Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1029

Search results for: allowance for corporate equity

1029 Effects of Allowance for Corporate Equity on the Financing Choices of Belgian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in a Crisis Context

Authors: O. Colot, M. Croquet, L. Cultrera, Y. Fandja Collince

Abstract:

The objective of our research is to evaluate the impact of the allowance for corporate equity (ACE) on the financial structure of Belgian SME in order to highlight the potential existence of a fiscal leverage. To limit the biases linked to the rationing of the capital further to the financial crisis, we compare first the dynamic evolution of the financial structure of the Belgian firms over the period 2006-2015 by focusing on three sub-periods: 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015. We give then an international size to this comparison by including SMEs from countries adjoining Belgium (France, Germany, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and within which there is no ACE. This comparison allows better understanding the fiscal advantage linked to the ACE of firms evolving in a relatively unstable economic environment further to the financial crisis of 2008. This research is relevant given the economic and political context in which Belgium operates and the very uncertain future of the Belgian ACE. The originality of this research is twofold: the long study period and the consideration of the effects of the financial and economic crisis on the financing structure of Belgian SMEs. The results of this research, even though they confirm the existence of a positive fiscal leverage for the tax deduction for venture capital on the financing structure of Belgian SMEs, do not allow the extent of this leverage to be clearly quantified. The comparative evolution of financing structures over the period 2006-2015 of Belgian, French, German, Dutch and English SMEs shows a strong similarity in the overall evolution of their financing.

Keywords: allowance for corporate equity, Belgium, financial structure, small and medium sized firms

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1028 Zakat and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Analysis in Increasing Its Value

Authors: Afrizon Reskino

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The Article explores how the role of Zakat and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can enhance corporate values. This research is a descriptive study which aimed to find out how the impact of Zakat and CSR disclosure towards corporate values. Sample taken in this research is the company has entered into the Jakarta Islamic Index, and it estimated to have implemented CSR and also made statements of sources and uses of Zakat taking PT. INCO, PT. Inducement and PT. Semen Gresik. The reasons for selecting of three companies are known from the data and facts every year they always provide significant CSR funds. CSR and charity both have a role and responsibility for the welfare of the peoples. This study found that in 2008, debt-to-equity ratio of PT. INCO approximately 15%. In 2009, It increased to 23%. While Debt-to-equity ratio of PT Semen Gresik increase of 3% to 4%. PT Inducement is weaken from 10% to 7%, but the average debt-to-equity ratio of the three companies has increased.

Keywords: zakat, charity, corporate social responsibility, corporate values

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1027 Branding Good Corporate Governance: A Pathway to Strengthen Investors’ Perception and Brand Equity

Authors: Azaz Zaman, Imtiaz Uddin Chowdhury, Mohammad Shariful Islam

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Corporate governance has become a crucial issue in both the business and academic world as a result of world-wide financial scandals and lack of trust in corporate practices. There is no doubt that in order to thrive and attain growth in the market, a company must earn the trust of its stakeholders by consistently delivering on its commitments. Directors of the companies thus comprehend the importance of upfront communication with relevant stakeholders to increase their confidence. The authors of this article argue that practicing good corporate governance is not enough in this highly competitive market place; corporate leaders need to market their good corporate governance practices in order to make the company more attractive to investors. This article also contends that the strength of corporate governance relies wholly upon the extent to which it is communicated simply, effectively and unceasingly to its stakeholders. The main objective of this study, therefore, is to explore the importance of branding good corporate governance in order to increase corporate brand equity, attract investors, and capture market share. A structured questionnaire comprising three sections and a total of 34 questions was prepared and surveyed by the authors among respondents residing in Bangladesh and who also have an academic and corporate background, to investigate the potential impact of branding good corporate governance in the market place. High mean values for individual questions and overall section depict that communicating and branding good corporate governance to the stakeholders will not only boost the investors’ confidence but also increase the corporate brand equity, yielding both profitable and sustainable business environment.

