Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Levan Sabauri

16 Problems Occurring in the Process of Audit by Taking into Consideration their Theoretic Aspects against the Background of Reforms Conducted in a Country: The Example of Georgia

Authors: Levan Sabauri


The purpose of this article is an examination of the meaning of theoretic aspects of audit in the context of solving of specific problems of the audit. The audit’s aim is the estimation of financial statements by the auditor, i.e. if they are prepared according to the basic requirements of current financial statements. By examination of concrete examples, we can clearly see problems created in an audit and in often cases, those contradictions which can be caused by incompliance of matters regulated by legislation and by reality. An important part of this work is the analysis of reform in the direction of business accounting, statements and audit in Georgia and its comparison with EU countries. In the article, attention is concentrated on the analysis of specific problems of auditing practice and ways of their solving by taking into consideration theoretical aspects of the audit are proposed.

Keywords: audit, auditor, auditors’ ethic code, auditor’s risk, financial statement, objectivity

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15 Ways for the Development of the Audit Quality Control System through the Analysis of Ongoing Problems, Experience and Challenges: Example of the Republic of Georgia

Authors: Levan Sabauri


Audit is an independent inspection of the financial statement of the audited person and expresses the opinion of an auditor on the reliability of this statement. The auditor’s activity (auditor’s service) is realized by auditing organizations, individual auditors in connection to conduction of an audit and rendering of audit accompanying services. The profession of auditor means a high level of responsibility for rendered service. Results of decisions made by information users depend on the quality of the auditor’s conclusion. Owners, investors, creditors, and society rely on the opinion of the auditor under the condition that inspection was conducted with good quality. Therefore, the existence of the well-functioning audit quality control system for the administering of the audit is an important issue. An efficient audit quality control system is a substantial challenge that many countries face worldwide, especially those states where these systems are being formed within the respective reform program. The presented article reflects on the best practices of the leading countries, the assumptions and recommendations for the financial accounting, reporting and audit; current reforms in Georgia are made based on this comparative analysis.

Keywords: audit quality control, audit program, financial statement, perspective analysis

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14 Levansucrase from Zymomonas Mobilis KIBGE-IB14: Production Optimization and Characterization for High Enzyme Yield

Authors: Sidra Shaheen, Nadir Naveed Siddiqui, Shah Ali Ul Qader


In recent years, significant progress has been made in discovering and developing new bacterial polysaccharides producing organisms possessing extremely functional properties. Levan is a natural biopolymer of fructose which is produced by transfructosylation reaction in the presence of levansucrase. It is one of the industrially promising enzymes that offer a variety of industrial applications in the field of cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. Although levan has significant applications but the yield of levan produced is not equal to other biopolymers due to the inefficiency of producer microorganism. Among wide range of levansucrase producing microorganisms, Zymomonas mobilis is considered as a potential candidate for large scale production of this natural polysaccharide. The present investigation is concerned with the isolation of levansucrase producing natural isolate having maximum enzyme production. Furthermore, production parameters were optimized to get higher enzyme yield. Levansucrase was partially purified and characterized to study its applicability on industrial scale. The results of this study revealed that the bacterial strain Z. mobilis KIBGE-IB14 was the best producer of levansucrase. Bacterial growth and enzyme production was greatly influenced by physical and chemical parameters. Maximum levansucrase production was achieved after 24 hours of fermentation at 30°C using modified medium of pH-6.5. Contrary to other levansucrases, the one presented in the current study is able to produce high amount of products in relatively short period of time with optimum temperature at 35°C. Due to these advantages, this enzyme can be used on large scale for commercial production of levan and other important metabolites.

Keywords: levansucrase, metabolites, polysaccharides, transfructosylation

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13 Analysis of the Reasons behind the Deteriorated Standing of Engineering Companies during the Financial Crisis

Authors: Levan Sabauri


In this paper, we discuss the deteriorated standing of engineering companies, some of the reasons behind it and the problems facing engineering enterprises during the financial crisis. We show the part that financial analysis plays in the detection of the main factors affecting the standing of a company, classify internal problems and the reasons influencing efficiency thereof. The publication contains the analysis of municipal engineering companies in post-Soviet transitional economies. In the wake of the 2008 world financial crisis the issue became even more poignant. It should be said though that even before the problem had been no less acute for some post-Soviet states caught up in a lengthy transitional period. The paper highlights shortcomings in the management of transportation companies, with new, more appropriate methods suggested. In analyzing the financial stability of a company, three elements need to be considered: current assets, investment policy and structural management of the funding sources leveraging the stability, should be focused on. Inappropriate management of the three may create certain financial problems, with timely and accurate detection thereof being an issue in terms of improved standing of an enterprise. In this connection, the publication contains a diagram reflecting the reasons behind the deteriorated financial standing of a company, as well as a flow chart thereof. The main reasons behind low profitability are also discussed.

