Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4902

Search results for: ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

4902 Ultradrawing and Ultimate Tensile Properties of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Fibers Filled with Activated Nanocarbon Particles with Varying Specific Surface Areas

Authors: Wang-Xi Fan, Yi Ding, Zhong-Dan Tu, Kuo-Shien Huang, Chao-Ming Huang, Jen-Taut Yeh


Original and/or functionalized activated nanocarbon particles with a quoted specific surface area of 100, 500, 1000 and 1400 m2/g, respectively, were used to investigate the influence of specific surface areas of activated nanocarbon on ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), UHMWPE/activated nanocarbon and UHMWPE/ functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers. The specific surface areas of well dispersed functionalized activated nanocarbon in UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers can positively affect their ultra drawing, orientation, ultimate tensile properties and “micro-fibril” characteristics. Excellent orientation and ultimate tensile properties of UHMWPE/nanofiller fibers can be prepared by ultra drawing the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon as-prepared fibers with optimal contents and compositions of functionalized activated nanocarbon. The ultimate tensile strength value of the best prepared UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon drawn fiber reached 8.0 GPa, which was about 2.86 times of that of the best-prepared UHMWPE drawn fiber prepared in this study. Specific surface area, morphological and Fourier transform infrared analyses of original and functionalized activated nanocarbon and/or investigations of thermal, orientation factor and ultimate tensile properties of as-prepared and/or drawn UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers were performed to understand the above-improved ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers.

Keywords: activated nanocarbon, specific surface areas, ultradrawing, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

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4901 Ultradrawing and Ultimate Pensile Properties of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposite Fibers Filled with Cellulose Nanofibers

Authors: Zhong-Dan Tu, Wang-Xi Fan, Yi-Chen Huang, Jen-Taut Yeh


Novel ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) (F100CNFy) and UHMWPE/modified cellulose nanofiber (MCNF) (F100MCNFxy) as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were prepared by spinning F100CNFy and F100MCNFxy gel solutions, respectively. Cellulose nanofibers were successfully prepared by proper acid treatment of cotton fibers using sulfuric acid solutions. The best prepared CNF is with specific surface areas around 120 m2/g and a nanofiber diameter of 20 nm. Modified cellulose nanofiber was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) onto cellulose nanofibers. The achievable draw ratio (Dra) values of each F100MCNFxy as-prepared fiber series specimens approached a maximal value as their MCNF contents reached the optimal value at 0.05 phr. In which, the maximum Dra value obtained for F100MCNFx0.05 as-prepared fiber specimen prepared at the optimal MCNF content reached another maximum value as the weight ratio of PE-g-MAH to CNF approach an optimal value at 6. Similar to those found for the achievable drawing properties of the as-prepared fibers, the orientation factor, tensile strength (σ f) and initial modulus (E) values of drawn F100MCNF6y fiber series specimens with a fixed draw ratio reach a maximal value as their MCNF contents approach the optimal value, wherein the σ f and E values of the drawn F100MCNFxy fiber specimens are significantly higher than those of the drawn F100 fiber specimens and corresponding drawn F100CNFy fiber specimens prepared at the same draw ratios and CNF contents but without modification. To understand the interesting ultradrawing, thermal, orientation and tensile properties of F100CNFy and F100MCNFxy fiber specimens, Fourier transform infra-red, specific surface areas, and transmission electron microcopic analyses of the original and modified CNF nanofillers were performed in this study.

Keywords: ultradrawing, cellulose nanofibers, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, nanocomposite fibers

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4900 Evaluation of the UV Stability of Unidirectional Crossply Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene Composite

Authors: Jonmichael Weaver, David Miller


Dyneema is an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber created by DSM. This fiber has many applications due to the high tensile strength, low weight, and inability to absorb water. DSM manufactures a non-woven unidirectional cross-ply [0,90]2 lamina, using the Dyneema fiber. Using this lamina system, various thickness panels are created for a 40% lighter weight alternative to Kevlar for the same ballistics protection. Environmental effects on the ply/laminate system alter the material properties, resulting in diminished ultimate performance. Understanding the specific environmental parameters and characterizing the resulting material property degradation is essential for determining the safety and reliability of Dyneema in service. Two laminas were contrasted for their response to accelerated aging by UV, humidity, and temperature cycling. Both lamina contain the same fiber, SK-99, but differ in matrix composition, Dyneema HB-210 employs a polyurethane (PUR) based matrix, and HB-212 contains a rubber-based matrix. Each system was inspected using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to characterize the material property changes alongside the corresponding composite damage and matrix failure mode over the aging parameters. Overall, resulting in the HB-212 degrading faster compared with the HB-210.

