Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3128

Search results for: financial crisis of 2008

3128 An Empirical Examination of the Determinant of the Financial CEOs’ Compensation for the Post-Financial Crisis Period

Authors: Eunsup Daniel Shim, Jooh Lee

Abstract:

The US financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent Global Financial Crisis were considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. As a results, Dodd-Frank Act has passed and aims '(1) to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, to end "too big to fail", (2) to protect the American taxpayer by ending bailouts, (3) to protect consumers from abusive financial services practices, and for other purposes.' The enactment of Dodd-Frank Act, in part, intended to significantly influence accountability on executive compensation especially for the financial institutions. This paper empirically investigates the changes in Financial CEOs’ compensation since the Financial Crisis of 2008. Our findings show that in the post- Financial Crisis period financial leverage is significant factor influencing the CEOs’ total compensation. In addition market based performance such as stock price and market-to-book ratio shows significant positive relationship with CEO compensation. This change can be interpreted an attempt to reduce opportunistic behavior of top executives after the financial crisis and the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act.

Keywords: financial CEO compensation, firm performance, financial crisis of 2008, dodd-frank act

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3127 Relationship between Independence Directors and Performance of Firms During Financial Crisis

Authors: Gladie Lui

Abstract:

The global credit crisis of 2008 aroused renewed interest in the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanisms to safeguard investor interests. In this paper, we measure the effect of the crisis from 2008 to 2009 on the stock performance of 976 Hong Kong-listed companies and examine its link to corporate governance mechanisms. It is evident that the crisis and the economic downturn affected different industries. Empirical results show that firms with an independent board and a high concentration of ownership and management ownership had lower abnormal stock returns, but a lower price volatility during the global financial crisis. These results highlight that no single corporate governance mechanism is fit for all types of financial crises and time frames. To strengthen investors’ confidence in the ability of companies to deal with such swift financial catastrophes, companies should enhance the dynamism and responsiveness of their governance mechanisms in times of turbulence.

Keywords: board of directors, capital market, corporate governance, financial crisis

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3126 The Impact of Global Financial Crises and Corporate Financial Crisis (Bankruptcy Risk) on Corporate Tax Evasion: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Seyed Sajjad Habibi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of global financial crises and corporate financial crisis on tax evasion of companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. For this purpose, panel data in the periods of financial crisis period (2007 to 2012) and without a financial crisis (2004, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2014, and 2015) was analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The results indicate a significant relationship between the corporate financial crisis (bankruptcy risk) and tax evasion in the global financial crisis period. The results also showed a significant relationship between the corporate bankruptcy risk and tax evasion in the period with no global financial crisis. A significant difference was found between the bankruptcy risk and tax evasion in the period of the global financial crisis and that with no financial crisis so that tax evasion increased in the financial crisis period.

Keywords: global financial crisis, corporate financial crisis, bankruptcy risk, tax evasion risk, emerging markets

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3125 A Study of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Financial Performance of Banks in Mauritius

Authors: Narvada Ramdhany, Reena Bhattu Babajee

Abstract:

The 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis which initiated in the US had a global outreach, impacting the financial and banking sectors of several economies; such as European countries, developing and emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. European countries represent one of the main sources of export earnings for Mauritius and given that Europe has been quite profoundly affected by the crisis, the Mauritian economy also could have been negatively affected. This study is being undertaken to see if the crisis had a spill-over effect on the Mauritian banking system. It will also enable to determine if the measures put in place to counteract the crisis by regulatory authorities have been effective. The study will be carried out on 17 banks and data will be collected over a time frame of seven years; with a pre-crisis period from 2005 to 2007 and a post-crisis period from 2009 to 2011. The impact of the crisis as such will be measured through the financial performance of the banks, using financial ratios and regression analysis. The results show that during the period concerned Mauritian banks have remained solvent and relatively stable. One of the main explanations put forward to explain the resilience of the banking sector to the crisis is that foreign exposure was relatively low. Another explanation put forward is that Mauritian banks normally transact mainly with prime borrowers unlike most the banks which were affected by the financial crisis.  