Keywords: efficiency, financial management, financial analysis funding structure, financial sustainability, investment policy, profitability, solvency, working capital

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12 Estimation and Forecasting Debris Flow Phenomena on the Highway of the 'TRACECA' Corridor

Authors: Levan Tsulukidze


The paper considers debris flow phenomena and forecasting of them in the corridor of ‘TRACECA’ on the example of river Naokhrevistkali, as well as the debris flow -type channel passing between the villages of Vale-2 and Naokhrevi. As a result of expeditionary and reconnaissance investigations, as well as using empiric dependencies, the debris flow expenditure has been estimated in case of different debris flow provisions.

Keywords: debris flow, Traceca corridor, forecasting, river Naokhrevistkali

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11 The Platform for Digitization of Georgian Documents

Authors: Erekle Magradze, Davit Soselia, Levan Shughliashvili, Irakli Koberidze, Shota Tsiskaridze, Victor Kakhniashvili, Tamar Chaghiashvili


Since the beginning of active publishing activity in Georgia, voluminous printed material has been accumulated, the digitization of which is an important task. Digitized materials will be available to the audience, and it will be possible to find text in them and conduct various factual research. Digitizing scanned documents means scanning documents, extracting text from the scanned documents, and processing the text into a corresponding language model to detect inaccuracies and grammatical errors. Implementing these stages requires a unified, scalable, and automated platform, where the digital service developed for each stage will perform the task assigned to it; at the same time, it will be possible to develop these services dynamically so that there is no interruption in the work of the platform.

Keywords: NLP, OCR, BERT, Kubernetes, transformers

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10 Entropy Risk Factor Model of Exchange Rate Prediction

Authors: Darrol Stanley, Levan Efremidze, Jannie Rossouw


We investigate the predictability of the USD/ZAR (South African Rand) exchange rate with sample entropy analytics for the period of 2004-2015. We calculate sample entropy based on the daily data of the exchange rate and conduct empirical implementation of several market timing rules based on these entropy signals. The dynamic investment portfolio based on entropy signals produces better risk adjusted performance than a buy and hold strategy. The returns are estimated on the portfolio values in U.S. dollars. These results are preliminary and do not yet account for reasonable transactions costs, although these are very small in currency markets.

Keywords: currency trading, entropy, market timing, risk factor model

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9 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili


Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers-gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching-by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zonal stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zonal stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device

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8 Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Anti-Debris Flow Engineering Constructed to Reduce the Risk of Expected Debris Flow in the River Mletiskhevi by Computer Program RAMMS

Authors: Sopio Gogilava, Goga Chakhaia, Levan Tsulukidze, Zurab Laoshvili, Irina Khubulava, Shalva Bosikashvili, Teimuraz Gugushvili


Geoinformatics systems (GIS) integrated computer program RAMMS is widely used for forecasting debris flows and accordingly for the determination of anticipating risks with 85% accuracy. In view of the above, the work introduces new capabilities of the computer program RAMMS, which evaluates the effectiveness of anti-debris flow engineering construction, namely: the possibility of decreasing the expected velocity, kinetic energy, and output cone volume in the Mletiskhevi River. As a result of research has been determined that the anti-debris flow engineering construction designed to reduce the expected debris flow risk in the Mletiskhevi River is an effective environmental protection technology, that's why its introduction is promising.