Keywords: brand equity, investors’ preference, good corporate governance, sustainable business environment

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1026 Corporate Governance Attributes and Financial Performance in Malaysian Listed Companies

Authors: Idris Adamu Alhaji, Wan Fauziahbt Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

This study was conducted to identify the relationship between Corporate Governance attributes and Firm Performance, various studies, had been carried out mostly in developed countries, in order to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Since, the value creation of corporate governance can be measured through the firm performance, corporate governance act as a mechanism to align management's goals with the stakeholders especially to increase firm performance. Despite extensive study of corporate governance there is still an inconsistence relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Five corporate governance element were used as independent variables which include: Independent director, board size, audit committee, leadership structure and board meeting. Meanwhile, the dependent variables are two firm performance measurements; return on equity (ROE) and earning per share (EPS). This study uses quantitative approaches whereby data were gathered from secondary source data were collected from Annual Reports of the companies, online journals etc. This study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the results show that good corporate governance practice influence firm performance. Finally, it's hoped that this study provides current corporate governance scenario in Malaysia that can be used to enhance the development of corporate governance of the country.

Keywords: corporate governance, return on equity, earning per share, financial performance

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1025 A Critical Knowledge of Brand Equity in Thai Academic Works

Authors: Pongsiri Kamkankaew

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This paper experiments to consider brand equity thought in Thai academic works. This essay employs that the first emerging of brand equity in Thai academic works and the components of brand equity which explore the extent to the convoluted approach with other Thai social condition. In Thailand, brand equity is supposed to provide branding and brand management replacement. However, the commitment of brand equity imposes in its proposal for seemly application in Thai context – to develop the brand equity framework by the Thai social – culture and Thai utilization style which it is questionable whether the brand equity in western conception is useful for characterizing the brand equity in Thailand context. In this position, brand equity also aspects several major questions: How can western conception lead to apply in Thai business? How can diversification be given within Thai SMEs business running? Can corporate brand valuation approach adopt in real business doing? So this paper argues that Thai brand equity notion should reduce disturb over improvement of its self-restraint and business area. Instead, Thai academic who are interested in brand equity can harmonize different mature bodies of discipline and other investigative a frame of references to complete and open the recognizing of brand equity.

Keywords: Thai brand equity, knowledge critical, brand management, branding

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1024 Ownership, Management Responsibility and Corporate Performance of the Listed Firms in Kazakhstan

Authors: Gulnara Moldasheva

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The research explores the relationship between management responsibility and corporate governance of listed companies in Kazakhstan. This research employs firm level data of randomly selected listed non-financial firms and firm level data “operational” financial sector, consisted from banking sector, insurance companies and accumulated pension funds using multivariate regression analysis under fixed effect model approach. Ownership structure includes institutional ownership, managerial ownership and private investor’s ownership. Management responsibility of the firm is expressed by the decision of the firm on amount of leverage. Results of the cross sectional panel study for non-financial firms showed that only institutional shareholding is significantly negatively correlated with debt to equity ratio. Findings from “operational” financial sector show that leverage is significantly affected only by the CEO/Chair duality and the size of financial institutions, and insignificantly affected by ownership structure. Also, the findings show, that there is a significant negative relationship between profitability and the debt to equity ratio for non-financial firms, which is consistent with pecking order theory. Generally, the found results suggest that corporate governance and a management responsibility play important role in corporate performance of listed firms in Kazakhstan.

Keywords: ownership, corporate governance, debt to equity ratio, corporate performance

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1023 Corporate Cash Holdings and the Effect of Chaebol Affiliated on the Implied Cost of Equity Capital: Evidence from Korea

Authors: Hongmin Chun

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This paper examines corporate cash holdings and their effect on the cost of equity capital. In addition, this study examines the potentially different effects when the firm belongs to chaebol and non-chaebol groups. Chaebol is a South Korean form of business conglomerate. Chaebol is typically global multinationals and owns numerous international enterprises, controlled by a chairman with power over all the operations. The overall empirical result suggests that higher cash holdings are a risk increasing factor which holds for the chaebol group of firms. This result is valid in a battery of robustness tests and 2SLS regressions. In Korea, higher cash holdings represent a risk premium factor that is closely related to the overinvestment and agency problems between managers and shareholders.

