilibrium loading and exchange efficiency of L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth were reduced as a result of competition by other ionic species. The competing ions inhibit the binding of L(+)-lactic acid to the free sites of ion exchanger. Moreover, column operations were applied to recover adsorbed lactic acid from the ion exchanger. 2.0 M HCl was the suitable eluting agent to recover the bound L(+)-lactic acid with a flowrate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature. About 95% of bound L(+)-lactic acid was recovered from Dowex marathon WBA. The equilibrium was reached within 15 minutes. The aim of this project was to investigate the purification of L(+)-lactic acid with ion exchange method from fermentation broth. The additional goals were to investigate the end product purity, to obtain new data on the adsorption/desorption behaviours of lactic acid and applicability of the system in industrial usage.

Keywords: fermentation, ion exchange, lactic acid, purification, whey

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3 Determination of the Effective Economic and/or Demographic Indicators in Classification of European Union Member and Candidate Countries Using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

Authors: Esra Polat

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Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) is a statistical method for classification and consists a classical Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) in which the dependent variable is a categorical one expressing the class membership of each observation. PLSDA can be applied in many cases when classical discriminant analysis cannot be applied. For example, when the number of observations is low and when the number of independent variables is high. When there are missing values, PLSDA can be applied on the data that is available. Finally, it is adapted when multicollinearity between independent variables is high. The aim of this study is to determine the economic and/or demographic indicators, which are effective in grouping the 28 European Union (EU) member countries and 7 candidate countries (including potential candidates Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Kosova) by using the data set obtained from database of the World Bank for 2014. Leaving the political issues aside, the analysis is only concerned with the economic and demographic variables that have the potential influence on country’s eligibility for EU entrance. Hence, in this study, both the performance of PLSDA method in classifying the countries correctly to their pre-defined groups (candidate or member) and the differences between the EU countries and candidate countries in terms of these indicators are analyzed. As a result of the PLSDA, the value of percentage correctness of 100 % indicates that overall of the 35 countries is classified correctly. Moreover, the most important variables that determine the statuses of member and candidate countries in terms of economic indicators are identified as 'external balance on goods and services (% GDP)', 'gross domestic savings (% GDP)' and 'gross national expenditure (% GDP)' that means for the 2014 economical structure of countries is the most important determinant of EU membership. Subsequently, the model validated to prove the predictive ability by using the data set for 2015. For prediction sample, %97,14 of the countries are correctly classified. An interesting result is obtained for only BiH, which is still a potential candidate for EU, predicted as a member of EU by using the indicators data set for 2015 as a prediction sample. Although BiH has made a significant transformation from a war-torn country to a semi-functional state, ethnic tensions, nationalistic rhetoric and political disagreements are still evident, which inhibit Bosnian progress towards the EU.

Keywords: classification, demographic indicators, economic indicators, European Union, partial least squares discriminant analysis

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2 Intended Use of Genetically Modified Organisms, Advantages and Disadvantages

Authors: Pakize Ozlem Kurt Polat

Abstract:

GMO (genetically modified organism) is the result of a laboratory process where genes from the DNA of one species are extracted and artificially forced into the genes of an unrelated plant or animal. This technology includes; nucleic acid hybridization, recombinant DNA, RNA, PCR, cell culture and gene cloning techniques. The studies are divided into three groups of properties transferred to the transgenic plant. Up to 59% herbicide resistance characteristic of the transfer, 28% resistance to insects and the virus seems to be related to quality characteristics of 13%. Transgenic crops are not included in the commercial production of each product; mostly commercial plant is soybean, maize, canola, and cotton. Day by day increasing GMO interest can be listed as follows; Use in the health area (Organ transplantation, gene therapy, vaccines and drug), Use in the industrial area (vitamins, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, anti-cancer compounds, anti -oxidants, plastics, fibers, polyethers, human blood proteins, and are used to produce carotenoids, emulsifiers, sweeteners, enzymes , food preservatives structure is used as a flavor enhancer or color changer),Use in agriculture (Herbicide resistance, Resistance to insects, Viruses, bacteria, fungi resistance to disease, Extend shelf life, Improving quality, Drought , salinity, resistance to extreme conditions such as frost, Improve the nutritional value and quality), we explain all this methods step by step in this research. GMO has advantages and disadvantages, which we explain all of them clearly in full text, because of this topic, worldwide researchers have divided into two. Some researchers thought that the GMO has lots of disadvantages and not to be in use, some of the researchers has opposite thought. If we look the countries law about GMO, we should know Biosafety law for each country and union. For this Biosecurity reasons, the problems caused by the transgenic plants, including Turkey, to minimize 130 countries on 24 May 2000, ‘the United Nations Biosafety Protocol’ signed nudes. This protocol has been prepared in addition to Cartagena Biosafety Protocol entered into force on September 11, 2003. This protocol GMOs in general use by addressing the risks to human health, biodiversity and sustainable transboundary movement of all GMOs that may affect the prevention, transit covers were dealt and used. Under this protocol we have to know the, ‘US Regulations GMO’, ‘European Union Regulations GMO’, ‘Turkey Regulations GMO’. These three different protocols have different applications and rules. World population increasing day by day and agricultural fields getting smaller for this reason feeding human and animal we should improve agricultural product yield and quality. Scientists trying to solve this problem and one solution way is molecular biotechnology which is including the methods of GMO too. Before decide to support or against the GMO, should know the GMO protocols and it effects.

Keywords: biotechnology, GMO (genetically modified organism), molecular marker

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1 Supplier Carbon Footprint Methodology Development for Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers

Authors: Nur A. Özdemir, Sude Erkin, Hatice K. Güney, Cemre S. Atılgan, Enes Huylu, Hüseyin Y. Altıntaş, Aysemin Top, Özak Durmuş

Abstract:

Carbon emissions produced during a product’s life cycle, from extraction of raw materials up to waste disposal and market consumption activities are the major contributors to global warming. In the light of the science-based targets (SBT) leading the way to a zero-carbon economy for sustainable growth of the companies, carbon footprint reporting of the purchased goods has become critical for identifying hotspots and best practices for emission reduction opportunities. In line with Ford Otosan's corporate sustainability strategy, research was conducted to evaluate the carbon footprint of purchased products in accordance with Scope 3 of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG). The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic and transparent methodology to calculate carbon footprint of the products produced by automotive OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) within the context of automobile supply chain management. To begin with, primary material data were collected through IMDS (International Material Database System) corresponds to company’s three distinct types of vehicles including Light Commercial Vehicle (Courier), Medium Commercial Vehicle (Transit and Transit Custom), Heavy Commercial Vehicle (F-MAX). Obtained material data was classified as metals, plastics, liquids, electronics, and others to get insights about the overall material distribution of produced vehicles and matched to the SimaPro Ecoinvent 3 database which is one of the most extent versions for modelling material data related to the product life cycle. Product life cycle analysis was calculated within the framework of ISO 14040 – 14044 standards by addressing the requirements and procedures. A comprehensive literature review and cooperation with suppliers were undertaken to identify the production methods of parts used in vehicles and to find out the amount of scrap generated during part production. Cumulative weight and material information with related production process belonging the components were listed by multiplying with current sales figures. The results of the study show a key modelling on carbon footprint of products and processes based on a scientific approach to drive sustainable growth by setting straightforward, science-based emission reduction targets. Hence, this study targets to identify the hotspots and correspondingly provide broad ideas about our understanding of how to integrate carbon footprint estimates into our company's supply chain management by defining convenient actions in line with climate science. According to emission values arising from the production phase including raw material extraction and material processing for Ford OTOSAN vehicles subjected in this study, GHG emissions from the production of metals used for HCV, MCV and LCV account for more than half of the carbon footprint of the vehicle's production. Correspondingly, aluminum and steel have the largest share among all material types and achieving carbon neutrality in the steel and aluminum industry is of great significance to the world, which will also present an immense impact on the automobile industry. Strategic product sustainability plan which includes the use of secondary materials, conversion to green energy and low-energy process design is required to reduce emissions of steel, aluminum, and plastics due to the projected increase in total volume by 2030.

Keywords: automotive, carbon footprint, IMDS, scope 3, SimaPro, sustainability

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