Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Gauss law

40 On Algebraic Structure of Improved Gauss-Seide Iteration

Authors: O. M. Bamigbola, A. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Analysis of real life problems often results in linear systems of equations for which solutions are sought. The method to employ depends, to some extent, on the properties of the coefficient matrix. It is not always feasible to solve linear systems of equations by direct methods, as such the need to use an iterative method becomes imperative. Before an iterative method can be employed to solve a linear system of equations there must be a guaranty that the process of solution will converge. This guaranty, which must be determined a priori, involve the use of some criterion expressible in terms of the entries of the coefficient matrix. It is, therefore, logical that the convergence criterion should depend implicitly on the algebraic structure of such a method. However, in deference to this view is the practice of conducting convergence analysis for Gauss-Seidel iteration on a criterion formulated based on the algebraic structure of Jacobi iteration. To remedy this anomaly, the Gauss-Seidel iteration was studied for its algebraic structure and contrary to the usual assumption, it was discovered that some property of the iteration matrix of Gauss-Seidel method is only diagonally dominant in its first row while the other rows do not satisfy diagonal dominance. With the aid of this structure we herein fashion out an improved version of Gauss-Seidel iteration with the prospect of enhancing convergence and robustness of the method. A numerical section is included to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results obtained for the improved Gauss-Seidel method.

Keywords: linear algebraic system, Gauss-Seidel iteration, algebraic structure, convergence

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39 Convergence of Generalized Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation Methods for Various Classes of Matrices

Authors: Manideepa Saha, Jahnavi Chakrabarty

Abstract:

Generalized Jacobi (GJ) and Generalized Gauss-Seidel (GGS) methods are most effective than conventional Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods for solving linear system of equations. It is known that GJ and GGS methods converge for strictly diagonally dominant (SDD) and for M-matrices. In this paper, we study the convergence of GJ and GGS converge for symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, L-matrices and H-matrices. We introduce a generalization of successive overrelaxation (SOR) method for solving linear systems and discuss its convergence for the classes of SDD matrices, SPD matrices, M-matrices, L-matrices and for H-matrices. Advantages of generalized SOR method are established through numerical experiments over GJ, GGS, and SOR methods.

Keywords: convergence, Gauss-Seidel, iterative method, Jacobi, SOR

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38 A Model of Preventing Global Financial Crisis: Gauss Law Model Proposal Used in Electrical Field Calculations

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between economics and physics, starting with Adam Smith, with a new econophysics approach in Economics-Physics with the Gauss Law model proposal using for the Electric Field calculation, which will allow us to anticipate the Global Financial Crisis. For this purpose, the similarities between the Gauss Law using the electric field calculations and the global financial crisis have been explained on the formula, and a model has been suggested to predict the risks of the financial systems from the electricity field calculations. Thus, this study is expected to help for preventing the Global Financial Crisis with the contribution of the science of economics and physics from the aspect of econophysics.

Keywords: econophysics, electric field, financial system, Gauss law, global financial crisis

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
37 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali

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In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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36 On the Algorithmic Iterative Solutions of Conjugate Gradient, Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Methods for Solving Systems of Linear Equations

Authors: Hussaini Doko Ibrahim, Hamilton Cyprian Chinwenyi, Henrietta Nkem Ude

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In this paper, efforts were made to examine and compare the algorithmic iterative solutions of the conjugate gradient method as against other methods such as Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi approaches for solving systems of linear equations of the form Ax=b, where A is a real n×n symmetric and positive definite matrix. We performed algorithmic iterative steps and obtained analytical solutions of a typical 3×3 symmetric and positive definite matrix using the three methods described in this paper (Gauss-Seidel, Jacobi, and conjugate gradient methods), respectively. From the results obtained, we discovered that the conjugate gradient method converges faster to exact solutions in fewer iterative steps than the two other methods, which took many iterations, much time, and kept tending to the exact solutions.