Keywords: cash holdings, implied cost of equity capital, chaebol, agency problem

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1022 Comparative Evaluation of Equity Indicators in the Matikiw Community-Based Forest Management Project in Pakil, Laguna and the Minayutan and Bacong Sigsigan Community-Based Forest Management Project in Famy, Laguna

Authors: Katherine Arquio

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Community-based Forest Management (CBFM) is one of the integrative programs that slowly turned the course of forest management from traditional corporate to community-based practice resulting to people empowerment. As such, one of its goals is to promote socio-economic welfare among the people in the community in which social equity is included. This study aims to look at the equity aspect of the program, particularly if there are equity differences between two CBFM sites- Matikiw in Pakil, Laguna and Minayutan and Bacong Sigsigan in Famy, Laguna. Equity indicators were identified first, since these will be the basis of the questions that will be asked on the survey, after this, the survey proper was conducted, and finally, the analysis. Two tailed t-test was used as statistical tool since the difference between the two sites is the focus of the study. Statistical analysis was done through the use of STATA program, a statistical software. There were 32 indicators identified and results showed that, out of these indicators, only 13 were found significantly different between the two. The 13 indicators were significantly observed only in Matikiw; the other 19 indicators were commonly observed in both areas and are conducive as equity indicators for the CBFM program.

Keywords: social equity, CBFM, social forestry, equity indicators

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1021 Sensitivity Parameter Analysis of Negative Moment Dynamic Load Allowance of Continuous T-Girder Bridge

Authors: Fan Yang, Ye-Lu Wang, Yang Zhao

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The dynamic load allowance, as an application result of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration theory, is an important parameter for bridge design and evaluation. Based on the coupled vehicle-bridge vibration theory, the current work establishes a full girder model of a dynamic load allowance, selects a planar five-degree-of-freedom three-axis vehicle model, solves the coupled vehicle-bridge dynamic response using the APDL language in the spatial finite element program ANSYS, selects the pivot point 2 sections as the representative of the negative moment section, and analyzes the effects of parameters such as travel speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance through orthogonal tests. The influence of parameters such as vehicle speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number, and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance is analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the influence law of each influencing parameter is summarized. It is found that the effects of vehicle frequency, unevenness, and speed on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are significant, among which vehicle frequency has the greatest effect on the negative moment dynamic load allowance; the effects of span number and span diameter on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are relatively small; the effects of forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are negligible.

Keywords: continuous T-girder bridge, dynamic load allowance, sensitivity analysis, vehicle-bridge coupling

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1020 Relative Composition of Executive Compensation Packages, Corporate Governance and Financial Reporting Quality

Authors: Philemon Rakoto

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Most executive compensation packages consist of four major components: base fixed salary, annual and long-term non-equity incentive plans, share-based and option-based awards and pension value. According to agency theory, the relative composition of executive compensation packages is one of the mechanisms that firms use to align the interests of executives and shareholders in order to mitigate agency costs. This paper tests the effect of the relative composition of executive compensation packages on financial reporting quality. Financial reporting quality is measured by the value relevance of accounting earnings. Corporate governance is a moderating variable in the model. Using data from Canadian firms composing S&P/TSX index of the year 2013 and governance scores based on Board Games, the analysis shows that, only for firms with good governance, there is an optimal level of the proportion of executive equity-based compensation in relation to total compensation that enhances the quality of financial reporting.