Keywords: dyneema, accelerated aging, polymers, ballistics protection, armor, DSM, kevlar, composites

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4899 The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Cross-Linking of Two Different Molecular Weight LLDPE Samples

Authors: Ashkan Forootan, Reza Rashedi


Polyethylene has wide usage areas such as blow molding, pipe, film, cable insulation. However, regardless to its growing applications, it has some constraints such as the limited 70C operating temperature. Polyethylene thermo setting procedure whose molecules are knotted and 3D-molecular-network formed , is developed to conquer the above problem and to raise the applicable temperature of the polymer. This paper reports the cross-linking for two different molecular weight grades of LLDPE by adding 0.5, 1, and 2% of DCP (Dicumyl Peroxide). DCP was chosen for its prevalence among various cross-linking agents. Structural parameters such as molecular weight, melt flow index, comonomer, number of branches,etc. were obtained through the use of relative tests as Gel Permeation Chromatography and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometer. After calculating the percentage of gel content, properties of the pure and cross-linked samples were compared by thermal and mechanical analysis with DMTA and FTIR and the effects of cross-linking like viscous and elastic modulus were discussed by using various structural paprameters such as MFI, molecular weight, short chain branches, etc. Studies showed that cross-linked polymer, unlike the pure one, had a solid state with thermal mechanical properties in the range of 110 to 120C and this helped overcome the problem of using polyethylene in temperatures near the melting point.

Keywords: LLDPE, cross-link, structural parameters, DCP, DMTA, GPC

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4898 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov


The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: biocomposite, composite, diffusion, polyethylene, vegetable filler

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4897 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Vitoldas Vaitkevičius, Evaldas Šerelis


Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: compressive strength, silica fume, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

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4896 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari


This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato

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4895 Investigation of Interaction between Interferons and Polyethylene Glycol Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, F. Kamali, M. Klantari Pour, L. Zeidabadi-Nejad


Chemical bonding between polyethylene glycol (PEG) with pharmaceutical proteins called pegylation is one of the most effective methods of improving the pharmacological properties. The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins will increase their pharmacologic properties. For the formation of a combination of pegylated protein should first be activated PEG and connected to the protein. Interferons(IFNs) are a family of cytokines which show antiviral effects in front of the biological and are responsible for setting safety system. In this study, the nature and properties of the interaction between active positions of IFNs and polyethylene glycol have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The main aspect of this theoretical work focuses on the achievement of valuable data on the reaction pathways of PEG-IFNs and the transition state energy. Our results provide a new perspective on the interactions, chemical properties and reaction pathways between IFNs and PEG.

Keywords: interaction, interferons, molecular dynamics simulation, polyethylene glycol

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4894 Experimental Study on Tensile Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Injected Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi


The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM:D638 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels on the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving tensile strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the tensile strength 23.4%,elastic modulus 60.4%and elongation 29.7% of the samples improved. Also, according to the results, Manera approximation model at percentages about 0.5% weight and modified Halpin-Tsai at percentages about 1% weight lead to favorite and reliable results.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, Mechanical properties, Nanocomposite, polyethylene

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4893 Impact of Solar Radiation Effects on the Physicochemical Properties of Unformulated Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Film

Authors: A. Adelhafidhi, I. M. Babaghayou, S. F. Chabira, M. Sebaa


This study deals with the photodegradation of unformulated polyethylene films for greenhouse covering. The UV range of solar light appears as the most deleterious factor of plastic degradation in outdoor exposure. The reasons of this photosensitivity are structural defects which are light-absorbing. The use of FTIR as an investigation tool has revealed that the material reacts with surrounding oxygen via a photooxidation process. Although the photochemical process is quite complex, it appears through this study than crosslinking and chain scissions are the most important events taking place during aging These two key reactions change irremediably the average molecular weight affecting thus drastically the mechanical properties and reducing, in the same way, the service lifetime of the films.

