Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Demet Yavuz

51 The Effect of Air Entraining Agents on Compressive Strength

Authors: Demet Yavuz

Abstract:

Freeze-thaw cycles are one of the greatest threats to concrete durability. Lately, protection against this threat excites scientists’ attention. Air-entraining admixtures have been widely used to produce freeze-thaw resistant at concretes. The use of air-entraining agents (AEAs) enhances not only freeze-thaw endurance but also the properties of fresh concrete such as segregation, bleeding and flow ability. This paper examines the effects of air-entraining on compressive strength of concrete. Air-entraining is used between 0.05% and 0.4% by weight of cement. One control and four fiber reinforced concrete mixes are prepared and three specimens are tested for each mix. It is concluded from the test results that when air entraining is increased the compressive strength of concrete reduces for all mixes with AEAs.

Keywords: concrete, air-entraining, compressive strength, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
50 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
49 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber

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48 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability

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47 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing

Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen

Abstract:

Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.

Keywords: irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin, seed quality, seed yield

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46 The Analysis of Expenses for Research and Development Activities in Turkey

Authors: Gökhan Karhan, Yavuz Elitok

Abstract:

Nowadays, inequality between developing and underdeveloped countries has a rapid increment. Developed countries impress the underdeveloped countries to become dependent through them. For that reason, Turkey has to increase its capability of making technological innovations. It has tried to be identified by examining the expenses of R&D in public, mercantile establishments and universities in Turkey that which expense is not enough and which expense should be doubled. As a result, developing new resolution strategies will be easier.

Keywords: competitive strength, research and development, technological innovation, Turkey

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45 Some Plant-Based Handmade Tools and Theirs Uses in Kadınhanı, Konya, Turkey and Its Vicinity

Authors: Yavuz Bağcı, Levent Keskin

Abstract:

The study was carried out in 2011-2014 period to determine plant-based hand tools uses of plants in Kadınhanı (Konya) and surrounding villages. A total of 153 individuals, who lived or were living during this study in 4 towns, 37 villages and 9 neighborhood were interviewed. It was found that of a total about 20 plants belonging to 10 families in the study area, about 60 hand-made goods were used by peoples for various purposes.

Keywords: ethnobotanic, handmade, Kadınhanı, Konya, plant-human relationship

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44 Anchorage Effect on Axial Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymers Confined Rectangular Columns

Authors: Yavuz Yardim

Abstract:

FRP systems have been largely used to improve the performance of structural members, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Application of this strengthening procedure in circular columns has resulted quite beneficial in increasing their seismic and axial capacity. Whereas in the rectangular ones, strength enhancement was considerably less due to stress concentration in the corner. In this work three anchorage configurations are tested for their efficiency in increasing the uniformity of confinement pressure in the CFRP strengthened non-circular sections. There is a slight increase in the axial strength of specimens as a general trend. More specifically fan anchorage reached an increase of 17.5% compared to the unanchored specimens. The study shows that uniformity of confining pressure has increased by adding anchorage.

Keywords: rectangular columns, FRP, confinement, anchorage

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43 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

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42 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiber

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41 Determination and Evaluation of the Need of Land Consolidation for Nationalization Purpose with the Survey Results

Authors: Turgut Ayten, Tayfun Çay, Demet Ayten

Abstract:

In this research, nationalization method for obtaining land on the destination of Ankara-Konya High Speed Train in Turkey; Land consolidation for nationalization purpose as an alternative solution on obtaining land; a survey prepared for land owners whose lands were nationalized and institution officials who carries out the nationalization and land consolidation was applied, were investigated and the need for land consolidation for nationalization purpose is tried to be put forth. Study area is located in the Konya city- Kadınhanı district-Kolukısa and Sarikaya neighbourhood in Turkey and land consolidation results of the selected field which is on the destination of the high-speed train route were obtained. The data obtained was shared with the landowners in the research area, their choice between the nationalization method and land consolidation for nationalization method was questioned. In addition, the organization and institution officials who are accepted to used primarily by the state for obtaining land that are needed for the investments of state, and institution officials who make land consolidation were investigated on the issues of the efficiency of the methods they used and if they tried different methods.