Keywords: Canada, corporate governance, executive compensation packages, financial reporting quality

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1019 Board of Directors of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to Go Public: Characteristics and Moderating Factors

Authors: María-José Palacin-Sanchez, Filippo Di Pietro, Reyes Samaniego-Medina

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This article examines, in an institutional context such as Spanish one, the corporate board structure characteristics and determinants in entrepreneurial firms to go public. Specifically, it explores these issues through all the initial public offerings in the Spanish Alternative Equity Market (MAB), which is a market segment for smaller growing companies. The results show that: a) firm size, age of the company, and the reputation of the auditor and the nominated advisor and Corporate Governance Code favour a larger and more independent board structure that enhances its monitoring functions; and b) leverage, opportunities of growth, sector risk and ownership by executive directors all lead towards a smaller broad of directors where the role of entrepreneurship provided by executive directors remains crucial. This reflects the delicate balance of power between small-business entrepreneurs and financial equity market forces, which demand more transparency and monitoring in the companies.

Keywords: board composition, board size, corporate governance, IPO, SMEs

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1018 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali

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This study empirically inspects the corporate governance and firm performance, and attempts to analyze the corporate governance and control related variables which are hypothesized to have effect on firm’s performance. Current study attempts to assess the mechanism and efficiency of corporate governance to achieve high level performance for the listed firms on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) for the period 2005 to 2008. To evaluate the firm performance level this study investigate the firm performance using three measures; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To check the link between firm performances with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to examine the relation among governance and corporate performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that governance related variables like block shareholding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When chief executive officer is also the board chairperson then it is observed that performance of firm is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative influence on the firm performance and size of firm is positively related with performance of the firm.

Keywords: corporate governance, agency cost, KSE, ROA, Tobin’s Q

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1017 Firm Performance and Evolving Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali

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This study empirically examines the corporate governance and firm performance, and tries to evaluate the governance, ownership and control related variables which are hypothesized to affect on firms performance. This study tries to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanism to achieve high level performance among companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period from 2005 to 2008. To measure the firm performance level this research uses three measures of performance; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To link the performance of firms with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to test the link between corporate governance and firm performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that corporate governance variables such as percentage block holding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When CEO is also the chairperson of board then it is found that firm performance is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative impact on the performance of the firm and firm size is positively related with the firms performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, performance, agency cost, Karachi stock market

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1016 Corporate Performance and Balance Sheet Indicators: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Hussain Bohra, Pradyuman Sharma

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This study highlights the significance of Balance Sheet Indicators on the corporate performance in the case of Indian manufacturing companies. Balance sheet indicators show the actual financial health of the company and it helps to the external investors to choose the right company for their investment and it also help to external financing agency to give easy finance to the manufacturing companies. The period of study is 2000 to 2014 for 813 manufacturing companies for which the continuous data is available throughout the study period. The data is collected from PROWESS data base maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd. Panel data methods like fixed effect and random effect methods are used for the analysis. The Likelihood Ratio test, Lagrange Multiplier test and Hausman test results proof the suitability of the fixed effect model for the estimation. Return on assets (ROA) is used as the proxy to measure corporate performance. ROA is the best proxy to measure corporate performance as it already used by the most of the authors who worked on the corporate performance. ROA shows return on long term investment projects of firms. Different ratios like Current Ratio, Debt-equity ratio, Receivable turnover ratio, solvency ratio have been used as the proxies for the Balance Sheet Indicators. Other firm specific variable like firm size, and sales as the control variables in the model. From the empirical analysis, it was found that all selected financial ratios have significant and positive impact on the corporate performance. Firm sales and firm size also found significant and positive impact on the corporate performance. To check the robustness of results, the sample was divided on the basis of different ratio like firm having high debt equity ratio and low debt equity ratio, firms having high current ratio and low current ratio, firms having high receivable turnover and low receivable ratio and solvency ratio in the form of firms having high solving ratio and low solvency ratio. We find that the results are robust to all types of companies having different form of selected balance sheet indicators ratio. The results for other variables are also in the same line as for the whole sample. These findings confirm that Balance sheet indicators play as significant role on the corporate performance in India. The findings of this study have the implications for the corporate managers to focus different ratio to maintain the minimum expected level of performance. Apart from that, they should also maintain adequate sales and total assets to improve corporate performance.