Keywords: conjugate gradient, linear equations, symmetric and positive definite matrix, gauss-seidel, Jacobi, algorithm

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35 Localising Gauss’s Law and the Electric Charge Induction on a Conducting Sphere

Authors: Sirapat Lookrak, Anol Paisal

Abstract:

Space debris has numerous manifestations, including ferro-metalize and non-ferrous. The electric field will induce negative charges to split from positive charges inside the space debris. In this research, we focus only on conducting materials. The assumption is that the electric charge density of a conducting surface is proportional to the electric field on that surface due to Gauss's Law. We are trying to find the induced charge density from an external electric field perpendicular to a conducting spherical surface. An object is a sphere on which the external electric field is not uniform. The electric field is, therefore, considered locally. The localised spherical surface is a tangent plane, so the Gaussian surface is a very small cylinder, and every point on a spherical surface has its own cylinder. The electric field from a circular electrode has been calculated in near-field and far-field approximation and shown Explanation Touchless maneuvering space debris orbit properties. The electric charge density calculation from a near-field and far-field approximation is done.

Keywords: near-field approximation, far-field approximation, localized Gauss’s law, electric charge density

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34 Bayesian Reliability of Weibull Regression with Type-I Censored Data

Authors: Al Omari Moahmmed Ahmed

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In the Bayesian, we developed an approach by using non-informative prior with covariate and obtained by using Gauss quadrature method to estimate the parameters of the covariate and reliability function of the Weibull regression distribution with Type-I censored data. The maximum likelihood seen that the estimators obtained are not available in closed forms, although they can be solved it by using Newton-Raphson methods. The comparison criteria are the MSE and the performance of these estimates are assessed using simulation considering various sample size, several specific values of shape parameter. The results show that Bayesian with non-informative prior is better than Maximum Likelihood Estimator.

Keywords: non-informative prior, Bayesian method, type-I censoring, Gauss quardature

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33 Pre-Beneficiation of Low Grade Diasporic Bauxite Ore by Reduction Roasting

Authors: Koksal Yılmaz, Burak Birol, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede, Erdogan Yigit

Abstract:

A bauxite ore can be utilized in Bayer Process, if the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 is greater than 10. Otherwise, its FexOy and SiO2 content should be removed. On the other hand, removal of TiO2 from the bauxite ore would be beneficial because of both lowering the red mud residue and obtaining a valuable raw material containing TiO2 mineral. In this study, the low grade diasporic bauxite ore of Yalvaç, Isparta, Turkey was roasted under reducing atmosphere and subjected to magnetic separation. According to the experimental results, 800°C for reduction temperature and 20000 Gauss of magnetic intensity were found to be the optimum parameters for removal of iron oxide and rutile from the non-magnetic ore. On the other hand, 600°C and 5000 Gauss were determined to be the optimum parameters for removal of silica from the non-magnetic ore.

Keywords: low grade diasporic bauxite, magnetic separation, reduction roasting, separation index

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32 A Numerical Computational Method of MRI Static Magnetic Field for an Ergonomic Facility Design Guidelines

Authors: Sherine Farrag

Abstract:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presents safety hazards, with the general physical environment. The principal hazard of the MRI is the presence of static magnetic fields. Proper architectural design of MRI’s room ensure environment and health care staff safety. This research paper presents an easy approach for numerical computation of fringe static magnetic fields. Iso-gauss line of different MR intensities (0.3, 0.5, 1, 1.5 Tesla) was mapped and a polynomial function of the 7th degree was generated and tested. Matlab script was successfully applied for MRI SMF mapping. This method can be valid for any kind of commercial scanner because it requires only the knowledge of the MR scanner room map with iso-gauss lines. Results help to develop guidelines to guide healthcare architects to design of a safer Magnetic resonance imaging suite.