Keywords: nationalization, land consolidation, land consolidation for nationalization

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40 The Relationships between the Feelings of Bullying, Self- Esteem, Employee Silence, Anger, Self- Blame and Shame

Authors: Şebnem Aslan, Demet Akarçay

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the feelings of health employees occurred by bullying and the relationships between these feelings at work place. In this context, the relationships between bullying and the feelings of self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self- blame and shame. This study was conducted among 512 health employees in three hospitals in Konya by using survey method and simple random sampling. The scales of bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self-blame, and shame were performed within the study. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive analysis, correlation, confirmative factor analysis, structural equation modeling and path analysis. The results of the study showed that while bullying had a positive effect on self-esteem (.61), employee silence (.41), anger (.18), a negative effect on self-blame and shame (-.26) was observed. Employee silence affected self-blame and shame (.83) as positively. Besides, self-esteem impacted on self- blame and shame (.18), employee silence (.62) positively and self-blame and shame was observed as negatively affecting on anger (-.20). Similarly, self-esteem was found as negatively affected on anger (-.13).

Keywords: bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, shame and guilt, healthcare employee

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39 Testing the Impact of Landmarks on Navigation through the Use of Mobile-Based Games

Authors: Demet Yesiltepe, Ruth Dalton, Ayse Ozbil

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of landmarks on spatial navigation. For this study, a mobile-based virtual game, 'Sea Hero Quest' (SHQ), was used. At the beginning of the game, participants were asked to look at maps which included the specific locations of players and checkpoints. After the map disappeared, participants were asked to navigate a boat and find the checkpoints in a pre-given order. By analyzing this data, we aim to better understand an important component of cities, namely landmarks, on spatial navigation. Game levels were analyzed spatially and axial-based integration, choice and connectivity values of levels were calculated to make comparisons. To make this kind of a comparison, we focused on levels which include both local and global landmarks and levels which include only local landmarks. The most significant contribution of this study to urban design and planning fields is that it provides mounting evidence about the utility of landmarks and their roles in cities due to the fact that the game was played more than 2.5 million people. Moreover, by using these results, it can be possible to encourage cities with more global and local landmarks to have more identifiable/readable areas.

Keywords: landmarks, mobile-based games, spatial navigation, virtual environment

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38 Numerical Analysis of Passive Controlled Turbulent Flow around a Circular Cylinder

Authors: Mustafa Soyler, Mustafa M. Yavuz, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp

Abstract:

In this study, unsteady two-dimensional turbulent flow around a circular cylinder and passive control of the flow with groove on the cylinder was examined. In the CFD analysis, solutions were made using turbulent flow conditions. Steady and unsteady solutions were used in turbulent flow analysis. Numerical analysis of the flow around the circular cylinder is difficult since flow is not in a stable regime when Reynold number is between 1000 and 10000. The analyses in this study were performed at a subcritical Re number of 5000 and the results were compared with available experimental results of the drag coefficient (Cd) and Strouhal (St) number values in the literature. The effect of different groove types and depths on the Cd coefficient has been analyzed and grooves increase the Cd coefficient compared to the smooth cylinder.

Keywords: CFD, drag coefficient, flow over cylinder, passive flow control

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37 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal

Abstract:

Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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36 Discussion on Big Data and One of Its Early Training Application

Authors: Fulya Gokalp Yavuz, Mark Daniel Ward

Abstract:

This study focuses on a contemporary and inevitable topic of Data Science and its exemplary application for early career building: Big Data and Leaving Learning Community (LLC). ‘Academia’ and ‘Industry’ have a common sense on the importance of Big Data. However, both of them are in a threat of missing the training on this interdisciplinary area. Some traditional teaching doctrines are far away being effective on Data Science. Practitioners needs some intuition and real-life examples how to apply new methods to data in size of terabytes. We simply explain the scope of Data Science training and exemplified its early stage application with LLC, which is a National Science Foundation (NSF) founded project under the supervision of Prof. Ward since 2014. Essentially, we aim to give some intuition for professors, researchers and practitioners to combine data science tools for comprehensive real-life examples with the guides of mentees’ feedback. As a result of discussing mentoring methods and computational challenges of Big Data, we intend to underline its potential with some more realization.

Keywords: Big Data, computation, mentoring, training

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35 Geochemical Investigation of Weathering and Sorting for Tepeköy Sandstones

Authors: M. Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Late Eocene-Oligocene aged sandstones that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Lake (Central Anatolia, Turkey) range from 49 to 59 with an average of 51. The A-CN-K diagram indicates that sandstones underwent post-depositional K-metasomatism. The original average CIA value before the K-metasomatism is calculated as 55. This value is lower than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines a low intense chemical weathering in the source-area. Extrapolation of sandstones back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests a high average plagioclase to alkali feldspar ratio in the provenance and a composition close to granodiorite. The Zr/Sc and Th/Sc ratios with the Al₂O₃-Zr-TiO₂ space do not show zircon addition that refuse both recycling of sediments and sorting effect. All these data suggest direct and rapid transportation from the source due to topographic uplift and probably arid to semi-arid climate conditions for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, sandstone, sorting, weathering