Keywords: balance sheet, corporate performance, current ratio, panel data method

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1015 Impact of Board Characteristics on Financial Performance: A Study of Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

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The research will examine the role of corporate governance (CG) practices on firm’s financial performance. Population of this research will be manufacture sector of Pakistan. For the purposes of measurement of impact of corporate governance practices such as board size, board independence, ceo/chairman duality, will take as independent variables and for the measurement of firm’s performance return on assets and return on equity will take as dependent variables. Panel data regression model will be used to estimate the impact of CG on firm performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, board size, board independence, leadership

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1014 Understanding the Nature of Capital Allocation Problem in Corporate Finance

Authors: Meltem Gurunlu

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One of the central problems in corporate finance is the allocation of funds. This usually takes two forms: allocation of funds across firms in an economy or allocation of funds across projects or business units within a firm. The first one is typically related to the external markets (the bond market, the stock market, banks and finance companies) whereas the second form of the capital allocation is related to the internal capital markets in which corporate headquarters allocate capital to their business units. (within-group transfers, within-group credit markets, and within-group equity market). The main aim of this study is to investigate the nature of capital allocation dynamics by comparing the relevant studies carried out on external and internal capital markets with paying special significance to the business groups.

Keywords: internal capital markets, external capital markets, capital structure, capital allocation, business groups, corporate finance

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1013 Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Corporate Governance: Comparative Study between Listed Companies on Bucharest and Bombay Stock Exchange

Authors: L. Feleagă, M. Dumitrașcu, N. Feleagă

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This article is a research on corporate governance. The aim of the study is to focus a special attention on the importance of corporate social responsibility and corporate governance, which are relevant, indeed necessary, for organizations. In this regard, we analyzed the corporate social responsibility in the context of corporate governance for companies listed on Bucharest and Bombay Stock Exchange. Therefore, we bring into the spotlight some differences between India and Romania linked with the importance ascribed to corporate social responsibility of a company. We presented the results of the demarche and we concluded suggestions regarding further research in this area. The study increases the awareness, identifies and articulates desirable behaviors, which are not intended to be exhaustive.

Keywords: corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, disclosure, listed companies

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1012 Corporate Governance and Performance of Islamic Banks in GCC Countries

Authors: Samir Srairi

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This paper investigates the impact of the internal corporate governance on bank performance by constructing a corporate governance index (CGI) for 27 Islamic banks operating in five Arab Gulf countries. Using content analysis on the banks’ annual reports for 3 years (2011-2013), the index construction uses information on six important corporate governance mechanisms, namely board structure, risk management, transparency and disclosure, audit committee, Sharia supervisory board and investment account holders. The results demonstrate that Islamic banks adhere to 54% of the attributes addressed in the CGI. The most frequently reported and disclosed elements are Sharia supervisory board followed by board structure and risk management. The findings related to countries revealed that only two countries, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, possess a higher level of CGI. Our regression results provide evidence that Islamic banks with higher levels of corporate governance report high operating performance measured by return on assets and net interest margin. Finally, as of the effect of internal and external factors, we identified four variables that were associated with bank performance, namely size, equity, risk and concentration.

Keywords: governance mechanisms, corporate governance index, bank performance, Islamic banks, GCC countries

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1011 The Effects of Corporate Governance on Firm’s Financial Performance: A Study of Family and Non-family Owned Firms in Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

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This research will examine the impact of corporate governance on firm performance in family and non-family owned firms in Pakistan. For the purpose of this research, corporate governance mechanisms which included are board size, board composition, leadership structure, board meetings are taken as independent variable and firm performance taken as dependent variable and it will be measured with return on asset and return on equity. Firm size and firm’s age will be taken as control variables. Secondary data will collect from audited annul reports of companies and panel data regression model will applied, to check the impact of corporate governance on firm performance.