Keywords: designing MRI suite, MRI safety, radiology occupational exposure, static magnetic fields

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31 Numerical Computation of Specific Absorption Rate and Induced Current for Workers Exposed to Static Magnetic Fields of MRI Scanners

Authors: Sherine Farrag

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Currently-used MRI scanners in Cairo City possess static magnetic field (SMF) that varies from 0.25 up to 3T. More than half of them possess SMF of 1.5T. The SMF of the magnet determine the diagnostic power of a scanner, but not worker's exposure profile. This research paper presents an approach for numerical computation of induced electric fields and SAR values by estimation of fringe static magnetic fields. Iso-gauss line of MR was mapped and a polynomial function of the 7th degree was generated and tested. Induced current field due to worker motion in the SMF and SAR values for organs and tissues have been calculated. Results illustrate that the computation tool used permits quick accurate MRI iso-gauss mapping and calculation of SAR values which can then be used for assessment of occupational exposure profile of MRI operators.

Keywords: MRI occupational exposure, MRI safety, induced current density, specific absorption rate, static magnetic fields

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30 SIF Computation of Cracked Plate by FEM

Authors: Sari Elkahina, Zergoug Mourad, Benachenhou Kamel

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to perform a computations comparison of stress intensity factor 'SIF' evaluation in case of cracked thin plate with Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 used in aeronautics structure under uniaxial loading. This evaluation is based on finite element method with a virtual power principle through two techniques: the extrapolation and G−θ. The first one consists to extrapolate the nodal displacements near the cracked tip using a refined triangular mesh with T3 and T6 special elements, while the second, consists of determining the energy release rate G through G−θ method by potential energy derivation which corresponds numerically to the elastic solution post-processing of a cracked solid by a contour integration computation via Gauss points. The SIF obtained results from extrapolation and G−θ methods will be compared to an analytical solution in a particular case. To illustrate the influence of the meshing kind and the size of integration contour position simulations are presented and analyzed.

Keywords: crack tip, SIF, finite element method, concentration technique, displacement extrapolation, aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and 2024-T3, energy release rate G, G-θ method, Gauss point numerical integration

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29 Verification of a Simple Model for Rolling Isolation System Response

Authors: Aarthi Sridhar, Henri Gavin, Karah Kelly

Abstract:

Rolling Isolation Systems (RISs) are simple and effective means to mitigate earthquake hazards to equipment in critical and precious facilities, such as hospitals, network collocation facilities, supercomputer centers, and museums. The RIS works by isolating components acceleration the inertial forces felt by the subsystem. The RIS consists of two platforms with counter-facing concave surfaces (dishes) in each corner. Steel balls lie inside the dishes and allow the relative motion between the top and bottom platform. Formerly, a mathematical model for the dynamics of RISs was developed using Lagrange’s equations (LE) and experimentally validated. A new mathematical model was developed using Gauss’s Principle of Least Constraint (GPLC) and verified by comparing impulse response trajectories of the GPLC model and the LE model in terms of the peak displacements and accelerations of the top platform. Mathematical models for the RIS are tedious to derive because of the non-holonomic rolling constraints imposed on the system. However, using Gauss’s Principle of Least constraint to find the equations of motion removes some of the obscurity and yields a system that can be easily extended. Though the GPLC model requires more state variables, the equations of motion are far simpler. The non-holonomic constraint is enforced in terms of accelerations and therefore requires additional constraint stabilization methods in order to avoid the possibility that numerical integration methods can cause the system to go unstable. The GPLC model allows the incorporation of more physical aspects related to the RIS, such as contribution of the vertical velocity of the platform to the kinetic energy and the mass of the balls. This mathematical model for the RIS is a tool to predict the motion of the isolation platform. The ability to statistically quantify the expected responses of the RIS is critical in the implementation of earthquake hazard mitigation.