Keywords: construction, debris flow, geoinformatics systems, program RAMMS

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7 New Method for Determining the Distribution of Birefringence and Linear Dichroism in Polymer Materials Based on Polarization-Holographic Grating

Authors: Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze, Levan Nadareishvili, Yuri Mshvenieradze


A new method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in optical polymer materials is presented. The method is based on the use of polarization-holographic diffraction grating that forms an orthogonal circular basis in the process of diffraction of probing laser beam on the grating. The intensities ratio of the orders of diffraction on this grating enables the value of birefringence and linear dichroism in the sample to be determined. The distribution of birefringence in the sample is determined by scanning with a circularly polarized beam with a wavelength far from the absorption band of the material. If the scanning is carried out by probing beam with the wavelength near to a maximum of the absorption band of the chromophore then the distribution of linear dichroism can be determined. An appropriate theoretical model of this method is presented. A laboratory setup was created for the proposed method. An optical scheme of the laboratory setup is presented. The results of measurement in polymer films with two-dimensional gradient distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism are discussed.

Keywords: birefringence, linear dichroism, graded oriented polymers, optical polymers, optical anisotropy, polarization-holographic grating

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6 Increasing Business Competitiveness in Georgia in Terms of Globalization

Authors: Badri Gechbaia, Levan Gvarishvili


Despite the fact that a lot of Georgian scientists have worked on the issue of the business competitiveness, it think that it is necessary to deepen the works in this sphere, it is necessary also to perfect the methodology in the estimation of the business competitiveness, we have to display the main factors which define the competitive advantages in the business sphere, we have also to establish the interconnections between the business competitiveness level and the quality of states economical involvement in the international economic processes, we have to define the ways to rise the business competitiveness and its role in the upgrading of countries economic development. The introduction part justifies the actuality of the studied topic and the thesis; It defines the survey subject, the object, and the goals with relevant objectives; theoretical-methodological and informational-statistical base for the survey; what is new in the survey and what the value for its theoretical and practical application is. The aforementioned study is an effort to raise public awareness on this issue. Analysis of the fundamental conditions for the efficient functioning of business in Georgia, identification of reserves for increasing its efficiency based on the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the business sector. Methods of system analysis, abstract-logic, induction and deduction, synthesis and generalization, and positive, normative, and comparative analysis are used in the research process. Specific regularities of the impact of the globalization process on the determinants of business competitiveness are established. The reasons for business competitiveness in Georgia have been identified

Keywords: competitiveness, methodology, georgian, economic

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5 An Investigation into the Impacts of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Utilized in the 5G Technology on Insects

Authors: Veriko Jeladze, Besarion Partsvania, Levan Shoshiashvili


This paper addresses a very topical issue today. The frequency range 2.5-100 GHz contains frequencies that have already been used or will be used in modern 5G technologies. The wavelengths used in 5G systems will be close to the body dimensions of small size biological objects, particularly insects. Because the body and body parts dimensions of insects at these frequencies are comparable with the wavelength, the high absorption of EMF energy in the body tissues can occur(body resonance) and therefore can cause harmful effects, possibly the extinction of some of them. An investigation into the impact of radio-frequency nonionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) utilized in the future 5G on insects is of great importance as a very high number of 5G network components will increase the total EMF exposure in the environment. All ecosystems of the earth are interconnected. If one component of an ecosystem is disrupted, the whole system will be affected (which could cause cascading effects). The study of these problems is an important challenge for scientists today because the existing studies are incomplete and insufficient. Consequently, the purpose of this proposed research is to investigate the possible hazardous impact of RF-EMFs (including 5G EMFs) on insects. The project will study the effects of these EMFs on various insects that have different body sizes through computer modeling at frequencies from 2.5 to 100 GHz. The selected insects are honey bee, wasp, and ladybug. For this purpose, the detailed 3D discrete models of insects are created for EM and thermal modeling through FDTD and will be evaluated whole-body Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) at selected frequencies. All these studies represent a novelty. The proposed study will promote new investigations about the bio-effects of 5G-EMFs and will contribute to the harmonization of safe exposure levels and frequencies of 5G-EMFs'.