Keywords: polyethylene, films, unformulated, FTIR, ageing

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4892 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi


The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, mechanical properties, nanocomposite, polyethylene

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4891 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz


The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

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4890 Mechanical and Microstructural Study of Photo-Aged Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Films

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Abdelhafidi Asma


This study deals with the ageing of Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), used for greenhouse covering. The LDPE have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. The microstructural changes in the films were analyzed by IRFT for different states of ageing. The mechanical characterization was performed on a uniaxial tensile apparatus. The mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, strain at break, and stress at break have been followed for different states of exposure time (0 to 6 months). The Climatic ageing of LDPE films shows the effect of ageing on the microstructural Plan which leads to: i) To an oxidation of the molecular chains. ii) To the formation of cross-linkings and breaking chains, which both of them are responsible for the mechanical behavior’s modifications of the material. Cross-links are in favor of strengthening of the mechanical properties at break (the increase of σr and εr). In other side, the chains breaking leads to a decrease of these properties. The increase in the Young's modulus also seems to be related to those structural changes since the cross-links increase the average molecular weight. Branchings and tangles are favorable pairs for the ductile nature of the material. And in other side, the chains breaking reduces the average molecular weight and therefore promotes the stiffening (following to morphological changes) so the material becomes fragile. The post-mortem analysis of the samples shows that the mechanical stress has an effect on the molecular structure of the material. Although if quantitatively the concentrations of different chemical species exchanges, from a quantitative point of view only the unsaturations raises the polemics of a possible microstructural modification induced by mechanical stress applied during the tensile test. Also, we recommend a more rigorous analysis with other means of investigation.

Keywords: low-density polyethylene, ageing, mechanical properties, IRTF

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4889 Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) for Radiation Dosimetry Applications

Authors: Malik Sajjad Mehmood, Aisha Ali, Hamna Khan, Tariq Yasin, Masroor Ikram


Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is one of the polymers belongs to polyethylene (PE) family having monomer –CH2– and average molecular weight is approximately 3-6 million g/mol. Due its chemical, mechanical, physical and biocompatible properties, it has been extensively used in the field of electrical insulation, medicine, orthopedic, microelectronics, engineering, chemistry and the food industry etc. In order to alter/modify the properties of UHMWPE for particular application of interest, certain various procedures are in practice e.g. treating the material with high energy irradiations like gamma ray, e-beam, and ion bombardment. Radiation treatment of UHMWPE induces free radicals within its matrix, and these free radicals are the precursors of chain scission, chain accumulation, formation of double bonds, molecular emission, crosslinking etc. All the aforementioned physical and chemical processes are mainly responsible for the modification of polymers properties to use them in any particular application of our interest e.g. to fabricate LEDs, optical sensors, antireflective coatings, polymeric optical fibers, and most importantly for radiation dosimetry applications. It is therefore, to check the feasibility of using UHMWPE for radiation dosimetery applications, the compressed sheets of UHMWPE were irradiated at room temperature (~25°C) for total dose values of 30 kGy and 100 kGy, respectively while one were kept un-irradiated as reference. Transmittance data (from 400 nm to 800 nm) of e-beam irradiated UHMWPE and its hybrids were measured by using Muller matrix spectro-polarimeter. As a result significant changes occur in the absorption behavior of irradiated samples. To analyze these (radiation induced) changes in polymer matrix Urbach edge method and modified Tauc’s equation has been used. The results reveal that optical activation energy decreases with irradiation. The values of activation energies are 2.85 meV, 2.48 meV, and 2.40 meV for control, 30 kGy, and 100 kGy samples, respectively. Direct and indirect energy band gaps were also found to decrease with irradiation due to variation of C=C unsaturation in clusters. We believe that the reported results would open new horizons for radiation dosimetery applications.