Keywords: earthquake hazard mitigation, earthquake isolation, Gauss’s Principle of Least Constraint, nonlinear dynamics, rolling isolation system

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28 Combination Rule for Homonuclear Dipole Dispersion Coefficients

Authors: Giorgio Visentin, Inna S. Kalinina, Alexei A. Buchachenko

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In the ambit of intermolecular interactions, a combination rule is defined as a relation linking a potential parameter for the interaction of two unlike species with the same parameters for interaction pairs of like species. Some of their most exemplificative applications cover the construction of molecular dynamics force fields and dispersion-corrected density functionals. Here, an extended combination rule is proposed, relating the dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients for the interaction of like target species to the same coefficients for the interaction of the target and a set of partner species. The rule can be devised in two different ways, either by uniform discretization of the Casimir-Polder integral on a Gauss-Legendre quadrature or by relating the dynamic polarizabilities of the target and the partner species. Both methods return the same system of linear equations, which requires the knowledge of the dispersion coefficients for interaction between the partner species to be solved. The test examples show a high accuracy for dispersion coefficients (better than 1% in the pristine test for the interaction of Yb atom with rare gases and alkaline-earth metal atoms). In contrast, the rule does not ensure correct monotonic behavior of the dynamic polarizability of the target species. Acknowledgment: The work is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant # 17-13-01466.

Keywords: combination rule, dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient, Casimir-Polder integral, Gauss-Legendre quadrature

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27 Aerodynamic Modeling Using Flight Data at High Angle of Attack

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, A. K. Ghosh

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The paper presents the modeling of linear and nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics using real flight data of Hansa-3 aircraft gathered at low and high angles of attack. The Neural-Gauss-Newton (NGN) method has been applied to model the linear and nonlinear longitudinal dynamics and estimate parameters from flight data. Unsteady aerodynamics due to flow separation at high angles of attack near stall has been included in the aerodynamic model using Kirchhoff’s quasi-steady stall model. NGN method is an algorithm that utilizes Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) and Gauss-Newton optimization to estimate the parameters and it does not require any a priori postulation of mathematical model or solving of equations of motion. NGN method was validated on real flight data generated at moderate angles of attack before application to the data at high angles of attack. The estimates obtained from compatible flight data using NGN method were validated by comparing with wind tunnel values and the maximum likelihood estimates. Validation was also carried out by comparing the response of measured motion variables with the response generated by using estimates a different control input. Next, NGN method was applied to real flight data generated by executing a well-designed quasi-steady stall maneuver. The results obtained in terms of stall characteristics and aerodynamic parameters were encouraging and reasonably accurate to establish NGN as a method for modeling nonlinear aerodynamics from real flight data at high angles of attack.

Keywords: parameter estimation, NGN method, linear and nonlinear, aerodynamic modeling

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26 Econophysical Approach on Predictability of Financial Crisis: The 2001 Crisis of Turkey and Argentina Case

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli, Tolga Ulusoy

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Technological developments and the resulting global communication have made the 21st century when large capitals are moved from one end to the other via a button. As a result, the flow of capital inflows has accelerated, and capital inflow has brought with it crisis-related infectiousness. Considering the irrational human behavior, the financial crisis in the world under the influence of the whole world has turned into the basic problem of the countries and increased the interest of the researchers in the reasons of the crisis and the period in which they lived. Therefore, the complex nature of the financial crises and its linearly unexplained structure have also been included in the new discipline, econophysics. As it is known, although financial crises have prediction mechanisms, there is no definite information. In this context, in this study, using the concept of electric field from the electrostatic part of physics, an early econophysical approach for global financial crises was studied. The aim is to define a model that can take place before the financial crises, identify financial fragility at an earlier stage and help public and private sector members, policy makers and economists with an econophysical approach. 2001 Turkey crisis has been assessed with data from Turkish Central Bank which is covered between 1992 to 2007, and for 2001 Argentina crisis, data was taken from IMF and the Central Bank of Argentina from 1997 to 2007. As an econophysical method, an analogy is used between the Gauss's law used in the calculation of the electric field and the forecasting of the financial crisis. The concept of Φ (Financial Flux) has been adopted for the pre-warning of the crisis by taking advantage of this analogy, which is based on currency movements and money mobility. For the first time used in this study Φ (Financial Flux) calculations obtained by the formula were analyzed by Matlab software, and in this context, in 2001 Turkey and Argentina Crisis for Φ (Financial Flux) crisis of values has been confirmed to give pre-warning.