Keywords: electromagnetic field, insect, FDTD, specific absorption rate (SAR)

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4 Macroinvertebrates of Paravani and Saghamo Lakes, South Georgia

Authors: Bella Japoshvili, Zhanetta Shubitidze, Ani Bikashvili, Sophio Gabelashvili, Marina Gioshvili, Levan Mumladze


Paravani and Saghamo Lakes are oligotrophic lentic systems located in Javakheti plateau (South Georgia) at 2073 m and 1996 m a.s.l. respectively. Javakheti plateau is known as a lakes region as there are located almost 60 small and medium size lakes. Paravani Lake is the biggest lake by its surface area in Georgia, 37 km 2. The Saghamo Lake is smaller and its surface area consists 4.58 km2. These two lakes are connected with Paravani River, because of this the main hydrobiological and ichthyological features are the same. More than 15-30 years were not studied macroinvertebrates of these lakes. Even the existing information is lack and very limited. The aim of our study was to identify main macroinvertebrate groups inhabiting both lakes and to compare obtaining results to existing information. Our investigation was carried out during 2014 and 2015, in 3 seasons of the year, in winter because of severe condition samples were not taken. Kick-net and Petersen grab were used for material collecting, 4 sites from Paravani Lake and 3–from Saghamo Lake were sampled. Collected invertebrates were fixed in ethanol and late taken to the laboratory, where organisms were identified to the lowest taxon possible, usually family. By our results identified 14 taxa for Paravani Lake and 12 taxa for Saghamo Lake. Our results differ from previous information; for Saghamo Lake previously 13 taxa and for Paravani Lake 12 taxa were described. The percentage of the groups also differ from existing information. Our investigation showed that in Paravani Lake most abundant are Apmhipoda, Hydrachnidae, and Hemiptera, in our samples the number of individuals for those 3 taxa was more than thousand, in each. For Saghamo Lake numerous taxon was Amphipoda-36.3%, following by Ephemeroptera-11.37%, Chironomidae-10.5% and Hydrachnidae-7.03% respectively. We also identified the dominant taxon for all studied seasons. Autumn is the period when the diversity of macroinvertebrates are higher in both lakes.

Keywords: Georgia, lakes, macroinvertebrates, monitoring

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3 Spark Plasma Sintering/Synthesis of Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: Nikoloz Jalabadze, Roin Chedia, Lili Nadaraia, Levan Khundadze


Nanocrystalline materials in powder condition can be manufactured by a number of different methods, however manufacture of composite materials product in the same nanocrystalline state is still a problem because the processes of compaction and synthesis of nanocrystalline powders go with intensive growth of particles – the process which promotes formation of pieces in an ordinary crystalline state instead of being crystallized in the desirable nanocrystalline state. To date spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been considered as the most promising and energy efficient method for producing dense bodies of composite materials. An advantage of the SPS method in comparison with other methods is mainly low temperature and short time of the sintering procedure. That finally gives an opportunity to obtain dense material with nanocrystalline structure. Graphene has recently garnered significant interest as a reinforcing phase in composite materials because of its excellent electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in particular have attracted much interest as reinforcements for ceramic matrix composites (mostly in Al2O3, Si3N4, TiO2, ZrB2 a. c.). SPS has been shown to fully densify a variety of ceramic systems effectively including Al2O3 and often with improvements in mechanical and functional behavior. Alumina consolidated by SPS has been shown to have superior hardness, fracture toughness, plasticity and optical translucency compared to conventionally processed alumina. Knowledge of how GNPs influence sintering behavior is important to effectively process and manufacture process. In this study, the effects of GNPs on the SPS processing of Al2O3 are investigated by systematically varying sintering temperature, holding time and pressure. Our experiments showed that SPS process is also appropriate for the synthesis of nanocrystalline powders of alumina-graphene composites. Depending on the size of the molds, it is possible to obtain different amount of nanopowders. Investigation of the structure, physical-chemical, mechanical and performance properties of the elaborated composite materials was performed. The results of this study provide a fundamental understanding of the effects of GNP on sintering behavior, thereby providing a foundation for future optimization of the processing of these promising nanocomposite systems.

Keywords: alumina oxide, ceramic matrix composites, graphene nanoplatelets, spark-plasma sintering

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2 Human’s Sensitive Reactions during Different Geomagnetic Activity: An Experimental Study in Natural and Simulated Conditions

Authors: Ketevan Janashia, Tamar Tsibadze, Levan Tvildiani, Nikoloz Invia, Elguja Kubaneishvili, Vasili Kukhianidze, George Ramishvili