Keywords: global financial crisis, banking sector, financial performance, Mauritian banks

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3124 Corporate Governance in India: A Critical Analysis with Respect to Financial Market Crisis

Authors: Sonal Purohit, Animesh Dubey

Abstract:

Corporate governance deals with the entire network of formal and informal relationship with the management of the company and company’s stakeholders including employees, customers, creditors, local communities, and society in general. The recent financial crisis was truly a global crisis in its nature and effects. The Indian financial markets were not immune to this global financial crisis. It is believed that corporate governance also had a major role to play in staggering the effect of this crisis. The objective of this paper is to examine the failure of prevailing corporate governance practice in India during financial crisis. Lack of appropriate implementation of the corporate government norms was a reason behind the phenomenon of money being pulled-out by FIIs, which constitute major investors and influencers of the Indian financial market.

Keywords: corporate governance, FII, financial market, financial crisis

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3123 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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3122 Changing New York Financial Clusters in the 2000s: Modeling the Impact and Policy Implication of the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Silvia Lorenzo, Hongmian Gong

Abstract:

With the influx of research assessing the economic impact of the global financial crisis of 2007-8, a spatial analysis based on empirical data is needed to better understand the spatial significance of the financial crisis in New York, a key international financial center also considered the origin of the crisis. Using spatial statistics, the existence of financial clusters specializing in credit and securities throughout the New York metropolitan area are identified for 2000 and 2010, the time period before and after the height of the global financial crisis. Geographically Weighted Regressions are then used to examine processes underlying the formation and movement of financial geographies across state, county and ZIP codes of the New York metropolitan area throughout the 2000s with specific attention to tax regimes, employment, household income, technology, and transportation hubs. This analysis provides useful inputs for financial risk management and public policy initiatives aimed at addressing regional economic sustainability across state boundaries, while also developing the groundwork for further research on a spatial analysis of the global financial crisis.

Keywords: financial clusters, New York, global financial crisis, geographically weighted regression

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3121 Causes of Financial Instability and Banking Crises: A Comparative Study of Analytical Approaches

Authors: Laura Josabeth Oros-Avilés, Josefina León-León

Abstract:

In recent decades, the concern of the monetary authorities has increased because of the instability of the financial sector caused by the crash of speculative bubbles. In fact, the crash of "housing bubble" in U.S. (2007-2008) led the latest global crisis. The aim of paper is to analyze the features and causes of the financial and banking crisis from an historical view. In particular, in this research, a comparative study of some analytical approaches about economic and financial history is discussed. In addition, the role of monetary policy of central banks in managing financial crises, from its origins to today, is analyzed. According to the studied approaches, two types of factors that cause the financial instability were identified: subjective and objectives. In the research, these factors are deeply discussed, in order to noting the agreements and disagreement between the authors. Specially, it is worth noting that all of them recognized that the credit boom and the financial deregulation are the main causes of financial crises.

Keywords: asset prices, banking crises, financial bubble, financial instability, monetary policy

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3120 Foreign Debt and Firm Performance: Evidence from French Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Salma Mefteh-Wali, Marie-Josephe Rigobert

Abstract:

We investigate the impact of foreign currency debt on firm performance for a sample of non-financial French firms studied over the period 2002 to 2012. As foreign currency debt is both a financing and hedging instrument against foreign exchange risk, we mobilize optimal hedging theory and capital structure theory. When we study the impact on firm value, our main results show that before and after the financial crisis of 2008, foreign debt had the same behavior as domestic debt. We find that during the crisis period, foreign debt positively affects firm value. Investors perceive foreign debt as a natural hedging instrument that is likely to reduce the costs of underinvestment, alleviate cash flow volatility, limit the costs of financial distress, and generate tax shield benefits. Also, our results show that foreign leverage negatively affects the firm performance proxied by ROA and ROE, during and after the financial crisis. However, this impact is positive in the pre-crisis period.