Keywords: board size, board composition, Leadership Structure, board meetings, firm performance, family and non-family owned firms

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1010 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: corporate governance, place, role, Japan

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1009 Corporate Philanthropy as a Source of Competitive Advantage

Authors: Mateusz Rak

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Objective: The paper aims to present various sources of competitive advantage which may occur when an enterprise strategically applies its concept of corporate philanthropy. Methodology: The review of the literature and available reports on the research regarding corporate philanthropy. Results: Strategic philanthropy is a positive phenomenon. Unfortunately, enterprises in Poland do not see all positive sides of such activities yet. Three kinds of corporate philanthropy may be described. They are to fulfil a social duty, improve the company reputation and gain a competitive edge. Practical implications: Showing enterprises the advantages of taking philanthropic actions, in particular, a large role of strategic philanthropy in gaining a competitive edge in the market as well as how to avoid negative consequences of corporate philanthropy. The paper presents corporate philanthropy on a few layers: as a CSR element, actions generating values in products, actions improving a corporate image in the market, altruist actions of employees.

Keywords: corporate philanthropy, corporate social responsibility, corporate foundations, CSR

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1008 Volatility Spillover Among the Stock Markets of South Asian Countries

Authors: Tariq Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Sheraz Mustafa, Jhanzeb Marwat

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The paper provides an updated version of volatility spillover among the equity markets of South Asian countries, including Pakistan, India, Srilanka, and Bangladesh. The analysis uses both symmetric and asymmetric Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models to investigate volatility persistence and leverage effect. The bivariate EGARCH model is used to test for volatility transmission between two equity markets. Weekly data for the period February 2013 to August 2019 is used for empirical analysis. The findings indicate that the leverage effect exists in the equity markets of all the countries except Bangladesh. The volatility spillover from the equity market of Bangladesh to all other countries is negative and significant whereas the volatility of the equity market of Sri-Lanka does influence the volatility of any other country’s equity market. Indian equity market influence only the volatility of the Sri-Lankan equity market; and there is bidirectional volatility spillover between the equity markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The findings are important for policy-makers and international investors.

Keywords: volatility spillover, volatility persistence, garch, egarch

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1007 A Behaviourally Plausible Decision Centred Perspective on the Role of Corporate Governance in Corporate Failures

Authors: Navdeep Kaur

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The primary focus of this study is to answer “What is the role of corporate governance in corporate failures? Does poor corporate governance lead to corporate failures? If so, how?”. In doing so, the study examines the literature from multiple fields, including corporate governance, corporate failures and organizational decision making, and presents a research gap to analyze and explore the relationship between corporate governance practices and corporate failures through a behavioral lens. In approaching this, a qualitative research methodology is adopted to analyze the failure of Enron Corporation (United States). The research considered the case study organizations as the primary unit of analysis and the decision-makers as the secondary unit of analysis. Based on this research approach, the study reports the analytical results drawn from extensive and triangulated secondary data. The study then interprets the results in the context of the theoretical synthesis. The study contributes towards filling a gap in the research and presents a behaviourally plausible decision centered model of the role of corporate governance in corporate failures. The model highlights the critical role of the behavioral aspects of corporate governance decision making in corporate failures and focuses attention on the under-explored aspects of corporate governance decision making. The study also suggests a further understanding of ‘A Behavioral Theory of the Firm’ in relation to corporate failures.