Keywords: econophysics, financial crisis, Gauss's Law, physics

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25 Natural Convection between Two Parallel Wavy Plates

Authors: Si Abdallah Mayouf

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In this work, the effects of the wavy surface on free convection heat transfer boundary layer flow between two parallel wavy plates have been studied numerically. The two plates are considered at a constant temperature. The equations and the boundary conditions are discretized by the finite difference scheme and solved numerically using the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. The important parameters in this problem are the amplitude of the wavy surfaces and the distance between the two wavy plates. Results are presented as velocity profiles, temperature profiles and local Nusselt number according to the important parameters.

Keywords: free convection, wavy surface, parallel plates, fluid dynamics

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24 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

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This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

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23 Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS Based on High Degree Cubature Kalman Filtering

Authors: Hamza Benzerrouk, Alexander Nebylov

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In classical GNSS/INS integration designs, the loosely coupled approach uses the GNSS derived position and the velocity as the measurements vector. This design is suboptimal from the standpoint of preventing GNSSoutliers/outages. The tightly coupled GPS/INS navigation filter mixes the GNSS pseudo range and inertial measurements and obtains the vehicle navigation state as the final navigation solution. The ultra‐tightly coupled GNSS/INS design combines the I (inphase) and Q(quadrature) accumulator outputs in the GNSS receiver signal tracking loops and the INS navigation filter function intoa single Kalman filter variant (EKF, UKF, SPKF, CKF and HCKF). As mentioned, EKF and UKF are the most used nonlinear filters in the literature and are well adapted to inertial navigation state estimation when integrated with GNSS signal outputs. In this paper, it is proposed to move a step forward with more accurate filters and modern approaches called Cubature and High Degree cubature Kalman Filtering methods, on the basis of previous results solving the state estimation based on INS/GNSS integration, Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) and High Degree Cubature Kalman Filter with (HCKF) are the references for the recent developed generalized Cubature rule based Kalman Filter (GCKF). High degree cubature rules are the kernel of the new solution for more accurate estimation with less computational complexity compared with the Gauss-Hermite Quadrature (GHQKF). Gauss-Hermite Kalman Filter GHKF which is not selected in this work because of its limited real-time implementation in high-dimensional state-spaces. In ultra tightly or a deeply coupled GNSS/INS system is dynamics EKF is used with transition matrix factorization together with GNSS block processing which is well described in the paper and assumes available the intermediary frequency IF by using a correlator samples with a rate of 500 Hz in the presented approach. GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) measurements are assumed available and modern SPKF with Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) are compared with new versions of CKF called high order CKF based on Spherical-radial cubature rules developed at the fifth order in this work. Estimation accuracy of the high degree CKF is supposed to be comparative to GHKF, results of state estimation are then observed and discussed for different initialization parameters. Results show more accurate navigation state estimation and more robust GNSS receiver when Ultra Tightly Coupled approach applied based on High Degree Cubature Kalman Filter.

Keywords: GNSS, INS, Kalman filtering, ultra tight integration

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22 Isogeometric Topology Optimization in Cracked Structures Design

Authors: Dongkyu Lee, Thanh Banh Thien, Soomi Shin

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In the present study, the isogeometric topology optimization is proposed for cracked structures through using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) as a design model. Design density variables defined in the variable space are used to approximate the element analysis density by the bivariate B-spline basis functions. The mathematical formulation of topology optimization problem solving minimum structural compliance is an alternating active-phase algorithm with the Gauss-Seidel version as an optimization model of optimality criteria. Stiffness and adjoint sensitivity formulations linked to strain energy of cracked structure are proposed in terms of design density variables. Numerical examples demonstrate interactions of topology optimization to structures design with cracks.