Keywords: foreign currency derivatives, foreign currency debt, foreign currency hedging, firm performance

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3119 A Model of Preventing Global Financial Crisis: Gauss Law Model Proposal Used in Electrical Field Calculations

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between economics and physics, starting with Adam Smith, with a new econophysics approach in Economics-Physics with the Gauss Law model proposal using for the Electric Field calculation, which will allow us to anticipate the Global Financial Crisis. For this purpose, the similarities between the Gauss Law using the electric field calculations and the global financial crisis have been explained on the formula, and a model has been suggested to predict the risks of the financial systems from the electricity field calculations. Thus, this study is expected to help for preventing the Global Financial Crisis with the contribution of the science of economics and physics from the aspect of econophysics.

Keywords: econophysics, electric field, financial system, Gauss law, global financial crisis

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3118 The Valuation of Equity Book Value and Net Income of Financial Firms in Times of Financial Crisis

Authors: Sami Adwan, Alaa Alhaj Ismail, Claudia Girardone

Abstract:

This paper examines the changes in the value relevance of book value of equity and net income of financial firms over the crisis period. It also examines how these changes vary with three variables, namely, fair value exposure, ownership concentration, and regulatory capital ratios. Using a sample of financial firms operating in the European Economic Area over 2005-2011, our findings suggest that the value relevance of book value of equity increases while that of net income decreases during the financial crisis. We find that more exposure to fair value accounting mitigates the impact of the crisis on the value relevance of book value of equity and net income. We also find that more concentrated ownership appears to have a mitigating impact on the changes in the value relevance of both book value of equity and net income in times of financial crisis. Finally, we find evidence that the level of regulatory capital ratios tends to have an attenuating effect on the changes in the value relevance of net income (but not book value of equity) in times of financial crisis.

Keywords: value relevance, financial crisis, financial firms, fair value, ownership concentration, regulatory capital

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3117 Revisiting the Link between Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Post 2008 Global Economic Crisis

Authors: Anand Choudhary

Abstract:

Following the global economic crisis in 2008, businesses and more especially the big multinational conglomerates were increasingly viewed by the people world over as one of the major causes of the economic problems faced by millions globally, in terms of job loss and lifetime savings being wiped out as banks and pension funds went bankrupt and people stared at an insecure financial future. This caused a lot of resentment in the public against big businesses and fueled several protest movements by the people such as “Occupy Wall Street” in different parts of the world. This forced the big businesses to respond to the challenge by adopting more people-centric policies and initiatives for local communities in societies where they operate as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR), in order to regain their social acceptance among the people whilst earning their ‘social license to operate’. The current paper studies many of such large MNCs across the United States of America, India and South Africa, which changed the way they did business earlier, following the global economic crisis in 2008, by incorporating capacity building initiatives for local communities as part of their CSR strategy and explores whether it has contributed to improving their financial performance. It is a conceptual research paper using secondary source data. The findings reveal that there is a positive correlation between the companies’ corporate social performance and corporate financial performance. In addition, the findings also bring to light that the MNCs examined as part of the current paper have improved their image in the eyes of their stakeholders following the change in their CSR strategy and initiatives.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), Corporate Social Performance (CSP), Corporate Financial Performance (CFP), local communities

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3116 Banks' Financial Performance in Pakistan from 2012-2015

Authors: Saima Akbar

Abstract:

The global financial crisis severely and adversely impacted the Pakistanis’ financial setups with far-reaching consequences for its victims. This study aimed to analyze the various determinants of the banks’ financial performance in Pakistan. The stepwise multiple regression analysis and pre-post analysis were carried out in this regard by using SPSS ver 22. The study found that the assets quality is the most influential determinant of return over assets followed by bank size and solvency. Advances, liquidity, investments, and size have positive while poor assets quality and deposits have a negative impact on the return over assets. The comparison of the pre-crisis and post-crisis coefficient values of the independent variables revealed that the global financial crisis had exerted a significant impact on the relative ability of the financial performance determinants to explain variations in return over assets.