Keywords: behavior, corporate failure, corporate governance, decision making, values

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1006 Examining the Role of Corporate Culture in Driving Firm Performance

Authors: Lovorka Galetić, Ivana Načinović Braje, Nevenka Čavlek

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between corporate culture and firm performance. Extensive theoretical and empirical evidence on this issue is provided. A quantitative methodology was used to explore relationship between corporate culture and performance among large Croatian companies. Corporate culture was explored by using Denison framework. The research revealed a positive, statistically significant relationship between mission and performance. Other dimensions of corporate culture (involvement, consistency and adaptability) show only partial relationship with performance.

Keywords: corporate culture, Croatia, Denison culture model, performance

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1005 Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Organisational Performance

Authors: Jagbir Singh Kadyan, C. A. Suman Kadyan

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The researchers attempts to establish whether a relationship exists between the social activities undertaken & the funds that has been spent by the selected corporate organisations. Corporate listed on the (NSE) National Stock Exchange of India, under different categories shall be selected as a sample for the purpose of this study. The researches shall also study the dynamics of corporate social responsibility funding, financing & management of corporate social responsibility funds by the above selected organisations in the Indian context. The rationale behind selecting & undertaking specific corporate social responsibility activities shall be analysed & interpreted to discover the real drivers of corporate social responsibility. Besides above, an attempt shall further make an effort to understand & analyse the nature of impact on the selected corporate organisations on its overall performances due to the activities undertaken under their specific corporate social responsibility programs.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, organisational performance, national stock exchange, sustainability, society, health, education, sanitation, environment

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1004 Corporate Governance and Accountability: Nigeria Perspective

Authors: Obazee Osariere

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Corporate governance has been an emerging subject of worldwide interest in the 21st century following the failure of going concerns that were hitherto thought to be financially stable before their collapse. Nigeria has had its fair share of corporate collapse, which has made it embrace and develop its corporate governance regime. This paper seeks to undertake an overview of corporate governance and accountability: Nigeria's perspective. This paper examines the various ways the concept has been viewed, its various dimensions, and its basic principles as a major instrument of ensuring corporate governance and accountability and confidence in the operations of organisations. The paper, which adopts a qualitative research method, however, provides an essential theoretical framework within which better practice of corporate governance and accountability can be evolved for appreciable corporate results in the Nigerian business environment. Thus, a historical perspective is adopted to understudy the evolution of corporate governance and accountability from its little beginning to the present time. The adoption of these strategies, it is argued, will engender participation by various principles, engender mutual understanding, build social support and ensure accountability and openness. Such strategies would also help in attitude and behavioural change required to instill in the operators of corporate organisations the best practice enshrined in corporate governance and accountability.

Keywords: corporate governance, accountability, organisations, Nigeria, perspective

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1003 Earnings Management from Taiwan Gisa Firms

Authors: An-an Chiu, Shaio Yan Huang, Ling-Na Chen, Wei-Hua Lin

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Research has primarily focused on listed companies, less is done regarding small and medium-sized enterprises. Under the authorities' support, Taipei Exchange (TPEx) started Go Incubation Board for Startup and Acceleration Firms (GISA) in January 2014. This platform is designed to help small-sized innovative companies grow and to enter the capital market in the future. This research yield insight into earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEO) based on Taiwan’s GISA firms and the effectiveness of external corporate governance. Data for the study come from the GISA Market Observation Post System from January 2014 to December 2016. The result finds that GISA firms prone to upward accrual-based earnings management during SEO to avoid long-term negative consequences. Especially, firms with paid-in capital more than NT$ 30 million, higher fundraising amounts, or smaller-sized firms, tend to increase discretionary accruals. Finally, consistent with prior literature, CPA firms effectively serve as the role of external corporate governances on mitigating earnings management.