Keywords: topology optimization, isogeometric, NURBS, design

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21 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

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In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

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20 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh

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In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml, respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square meter aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 liters and 0.43 liters, respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still

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19 A Modified Decoupled Semi-Analytical Approach Based On SBFEM for Solving 2D Elastodynamic Problems

Authors: M. Fakharian, M. I. Khodakarami

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In this paper, a new trend for improvement in semi-analytical method based on scale boundaries in order to solve the 2D elastodynamic problems is provided. In this regard, only the boundaries of the problem domain discretization are by specific sub-parametric elements. Mapping functions are uses as a class of higher-order Lagrange polynomials, special shape functions, Gauss-Lobatto -Legendre numerical integration, and the integral form of the weighted residual method, the matrix is diagonal coefficients in the equations of elastodynamic issues. Differences between study conducted and prior research in this paper is in geometry production procedure of the interpolation function and integration of the different is selected. Validity and accuracy of the present method are fully demonstrated through two benchmark problems which are successfully modeled using a few numbers of DOFs. The numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions and the results from other numerical methods.

Keywords: 2D elastodynamic problems, lagrange polynomials, G-L-Lquadrature, decoupled SBFEM

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18 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: Amit Sharma, J. N. Sharma

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This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acoustics

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17 Investigations into Effect of Neural Network Predictive Control of UPFC for Improving Transient Stability Performance of Multimachine Power System

Authors: Sheela Tiwari, R. Naresh, R. Jha

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The paper presents an investigation into the effect of neural network predictive control of UPFC on the transient stability performance of a multi-machine power system. The proposed controller consists of a neural network model of the test system. This model is used to predict the future control inputs using the damped Gauss-Newton method which employs ‘backtracking’ as the line search method for step selection. The benchmark 2 area, 4 machine system that mimics the behavior of large power systems is taken as the test system for the study and is subjected to three phase short circuit faults at different locations over a wide range of operating conditions. The simulation results clearly establish the robustness of the proposed controller to the fault location, an increase in the critical clearing time for the circuit breakers and an improved damping of the power oscillations as compared to the conventional PI controller.

Keywords: identification, neural networks, predictive control, transient stability, UPFC

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16 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

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Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization

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15 Drying Kinects of Soybean Seeds

Authors: Amanda Rithieli Pereira Dos Santos, Rute Quelvia De Faria, Álvaro De Oliveira Cardoso, Anderson Rodrigo Da Silva, Érica Leão Fernandes Araújo

Abstract:

The study of the kinetics of drying has great importance for the mathematical modeling, allowing to know about the processes of transference of heat and mass between the products and to adjust dryers managing new technologies for these processes. The present work had the objective of studying the kinetics of drying of soybean seeds and adjusting different statistical models to the experimental data varying cultivar and temperature. Soybean seeds were pre-dried in a natural environment in order to reduce and homogenize the water content to the level of 14% (b.s.). Then, drying was carried out in a forced air circulation oven at controlled temperatures of 38, 43, 48, 53 and 58 ± 1 ° C, using two soybean cultivars, BRS 8780 and Sambaíba, until reaching a hygroscopic equilibrium. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 2 (temperature x cultivar) with 3 replicates. To the experimental data were adjusted eleven statistical models used to explain the drying process of agricultural products. Regression analysis was performed using the least squares Gauss-Newton algorithm to estimate the parameters. The degree of adjustment was evaluated from the analysis of the coefficient of determination (R²), the adjusted coefficient of determination (R² Aj.) And the standard error (S.E). The models that best represent the drying kinetics of soybean seeds are those of Midilli and Logarítmico.

Keywords: curve of drying seeds, Glycine max L., moisture ratio, statistical models

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14 Fluorescent Analysis of Gold Nanoclusters-Wool Keratin Addition to Copper Ions

Authors: Yao Xing, Hong Ling Liu, Wei Dong Yu

Abstract:

With the increase of global population, it is of importance for the safe water supply, while, the water-monitoring method with the capability of rapidness, low-cost, green and robustness remains unsolved. In this paper, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin is added into copper ions measured by fluorescent method in order to probe copper ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescent results show that gold nanoclusters-wool keratin exhibits high stability of pHs, while it is sensitive to temperature and time. Based on Gauss fitting method, the results exhibit that the slope of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin with pH resolution under acidic condition is higher compared to it under alkaline solutions. Besides, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin added into copper ions shows a fluorescence turn-off response transferring from red to blue under UV light, leading to the dramatically decreased fluorescent intensity of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin solution located at 690 nm. Moreover, the limited concentration of copper ions tested by gold nanoclusters-wool keratin system is around 1 µmol/L, which meets the need of detection standards. The fitting slope of Stern-Volmer plot at low concentration of copper ions is larger than it at high concentrations, which indicates that aggregated gold nanoclusters are from small amounts to large numbers with the increasing concentration of copper ions. It is expected to provide novel method and materials for copper ions testing with low cost, high efficiency, and easy operability.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, copper ions, wool keratin, fluorescence

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13 Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration

Authors: Assem M. F. Sallam, Ah. El-S. Makled

Abstract:

In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.

Keywords: orbit determination, STK, Matlab-GUI, satellite tracking

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12 Numerical Simulation of Footing on Reinforced Loose Sand

Authors: M. L. Burnwal, P. Raychowdhury

Abstract:

Earthquake leads to adverse effects on buildings resting on soft soils. Mitigating the response of shallow foundations on soft soil with different methods reduces settlement and provides foundation stability. Few methods such as the rocking foundation (used in Performance-based design), deep foundation, prefabricated drain, grouting, and Vibro-compaction are used to control the pore pressure and enhance the strength of the loose soils. One of the problems with these methods is that the settlement is uncontrollable, leading to differential settlement of the footings, further leading to the collapse of buildings. The present study investigates the utility of geosynthetics as a potential improvement of the subsoil to reduce the earthquake-induced settlement of structures. A steel moment-resisting frame building resting on loose liquefiable dry soil, subjected to Uttarkashi 1991 and Chamba 1995 earthquakes, is used for the soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis. The continuum model can simultaneously simulate structure, soil, interfaces, and geogrids in the OpenSees framework. Soil is modeled with PressureDependentMultiYield (PDMY) material models with Quad element that provides stress-strain at gauss points and is calibrated to predict the behavior of Ganga sand. The model analyzed with a tied degree of freedom contact reveals that the system responses align with the shake table experimental results. An attempt is made to study the responses of footing structure and geosynthetics with unreinforced and reinforced bases with varying parameters. The result shows that geogrid reinforces shallow foundation effectively reduces the settlement by 60%.

Keywords: settlement, shallow foundation, SSI, continuum FEM

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11 Dido: An Automatic Code Generation and Optimization Framework for Stencil Computations on Distributed Memory Architectures

Authors: Mariem Saied, Jens Gustedt, Gilles Muller

Abstract:

We present Dido, a source-to-source auto-generation and optimization framework for multi-dimensional stencil computations. It enables a large programmer community to easily and safely implement stencil codes on distributed-memory parallel architectures with Ordered Read-Write Locks (ORWL) as an execution and communication back-end. ORWL provides inter-task synchronization for data-oriented parallel and distributed computations. It has been proven to guarantee equity, liveness, and efficiency for a wide range of applications, particularly for iterative computations. Dido consists mainly of an implicitly parallel domain-specific language (DSL) implemented as a source-level transformer. It captures domain semantics at a high level of abstraction and generates parallel stencil code that leverages all ORWL features. The generated code is well-structured and lends itself to different possible optimizations. In this paper, we enhance Dido to handle both Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel grid traversals. We integrate temporal blocking to the Dido code generator in order to reduce the communication overhead and minimize data transfers. To increase data locality and improve intra-node data reuse, we coupled the code generation technique with the polyhedral parallelizer Pluto. The accuracy and portability of the generated code are guaranteed thanks to a parametrized solution. The combination of ORWL features, the code generation pattern and the suggested optimizations, make of Dido a powerful code generation framework for stencil computations in general, and for distributed-memory architectures in particular. We present a wide range of experiments over a number of stencil benchmarks.

Keywords: stencil computations, ordered read-write locks, domain-specific language, polyhedral model, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 51