Keywords: pre-crisis, post-crisis, coefficient values, determinants

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3115 Effects of Allowance for Corporate Equity on the Financing Choices of Belgian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in a Crisis Context

Authors: O. Colot, M. Croquet, L. Cultrera, Y. Fandja Collince

Abstract:

The objective of our research is to evaluate the impact of the allowance for corporate equity (ACE) on the financial structure of Belgian SME in order to highlight the potential existence of a fiscal leverage. To limit the biases linked to the rationing of the capital further to the financial crisis, we compare first the dynamic evolution of the financial structure of the Belgian firms over the period 2006-2015 by focusing on three sub-periods: 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015. We give then an international size to this comparison by including SMEs from countries adjoining Belgium (France, Germany, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and within which there is no ACE. This comparison allows better understanding the fiscal advantage linked to the ACE of firms evolving in a relatively unstable economic environment further to the financial crisis of 2008. This research is relevant given the economic and political context in which Belgium operates and the very uncertain future of the Belgian ACE. The originality of this research is twofold: the long study period and the consideration of the effects of the financial and economic crisis on the financing structure of Belgian SMEs. The results of this research, even though they confirm the existence of a positive fiscal leverage for the tax deduction for venture capital on the financing structure of Belgian SMEs, do not allow the extent of this leverage to be clearly quantified. The comparative evolution of financing structures over the period 2006-2015 of Belgian, French, German, Dutch and English SMEs shows a strong similarity in the overall evolution of their financing.

Keywords: allowance for corporate equity, Belgium, financial structure, small and medium sized firms

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3114 The Changes of the Relationship between Audit Quality and Earnings Management after Financial Crisis

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Yizhou E

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines the changes in the relationship between earnings management and audit quality before and after financial crisis in the context of American firms from 2005 to 2010. Based on a sample of 3584 firm year observations, we find that there are changes concerning the relation between accrual-based earnings management and audit quality during the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. However, the results do not provide enough evidence with regard to the variances in the association between real activities earnings management and audit quality during these two periods.

Keywords: audit quality, earnings management, financial crisis, relationship

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3113 Averting a Financial Crisis through Regulation, Including Legislation

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Andreas Kapardis

Abstract:

The paper discusses regulatory and legislative measures implemented by various nations in an effort to avert another financial crisis. More specifically, to address the financial crisis, the European Commission followed the practice of other developed countries and implemented a European Economic Recovery Plan in an attempt to overhaul the regulatory and supervisory framework of the financial sector. In 2010 the Commission introduced the European Systemic Risk Board and in 2011 the European System of Financial Supervision. Some experts advocated that the type and extent of financial regulation introduced in the European crisis in the wake of the 2008 crisis has been excessive and counterproductive. In considering how different countries responded to the financial crisis, global regulators have shown a more focused commitment to combat industry misconduct and to pre-empt abusive behavior. Regulators have also increased funding and resources at their disposal; have increased regulatory fines, with an increasing trend towards action against individuals; and, finally, have focused on market abuse and market conduct issues. Financial regulation can be effected, first of all, through legislation. However, neither ex ante or ex post regulation is by itself effective in reducing systemic risk. Consequently, to avert a financial crisis, in their endeavor to achieve both economic efficiency and financial stability, governments need to balance the two approaches to financial regulation. Fiduciary duty is another means by which the behavior of actors in the financial world is constrained and, thus, regulated. Furthermore, fiduciary duties extend over and above other existing requirements set out by statute and/or common law and cover allegations of breach of fiduciary duty, negligence or fraud. Careful analysis of the etiology of the 2008 financial crisis demonstrates the great importance of corporate governance as a way of regulating boardroom behavior. In addition, the regulation of professions including accountants and auditors plays a crucial role as far as the financial management of companies is concerned. In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board in order to protect investors from financial accounting fraud. In most countries around the world, however, accounting regulation consists of a legal framework, international standards, education, and licensure. Accounting regulation is necessary because of the information asymmetry and the conflict of interest that exists between managers and users of financial information. If a holistic approach is to be taken then one cannot ignore the regulation of legislators themselves which can take the form of hard or soft legislation. The science of averting a financial crisis is yet to be perfected and this, as shown by the preceding discussion, is unlikely to be achieved in the foreseeable future as ‘disaster myopia’ may be reduced but will not be eliminated. It is easier, of course, to be wise in hindsight and regulating unreasonably risky decisions and unethical or outright criminal behavior in the financial world remains major challenges for governments, corporations, and professions alike.