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34 Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2: Ti Thin Films Spray-Deposited on Optical Glass

Authors: Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

In this study, we have newly developed titanium-tin oxide (TiSnO) thin films as the transparent conducting oxides materials by the spray pyrolysis technique. Tin oxide thin films doped with different Ti content were successfully grown by spray pyrolysis and they were characterized as a function of Ti content. The effect of Ti contents on the crystalline structure and optical properties of the as-deposited SnO2:Ti films was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectrometer and photoluminecenc spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction patterns taken at room temperature showed that the films are polycrystalline. The preferred directions of crystal growth appeared in the difractogram of SnO2: Ti (TiTO) films were correspond to the reflections from the (110), (200), (211) and (301) planes. The grain size varies from 21.8 to 27.8 nm for (110) preferred plane. SEM and AFM study reveals the surface of TiTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The highest visible transmittance (570 nm) of the deposited films is 80 % for 20 wt % titanium doped tin oxide films. The obtained results revealed that the structures and optical properties of the films were greatly affected by doping levels. These films are useful as conducting layers in electro chromic and photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: transparent conducting oxide, gas sensors, SnO2, Ti, optoelectronic, spray pyrolysis

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33 Rare Earth Element (REE) Geochemistry of Tepeköy Sandstones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

Sandstones from Upper Eocene - Oligocene Tepeköy formation (Member of Mezgit Group) that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents. Average concentrations of ΣREE, ΣLREE (Total light rare earth elements) and ΣHREE (Total heavy rare earth elements) were determined as 31.37, 26.47 and 4.55 ppm respectively. These values are lower than UCC (Upper continental crust) which indicates grain size and/or CaO dilution effect. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by the average ratios of (La/Yb)cn = 6.20, (La/Sm)cn = 4.06, (Gd/Lu)cn = 1.10, Eu/Eu* = 0.99 and Ce/Ce* = 0.94. Lower values of ΣLREE/ΣHREE (Average 5.97) and (La/Yb)cn suggest lower fractionation of overall REE. Moreover (La/Sm)cn and (Gd/Lu)cn ratios define less inclined LREE and almost flat HREE pattern when compared with UCC. Almost no Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) emphasizes that REE were originated from terrigenous material. Also depleted LREE and no Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) suggest an undifferentiated mafic provenance for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, provenance, rare earth elements, REE, Tepeköy sandstone

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32 Provenance and Paleoweathering Conditions of Doganhisar Clay Beds

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Huseyinca

Abstract:

The clay beds are located at the south-southeast of Doğanhisar and northwest of Konya in the Central Anatolia. In the scope of preliminary study, three types of samples were investigated including basement phyllite (Bp) overlain by the clay beds, weathered phyllite (Wp) and Doğanhisar clay (Dc). The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Dc range from 81 to 88 with an average of 85. This value is higher than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines very intense chemical weathering in the source-area. On the other hand, the A-CN-K diagram indicates that Bp underwent high degree post-depositional K-metasomatism. The average reconstructed CIA value of the Bp prior to the K-metasomatism is mainly 81 which overlaps the CIA values of the Wp (83) and Dc (85). Similar CIA values indicate parallel weathering trends. Also, extrapolation of the samples back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests an identical provenance close to granite in composition. Hereby the weathering background of Dc includes two steps. First one is intense weathering process of a granitic source to Bp with post-depositional K-metasomatism and the latter is progressively weathering of Bp to premetasomatised conditions (formation of Wp) ending with Dc deposition.

Keywords: clay beds, Doganhisar, provenance, weathering

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31 Earthquakes and Buildings: Lesson Learnt from Past Earthquakes in Turkey

Authors: Yavuz Yardım

Abstract:

The most important criteria for structural engineering is the structure’s ability to carry intended loads safely. The key element of this ability is mathematical modeling of really loadings situation into a simple loads input to use in structure analysis and design. Amongst many different types of loads, the most challenging load is earthquake load. It is possible magnitude is unclear and timing is unknown. Therefore the concept of intended loads and safety have been built on experience of previous earthquake impact on the structures. Understanding and developing these concepts is achieved by investigating performance of the structures after real earthquakes. Damage after an earthquake provide results of thousands of full-scale structure test under a real seismic load. Thus, Earthquakes reveille all the weakness, mistakes and deficiencies of analysis, design rules and practice. This study deals with lesson learnt from earthquake recoded last two decades in Turkey. Results of investigation after several earthquakes exposes many deficiencies in structural detailing, inappropriate design, wrong architecture layout, and mainly mistake in construction practice.