Keywords: GISA, earnings management, CPA, seasoned equity offerings

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1002 Examining the Role of Brand Equity and Explore the Influence of Consumers' Brand Relationship Quality

Authors: Jim Shih-Chiao Chin , Tsai Lin Hsu, Shui Lien Chen

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This article extends the relation between company’s employee and customers in market. According to the previous researches, most researchers analyzed and focused on customers’ brand perception. In the recently, some scholars star to explore the brand management from company viewpoint. The aim of this study is to explore whether consumers perception would be affected by the firm brand. This research would like to examine the relationship between individual consumers and corporate brands in the business-to-consumers sector. First, the study develops a framework that the connection with consumer and company. Second, this article uses three dimensions, brand knowledge, brand commitment, and brand equity to measure employees’ loyalty of brand and applies brand relationship quality to gauge the level of brand’s importance in consumer’s mind. This paper uses SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 to test consumers’ minds toward the brand equity which the company provides. There are totally 862 valid questionnaires returned, and 431 participants are consumers; the other 431 participants are employees. Those questionnaires are one-by-one to consumer and employee so those are 431 pairs questionnaires. Based on 431 pairs of consumers and company’s employees, analyzed results show that brand knowledge and brand commitment play important roles influencing brand equity. The results also demonstrate the extra-role brand equity positively impact on the brand relationship quality of consumers. In addition, the findings reveal that the company can improve brand relationship quality of consumers by enhancing extra-role brand equity. There is a sufficient evidence denote that brand relationship quality not only shows about the brand of customers’ thought but also implies company how to build the brand to impress on consumers. These findings provide the degree of the brand in consumers’ cognition. The brand-owner employee can reference the conclusion to creative new strategic to the next time or can be one of the company’s competitive advantages. Those results and conclusions are contributed to management practice and future.

Keywords: brand knowledge, brand commitment, brand equity, brand relationship quality

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1001 Governance and Financial Constraints the Impact on Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation in Cooperatives

Authors: Wanlapha Phraibueng, Patrick Sentis, Geraldine Riviere-Giordano

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives have been widely discussed especially in investor-oriented firms. In contrast, cooperatives pay less attention to CSR because their activities have integrated the responsibility and the solidity of social, economic and environment. On the other hand, by adopting ownership theory and agency theory – cooperatives ignore CSR investment due to unclarified decision control in the governance and the limitation to acquire the capital financed. The unique governance and financial structures in cooperatives lead to the conflict among the stakeholders and long-term investment which have an impact on firm financial performance. As an illustration of cooperatives dilemmas, we address the question of Whether or not cooperatives in term of governance and financial structures are the constraints on implementing CSR policies. We find that the governance and financial structures in large cooperatives are the influence factors which predispose cooperatives to invest on CSR. In contrast, in the startup or small cooperatives, its governance and financial structures are the constraints on implementing CSR policies. We propose the alternative financial structure based on the trade-off between debt and equity which aims to relax the restrictions in cooperatives’ governance and allow cooperatives to acquire the capital financed either from its members or non-members. We suggest that engaging equity as a financial structure induces cooperatives to invest on CSR policies. Alternative financial structure eliminates not only cooperative ownership control problem but also the constraints in capital acquisition. By implementing CSR activities consistent with the alternative financial choice, cooperatives can increase firm’s value and reduce the conflict among their stakeholders.

Keywords: cooperatives, corporate social responsibility, financial, governance

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1000 Simultaneous Relationship among Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Ayu Diar Sari, Sidharta Utama

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to examine the empirical association among strategic corporate social responsibility (Strategic CSR), corporate governance (CG), and firm performance by investigating their causal effects. In order to get the comprehensive result, this study uses CSR variables which consist of Strategic CSR, Non-Strategic CSR and CSR as a whole. Exerting the two stage least square (2SLS) method, the result showed that CG mechanism positively influences CSR, Non-Strategic CSR, and firm performance (both ROA and PBV). CSR and Non-Strategic CSR positively influence ROA. Meanwhile CSR, Strategic and Non-Strategic CSR positively influence PBV. Firm’s Strategic CSR engagement plays a significantly positive role in enhancing PBV. The results supported the social impact hypothesis, agency theory, and conflict resolution theory.

Keywords: corporate financial performance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, strategic corporate social responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 198