This study considers the possible effects of geomagnetic activity (GMA) on humans situated on Earth by performing experiments concerning specific sensitive reactions in humans in both: natural conditions during different GMA and by the simulation of different GMA in the lab. The measurements of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to different GMA via measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and stress index (SI) and their comparison with the K-index of GMA have been presented and discussed. The results of experiments indicate an intensification of the sympathetic part of the ANS as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA as natural as well as in simulated conditions. Aim: We tested the hypothesis whether the GMF when disturbed can have effects on human ANS causing specific sensitive stress-reactions depending on the initial type of ANS. Methods: The study focuses on the effects of different GMA on ANS by comparing of HRV indices and stress index (SI) of n= 78, 18-24 years old healthy male volunteers. Experiments were performed as natural conditions on days of low (K= 1-3) and high (K= 5-7) GMA as well as in the lab by the simulation of different GMA using the device of geomagnetic storm (GMS) compensation and simulation. Results: In comparison with days of low GMA (K=1-3) the initial values of HRV shifted towards the intensification of the sympathetic part (SP) of the ANS during days of GMSs (K=5-7) with statistical significance p-values: HR (heart rate, p= 0.001), SDNN (Standard deviation of all Normal to Normal intervals, p= 0.0001), RMSSD (The square root of the arithmetical mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, p= 0.0001). In comparison with conditions during GMSs compensation mode (K= 0, B= 0-5nT), the ANS balance was observed to shift during exposure to simulated GMSs with intensities in the range of natural GMSs (K= 7, B= 200nT). However, the initial values of the ANS resulted in different dynamics in its variation depending of GMA level. In the case of initial balanced regulation type (HR > 80) significant intensification of SP was observed with p-values: HR (p= 0.0001), SDNN (p= 0.047), RMSSD (p= 0.28), LF/HF (p=0.03), SI (p= 0.02); while in the case of initial parasympathetic regulation type (HR < 80), an insignificant shift to the intensification of the parasympathetic part (PP) was observed. Conclusions: The results indicate an intensification of SP as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA in both natural and simulated conditions.

Keywords: autonomic nervous system, device of magneto compensation/simulation, geomagnetic storms, heart rate variability

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1 Chemistry and Biological Activity of Feed Additive for Poultry Farming

Authors: Malkhaz Jokhadze, Vakhtang Mshvildadze, Levan Makaradze, Ekaterine Mosidze, Salome Barbaqadze, Mariam Murtazashvili, Dali Berashvili, Koba sivsivadze, Lasha Bakuridze, Aliosha Bakuridze


Essential oils are one of the most important groups of biologically active substances present in plants. Due to the chemical diversity of components, essential oils and their preparations have a wide spectrum of pharmacological action. They have bactericidal, antiviral, fungicidal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, sedative and other activities. They are expectorant, spasmolytic, sedative, hypotensive, secretion enhancing, antioxidant remedies. Based on preliminary pharmacological studies, we have developed a formulation called “Phytobiotic” containing essential oils, a feed additive for poultry as an alternative to antibiotics. Phytobiotic is a water-soluble powder containing a composition of essential oils of thyme, clary, monarda and auxiliary substances: dry extract of liquorice and inhalation lactose. On this stage of research, the goal was to study the chemical composition of provided phytobiotic, identify the main substances and determine their quantity, investigate the biological activity of phytobiotic through in vitro and in vivo studies. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 38 components were identified in phytobiotic, representing acyclic-, monocyclic-, bicyclic-, and sesquiterpenes. Together with identification of main active substances, their quantitative content was determined, including acyclic terpene alcohol β-linalool, acyclic terpene ketone linalyl acetate, monocyclic terpenes: D-limonene and γ-terpinene, monocyclic aromatic terpene thymol. Provided phytobiotic has pronounced and at the same time broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. In the cell model, phytobiotic showed weak antioxidant activity, and it was stronger in the ORAC (chemical model) tests. Meanwhile anti-inflammatory activity was also observed. When fowls were supplied feed enriched with phytobiotic, it was observed that gained weight of the chickens in the experimental group exceeded the same data for the control group during the entire period of the experiment. The survival rate of broilers in the experimental group during the growth period was 98% compared to -94% in the control group. As a result of conducted researches probable four different mechanisms which are important for the action of phytobiotics were identified: sensory, metabolic, antioxidant and antibacterial action. General toxic, possible local irritant and allergenic effects of phytobiotic were also investigated. Performed assays proved that formulation is safe.

Keywords: clary, essential oils, monarda, poultry, phytobiotics, thyme

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