Keywords: earthquake, seismic assessment, RC buildings, building performance

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30 Examining the Modular End of Line Control Unit Design Criteria for Vehicle Sliding Door System Slide Profile

Authors: Orhan Kurtuluş, Cüneyt Yavuz

Abstract:

The end of the line controls of the finished products in the automotive industry is important. The control that has been conducted with the manual methods for the sliding doors tracks is not sufficient and faulty products cannot be identified. As a result, the customer has the faulty products. In the scope of this study, the design criteria of the PLC integrated modular end of line control unit has been examined, designed and manufactured to make the control of the 10 different track profile to 2 different vehicles with an objective to minimize the salvage costs by obtaining more sensitive, certain and accurate measurement results. In the study that started with literature and patent review, the design inputs have been specified, the technical concept has been developed, computer supported mechanic design, control system and automation design, design review and design improvement have been made. Laser analog sensors at high sensitivity, probes and modular blocks have been used in the unit. The measurement has been conducted in the system and it is observed that measurement results are more sensitive than the previous methods.

Keywords: control unit design, end of line, modular design, sliding door system

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29 Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation

Authors: Seda Yavuz, Anıl Çelebi, Aysun Taşyapı Çelebi, Oğuzhan Urhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.

Keywords: binarization, hardware architecture, local binary pattern, motion estimation, two-bit transform

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28 Comparison of Various Policies under Different Maintenance Strategies on a Multi-Component System

Authors: Demet Ozgur-Unluakin, Busenur Turkali, Ayse Karacaorenli

Abstract:

Maintenance strategies can be classified into two types, which are reactive and proactive, with respect to the time of the failure and maintenance. If the maintenance activity is done after a breakdown, it is called reactive maintenance. On the other hand, proactive maintenance, which is further divided as preventive and predictive, focuses on maintaining components before a failure occurs to prevent expensive halts. Recently, the number of interacting components in a system has increased rapidly and therefore, the structure of the systems have become more complex. This situation has made it difficult to provide the right maintenance decisions. Herewith, determining effective decisions has played a significant role. In multi-component systems, many methodologies and strategies can be applied when a component or a system has already broken down or when it is desired to identify and avoid proactively defects that could lead to future failure. This study focuses on the comparison of various maintenance strategies on a multi-component dynamic system. Components in the system are hidden, although there exists partial observability to the decision maker and they deteriorate in time. Several predefined policies under corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance strategies are considered to minimize the total maintenance cost in a planning horizon. The policies are simulated via Dynamic Bayesian Networks on a multi-component system with different policy parameters and cost scenarios, and their performances are evaluated. Results show that when the difference between the corrective and proactive maintenance cost is low, none of the proactive maintenance policies is significantly better than the corrective maintenance. However, when the difference is increased, at least one policy parameter for each proactive maintenance strategy gives significantly lower cost than the corrective maintenance.

Keywords: decision making, dynamic Bayesian networks, maintenance, multi-component systems, reliability

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27 A Decision Support System to Detect the Lumbar Disc Disease on the Basis of Clinical MRI

Authors: Yavuz Unal, Kemal Polat, H. Erdinc Kocer

Abstract:

In this study, a decision support system comprising three stages has been proposed to detect the disc abnormalities of the lumbar region. In the first stage named the feature extraction, T2-weighted sagittal and axial Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) were taken from 55 people and then 27 appearance and shape features were acquired from both sagittal and transverse images. In the second stage named the feature weighting process, k-means clustering based feature weighting (KMCBFW) proposed by Gunes et al. Finally, in the third stage named the classification process, the classifier algorithms including multi-layer perceptron (MLP- neural network), support vector machine (SVM), Naïve Bayes, and decision tree have been used to classify whether the subject has lumbar disc or not. In order to test the performance of the proposed method, the classification accuracy (%), sensitivity, specificity, precision, recall, f-measure, kappa value, and computation times have been used. The best hybrid model is the combination of k-means clustering based feature weighting and decision tree in the detecting of lumbar disc disease based on both sagittal and axial MR images.