Keywords: financial crisis, legislation, regulation, financial regulation

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3112 Analysis of the Reasons behind the Deteriorated Standing of Engineering Companies during the Financial Crisis

Authors: Levan Sabauri

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the deteriorated standing of engineering companies, some of the reasons behind it and the problems facing engineering enterprises during the financial crisis. We show the part that financial analysis plays in the detection of the main factors affecting the standing of a company, classify internal problems and the reasons influencing efficiency thereof. The publication contains the analysis of municipal engineering companies in post-Soviet transitional economies. In the wake of the 2008 world financial crisis the issue became even more poignant. It should be said though that even before the problem had been no less acute for some post-Soviet states caught up in a lengthy transitional period. The paper highlights shortcomings in the management of transportation companies, with new, more appropriate methods suggested. In analyzing the financial stability of a company, three elements need to be considered: current assets, investment policy and structural management of the funding sources leveraging the stability, should be focused on. Inappropriate management of the three may create certain financial problems, with timely and accurate detection thereof being an issue in terms of improved standing of an enterprise. In this connection, the publication contains a diagram reflecting the reasons behind the deteriorated financial standing of a company, as well as a flow chart thereof. The main reasons behind low profitability are also discussed.

Keywords: efficiency, financial management, financial analysis funding structure, financial sustainability, investment policy, profitability, solvency, working capital

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3111 Econophysical Approach on Predictability of Financial Crisis: The 2001 Crisis of Turkey and Argentina Case

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli, Tolga Ulusoy

Abstract:

Technological developments and the resulting global communication have made the 21st century when large capitals are moved from one end to the other via a button. As a result, the flow of capital inflows has accelerated, and capital inflow has brought with it crisis-related infectiousness. Considering the irrational human behavior, the financial crisis in the world under the influence of the whole world has turned into the basic problem of the countries and increased the interest of the researchers in the reasons of the crisis and the period in which they lived. Therefore, the complex nature of the financial crises and its linearly unexplained structure have also been included in the new discipline, econophysics. As it is known, although financial crises have prediction mechanisms, there is no definite information. In this context, in this study, using the concept of electric field from the electrostatic part of physics, an early econophysical approach for global financial crises was studied. The aim is to define a model that can take place before the financial crises, identify financial fragility at an earlier stage and help public and private sector members, policy makers and economists with an econophysical approach. 2001 Turkey crisis has been assessed with data from Turkish Central Bank which is covered between 1992 to 2007, and for 2001 Argentina crisis, data was taken from IMF and the Central Bank of Argentina from 1997 to 2007. As an econophysical method, an analogy is used between the Gauss's law used in the calculation of the electric field and the forecasting of the financial crisis. The concept of Φ (Financial Flux) has been adopted for the pre-warning of the crisis by taking advantage of this analogy, which is based on currency movements and money mobility. For the first time used in this study Φ (Financial Flux) calculations obtained by the formula were analyzed by Matlab software, and in this context, in 2001 Turkey and Argentina Crisis for Φ (Financial Flux) crisis of values has been confirmed to give pre-warning.

Keywords: econophysics, financial crisis, Gauss's Law, physics

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3110 Measuring Output Multipliers of Energy Consumption and Manufacturing Sectors in Malaysia during the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Tuan Ab. Rashid Bin Tuan Abdullah, Tahira Yasmin

Abstract:

The strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is widely recognised. Most countries’ energy demand declined during the economic depression known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008–2009. The objective of the current study is to investigate the energy consumption and performance of Malaysia’s manufacturing sectors during the GFC. We applied the output multiplier approach, which is based on the input-output model. Two input-output tables of Malaysia covering 2005 and 2010 were used. The results indicate significant changes in the output multipliers of the manufacturing sectors between 2005 and 2010. Moreover, the energy-to-manufacturing sectors’ output multipliers also decreased during the GFC due to a decline in export-oriented industries during the crisis. The increasing importance of the manufacturing sector to the development of Malaysian trade resulted in a noticeable decrease in the consumption of each energy sector’s output, especially the electricity and gas sector. Based on the research findings, the Malaysian government released several policy implementations in the form of stimulus packages to enhance these sectors’ performance and generally improve the Malaysian economy.

Keywords: global financial crisis, input-output model, manufacturing, output multipliers, energy, Malaysia

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3109 Estimating the Volatilite of Stock Markets in Case of Financial Crisis

Authors: Gultekin Gurcay

Abstract:

In this paper, effects and responses of stock were analyzed. This analysis was done periodically. The dimensions of the financial crisis impact on the stock market were investigated by GARCH model. In this context, S&P 500 stock market is modeled with DAX, NIKKEI and BIST100. In this way, The effects of the changing in S&P 500 stock market were examined on European and Asian stock markets. Conditional variance coefficient will be calculated through garch model. The scope of the crisis period, the conditional covariance coefficient will be analyzed comparatively.

Keywords: conditional variance coefficient, financial crisis, garch model, stock market

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3108 Measuring Banking Systemic Risk Conditional Value-At-Risk and Conditional Coherent Expected Shortfall in Taiwan Using Vector Quantile GARCH Model

Authors: Ender Su, Kai Wen Wong, I-Ling Ju, Ya-Ling Wang

Abstract:

In this study, the systemic risk change of Taiwan’s banking sector is analyzed during the financial crisis. The risk expose of each financial institutions to the whole Taiwan banking systemic risk or vice versa under financial distress are measured by conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) and conditional coherent expected shortfall (CoES). The CoVaR and CoES are estimated by using vector quantile autoregression (MVMQ-CaViaR) with the daily stock returns of each banks included domestic and foreign banks in Taiwan. The daily in-sample data covered the period from 05/20/2002 to 07/31/2007 and the out-of-sample period until 12/31/2013 spanning the 2008 U.S. subprime crisis, 2010 Greek debt crisis, and post risk duration. All banks in Taiwan are categorised into several groups according to their size of market capital, leverage and domestic/foreign to find out what the extent of changes of the systemic risk as the risk changes between the individuals in the bank groups and vice versa. The final results can provide a guidance to financial supervisory commission of Taiwan to gauge the downside risk in the system of financial institutions and determine the minimum capital requirement hold by financial institutions due to the sensibility changes in CoVaR and CoES of each banks.

Keywords: bank financial distress, vector quantile autoregression, CoVaR, CoES

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3107 Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets around the Global Financial Crisis: Trends and Explanatory Factors

Authors: Najlae Bendou, Jean-Jacques Lilti, Khalid Elbadraoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we examine stock market integration of emerging markets around the global financial turmoil of 2007-2008. Following Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009), we measure the integration of 46 emerging countries using the adjusted R-square from the regression of each country's daily index returns on global factors extracted from the covariance matrix computed using dollar-denominated daily index returns of 17 developed countries. Our sample surrounds the global financial crisis and ranges between 2000 and 2018. We analyze results using four cohorts of emerging countries: East Asia & Pacific and South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & Africa. We find that the level of integration of emerging countries increases at the commencement of the crisis and during the booming phase of the business cycles. It reaches a maximum point in the middle of the crisis and then tends to revert to its pre-crisis level. This pattern tends to be common among the four geographic zones investigated in this study. Finally, we investigate the determinants of stock market integration of emerging countries in our sample using panel regressions. Our results suggest that the degree of stock market integration of these countries should be put into perspective by some macro-economic factors, such as the size of the equity market, school enrollment rate, international liquidity level, stocks traded volume, tax revenue level, imports and exports volumes.

Keywords: correlations, determinants of integration, diversification, emerging markets, financial crisis, integration, markets co-movement, panel regressions, r-square, stock markets

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3106 Banking Crisis and Economic Effects of the Banking Crisis in Turkey

Authors: Sevilay Konya, Sadife Güngör, Zeynep Karaçor

Abstract:

Turkish economy is occurred depending on different factors from time to time and the banking crises of different magnitudes. Foremost among the factors which hinder the development of countries and societies- crises in the country's economy. Countries' economic growth rates affect inflation, unemployment and external trade. In this study, effect of November 2000, February 2001 and 2008 banking crisis on Turkey's economy and banking crisis will be examined and announced as conceptual. In this context, this study is investigates Turkey's GDP, inflation, unemployment and foreign trade figures. Turkey's economy affected have been identified from 2000 November 2001 February and 2008 banking crisis.