Keywords: lumbar disc abnormality, lumbar MRI, lumbar spine, hybrid models, hybrid features, k-means clustering based feature weighting

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26 Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Authors: Przemyslaw Nogly, Tobias Weinert, Daniel James, Sergio Carbajo, Dmitry Ozerov, Antonia Furrer, Dardan Gashi, Veniamin Borin, Petr Skopintsev, Kathrin Jaeger, Karol Nass, Petra Bath, Robert Bosman, Jason Koglin, Matthew Seaberg, Thomas Lane, Demet Kekilli, Steffen Brünle, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Wenting Wu, Christopher Milne, Thomas A. White, Anton Barty, Uwe Weierstall, Valerie Panneels, Eriko Nango, So Iwata, Mark Hunter, Igor Schapiro, Gebhard Schertler, Richard Neutze, Jörg Standfuss

Abstract:

Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.

Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin, free-electron laser, retinal isomerization mechanism, time-resolved crystallography

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25 Changes in Inorganic Element Contents in Potamogeton Natans Exposed to Cement Factory Pollution

Authors: Yavuz Demir, Mucip Genisel, Hulya Turk, Turgay Sisman, Serkan Erdal

Abstract:

In this study, the changes in contents of inorganic elements in the aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) as a reflection of the impact of chemical nature pollution in a cement factory region (CFR) was evaluated. For this purpose, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ni, Si, Al, and Cd concentrations were measured in the aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) taken from a CFR. As a control, aquatic plant was collected at a distance of 2000 m from the outer zone of the cement factory. Inorganic element compositions were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). Three aquatic plant exhibited similar changes in contents of microelements and macroelements in their leaves. P, S, K, Cl, Ca, and Mo contents in plant grown in the CFR were reduced significantly compared to control plant, whereas their contents of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd were very high. According to these findings, it is possible that aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) inhabiting in the vicinity of cement factory sustains the deficiency of important essential elements like P, S, K, Ca, and Mo and greatly accumulate heavy metals like Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd. In addition, results of water analysis showed that heavy metal content such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, and Al of water taken from CFR was remarkably high than that of outer zone of CFR. These findings with relation to changes in inorganic composition can contribute to be elucidated of effect mechanism on growth and development of aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) of pollution resulted from cement factories.

Keywords: aquatic plant, cement factory, heavy metal pollution, inorganic element, Potamogeton natans

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24 Effect of Red Cabbage Antioxidant Extracts on Lipid Oxidation of Fresh Tilapia

Authors: Ayse Demirbas, Bruce A. Welt, Yavuz Yagiz

Abstract:

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish causes loss of product quality. Oxidative rancidity causes loss of nutritional value and undesirable color changes. Therefore, powerful antioxidant extracts may provide a relatively low cost and natural means to reduce oxidation, resulting in longer, higher quality and higher value shelf life of foods. In this study, we measured effects of red cabbage antioxidant on lipid oxidation in fresh tilapia filets using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, peroxide value (PV) and color assesment analysis. Extraction of red cabbage was performed using an efficient microwave method. Fresh tilapia filets were dipped in or sprayed with solutions containing different concentrations of extract. Samples were stored for up to 9 days at 4°C and analyzed every other day for color and lipid oxidation. Results showed that treated samples had lower oxidation than controls. Lipid peroxide values on treated samples showed benefits through day-7. Only slight differences were observed between spraying and dipping methods. This work shows that red cabbage antioxidant extracts may represent an inexpensive and all natural method for reducing oxidative spoilage of fresh fish.

Keywords: antioxidant, shelf life, fish, red cabbage, lipid oxidation

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23 Contribution of NLRP3 Inflammasome to the Protective Effect of 5,14-HEDGE, A 20-HETE Mimetic, against LPS-Induced Septic Shock in Rats

Authors: Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Mahesh P. Paudyal, John R. Falck, Kafait U. Malik

Abstract:

We hypothesized that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) mimetics such as N-(20-hydroxyeicosa-5[Z],14[Z]-dienoyl)glycine (5,14-HEDGE) may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aims to assess the effect of 5,14-HEDGE on the LPS-induced changes in nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg) or LPS (10 mg/kg) at time 0. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. 5,14-HEDGE (30 mg/kg) was administered to rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery were isolated for measurement of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, ASC, and β-actin proteins as well as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Blood pressure decreased by 33 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. In the LPS-treated rats, tissue protein expression of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, and ASC in addition to IL-1β levels were increased. 5,14-HEDGE prevented the LPS-induced changes. Our findings suggest that inhibition of renal, cardiac, and vascular formation/activity of NLRP3/ASC/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome involved in the protective effect of 5,14-HEDGE on LPS-induced septic shock in rats. This work was financially supported by the Mersin University (2015-AP3-1343) and USPHS NIH (PO1 HL034300).

Keywords: 5, 14-HEDGE, lipopolysaccharide, NLRP3, inflammasome, septic shock

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22 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

Procedia PDF Downloads 368