Keywords: banking crises, Turkey’s economy, economic effects, Turkey

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3105 Responsibility of Corporate Manager: To Synthesize of the Different Theories by Economic, Political, Social, and Behavioral Perspectives

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.

Keywords: manager, accountability, corporate performance, financial crisis, behavior

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3104 A-Score, Distress Prediction Model with Earning Response during the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Emerging Market

Authors: Sumaira Ashraf, Elisabete G.S. Félix, Zélia Serrasqueiro

Abstract:

Traditional financial distress prediction models performed well to predict bankrupt and insolvent firms of the developed markets. Previous studies particularly focused on the predictability of financial distress, financial failure, and bankruptcy of firms. This paper contributes to the literature by extending the definition of financial distress with the inclusion of early warning signs related to quotation of face value, dividend/bonus declaration, annual general meeting, and listing fee. The study used five well-known distress prediction models to see if they have the ability to predict early warning signs of financial distress. Results showed that the predictive ability of the models varies over time and decreases specifically for the sample with early warning signs of financial distress. Furthermore, the study checked the differences in the predictive ability of the models with respect to the financial crisis. The results conclude that the predictive ability of the traditional financial distress prediction models decreases for the firms with early warning signs of financial distress and during the time of financial crisis. The study developed a new model comprising significant variables from the five models and one new variable earning response. This new model outperforms the old distress prediction models before, during and after the financial crisis. Thus, it can be used by researchers, organizations and all other concerned parties to indicate early warning signs for the emerging markets.

Keywords: financial distress, emerging market, prediction models, Z-Score, logit analysis, probit model

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3103 Financial and Economic Crisis as a Challenge for Non-Derogatibility of Human Rights

Authors: Mirjana Dokmanovic

Abstract:

The paper will introduce main findings of the research of the responses of the Central European and South Eastern European (CEE/SEE) countries to the global economic and financial crisis in 2008 from human rights and gender perspectives. The research methodology included desk research and qualitative analysis of the available data, studies, statistics, and reports produced by the governments, the UN agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and international network of civil society organizations. The main conclusion of the study is that the governments in the region missed to assess the impacts of their anti-crisis policies both ex ante and ex post from the standpoint of human rights and gender equality. Majority of the countries have focused their efforts solely on prompting up the banking and financial sectors, and construction business sectors. The tremendous debt which the states have accumulated for the rescue of banks and industries lead to further cuts in social expenses and reduction of public services. Decreasing state support to health care and social protection and declining family incomes made social services unaffordable for many families. Thus, the economic and financial crisis stirred up the care crisis that was absorbed by women’s intensifying unpaid work within a family and household to manage household survival strategy. On the other hand, increased burden of the care work weakened the position of women in the labour market and their opportunities to find a job. The study indicates that the artificial separation of the real economy and the sphere of social reproduction still persist. This has created additional burden of unpaid work of women within a family. The aim of this paper is to introduce the lessons learnt for future: (a) human rights may not be derogated in the times of crisis; (b) the obligation of states to mitigate negative impacts of economic policies to population, particularly to vulnerable groups, must be prioritized; (c) IFIs and business sector must be liable as duty bearers with respect to human rights commitments.

Keywords: CEE/SEE region, global financial and economic crisis, international financial institutions, human rights commitments, principle of non-derogability of human rights

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3102 The Fall of Cultural Consumption in Spain during the Economic Crisis of 2008: Lessons for the Upcoming Crisis

Authors: Pau Rausell-Koster, Jordi Sanjuan-Belda

Abstract:

The economic crisis of 2008 had a special impact on cultural consumption in Spain. It fell by almost 30% in a few years, and its share of total family spending decreased from 3.19% in 2007 to 2.38% in 2015. In 2017, unlike other indicators, cultural consumption levels were still far from recovering their pre-crisis values. In times of economic difficulties, the satisfaction of primary subsistence needs takes priority over that of social, cultural and experiential needs, among which cultural consumption would mostly be framed. However, its evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to macroeconomic trends. In parallel to these, technological advances mainly related to the Internet have been disseminated in recent years, which have a very marked impact on the consumption patterns of some cultural sectors. Thus, the aim of this study is to define the causes of the decline in cultural consumption in Spain in recent years, and analyse what type of products, territories and population profiles suffered it especially. From the data analysis of the Family Budget Survey, the study seeks to improve the understanding of the determinants of cultural consumption and their behaviour in the face of macroeconomic trends, as well as identify and extract some policy implications regarding to the upcoming crisis caused by COVID-19.

Keywords: consume patterns, cultural consumption, economic crisis, economic trends

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3101 Analyzing the Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Interconnectedness of Asian Stock Markets Using Network Science

Authors: Jitendra Aswani

Abstract:

In the first section of this study, impact of Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on the synchronization of fourteen Asian Stock Markets (ASM’s) of countries like Hong Kong, India, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, China, Philippines and Sri Lanka, has been analysed using the network science and its metrics like degree of node, clustering coefficient and network density. Then in the second section of this study by introducing the US stock market in existing network and developing a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) spread of crisis from the US stock market to Asian Stock Markets (ASM) has been explained. Data used for this study is adjusted the closing price of these indices from 6th January, 2000 to 15th September, 2013 which further divided into three sub-periods: Pre, during and post-crisis. Using network analysis, it is found that Asian stock markets become more interdependent during the crisis than pre and post crisis, and also Hong Kong, India, South Korea and Japan are systemic important stock markets in the Asian region. Therefore, failure or shock to any of these systemic important stock markets can cause contagion to another stock market of this region. This study is useful for global investors’ in portfolio management especially during the crisis period and also for policy makers in formulating the financial regulation norms by knowing the connections between the stock markets and how the system of these stock markets changes in crisis period and after that.

Keywords: global financial crisis, Asian stock markets, network science, Kruskal algorithm

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3100 Constraining Bank Risk: International Evidence on the Role of Bank Capital and Charter Value

Authors: Mamiza Haq

Abstract:

This paper examines the relevance of bank capital and charter value on bank insolvency and liquidity risks. Using an unbalanced panel of 2,111 unique local banks across 22 countries over 1998-2012, we find that both bank capital and charter value lower insolvency and liquidity risks, but this effect varies among conventional, Islamic, and Islamic-window banks. The risk constraining effect of bank capital becomes more prominent in the post 2007-2008 global financial crisis. Moreover, the relationships vary when conditioned upon other key bank-specific characteristics. For instance, the effect of capital on risk-reduction diminishes in the presence of high charter value for conventional-G7 and Islamic-window banks, during-GFC and pre-GFC period; respectively. Our findings have important policy implications related to bank safety. The results are robust to a range of robustness tests.

Keywords: bank capital, charter value, risk, financial crisis

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3099 The Impact of the Economic Crisis in the European Identity

Authors: Sofía Luna, Carla González Salamanca

Abstract:

The 2008 economic crisis had huge implications in Europe. In this continent, the repercussions of the crisis were not only economic but also political and institutional. The economic stress has generated changes in the perception of the citizens, their attitude and the confidence placed in the political organizations. The lost of confidence is not only present in the debtor countries but it is also present in the European economic powers like Germany and France. This research explains how the economic crisis had an impact in the identity, population’s attitude and how this generated the rise of extreme right parties. In addition, it defines the different types of attitudes and support that exist towards these political and economic institutions. The results of this investigation show that the depression beside of its economic implications, it caused institutional, social and political difficulties for the Union. Moreover, the support and attitudes of the population were severely strained because the confidence in the political organization decreased. Furthermore, a rise in the otherness sentiment was shown. In other words, the distinction between “us” and “them” increased causing repercussions in the collective European identity. Additionally, there was a spread in national identities that caused the rise of the extreme right wing parties. In conclusion, the 2008 economic crisis caused not only economic stress but also it generated a political, social and institutional crisis in Europe.

Keywords: Europe, identity, economic crisis, otherness sentiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 381