Keywords: electron beam, radiation dosimetry, Tauc’s equation, UHMWPE, Urbach method

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4888 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub


In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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4887 Valorisation of Polyethylene and Plastic Bottle Wastes as Pavement Blocks

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Fidelis Patrick Afangide


This research investigated the possibility of using waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles for the production of interlock pavement blocks. In many parts of the world, interlock pavement block is used widely as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications and the blocks have different shapes, sizes and colours suiting the imagination of landscape architects. Using suitable and conventional mould having a 220 x 135 x 50 mm³ shape, the interlock blocks were produced. The material constituents of the produced blocks were waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles mixed in varying, respective percentage-weight proportions of; 100%+0%, 75%+25%, 50%+50% and 25%+75%. The blocks were then tested for unconfined compressive strength and water absorption properties. The test results compared well with those of conventional concrete interlock blocks and the research demonstrates the possibility of value recovery from the waste streams which are currently dumped in open-spaces thereby affecting the environment.

Keywords: pavement blocks, polyethylene, plastic bottle, wastes, valorization

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4886 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnaník


In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: geopolymer, mechanical properties, metakaolin, microstructure, polymer admixtures, porosity

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4885 Wear Resistance and Mechanical Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Influenced by Temperature Change

Authors: Juan Carlos Baena, Zhongxiao Peng


Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is extensively used in industrial and biomedical fields. The slippery nature of UHMWPE makes this material suitable for surface bearing applications, however, the operational conditions limit the lubrication efficiency, inducing boundary and mixed lubrication in the tribological system. The lack of lubrication in a tribological system intensifies friction, contact stress and consequently, operating temperature. With temperature increase, the material’s mechanical properties are affected, and the lifespan of the component is reduced. The understanding of how mechanical properties and wear performance of UHMWPE change when the temperature is increased has not been clearly identified. The understanding of the wear and mechanical performance of UHMWPE at different temperature is important to predict and further improve the lifespan of these components. This study evaluates the effects of temperature variation in a range of 20 °C to 60 °C on the hardness and the wear resistance of UHMWPE. A reduction of the hardness and wear resistance was observed with the increase in temperature. The variation of the wear rate increased 94.8% when the temperature changed from 20 °C to 50 °C. Although hardness is regarded to be an indicator of the material wear resistance, this study found that wear resistance decreased more rapidly than hardness with the temperature increase, evidencing a low material stability of this component in a short temperature interval. The reduction of the hardness was reflected by the plastic deformation and abrasion intensity, resulting in a significant wear rate increase.

Keywords: hardness, surface bearing, tribological system, UHMWPE, wear

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4884 Effect of Self-Lubricating Carbon Materials on the Tribological Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Authors: Nayeli Camacho, Fernanda Lara-Perez, Carolina Ortega-Portilla, Diego G. Espinosa-Arbelaez, Juan M. Alvarado-Orozco, Guillermo C. Mondragon-Rodriguez


Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the gold standard material for total knee replacements for almost five decades. Wear damage to UHMWPE articulating surface is inevitable due to the natural sliding and rolling movements of the knee. This generates a considerable amount of wear debris, which results in mechanical instability of the joint, reduces joint mobility, increases pain with detrimental biologic responses, and causes component loosening. The presence of wear particles has been closely related to adverse reactions in the knee joint surrounding tissue, especially for particles in the range of 0.3 to 2 μm. Carbon-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and have shown great promise in tribological applications. In this study, diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to decrease the wear rate of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. A titanium doped DLC (Ti-DLC) was deposited by magnetron sputtering on stainless steel precision spheres while CNTs were used as a second phase reinforcement in UHMWPE at a concentration of 1.25 wt.%. A comparative tribological analysis of the wear of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-CNTs with a stainless steel counterpart with and without Ti-DLC coating is presented. The experimental wear testing was performed on a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry conditions, using a reciprocating movement with a load of 1 N at a frequency of 2 Hz for 100,000 and 200,000 cycles. The wear tracks were analyzed with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to determine wear modes and observe the size and shape of the wear debris. Furthermore, profilometry was used to study the depth of the wear tracks and to map the wear of the articulating surface. The wear tracks at 100,000 and 200,000 cycles on all samples were relatively shallow, and they were in the range of average roughness. It was observed that the Ti-DLC coating decreases the mass loss in the UHMWPE and the depth of the wear track. The combination of both carbon-based materials decreased the material loss compared to the system of stainless steel and UHMWPE. Burnishing of the surface was the predominant wear mode observed with all the systems, more subtle for the systems with Ti-DLC coatings. Meanwhile, in the system composed of stainless steel-UHMWPE, the intrinsic surface roughness of the material was completely replaced by the wear tracks.

Keywords: CNT reinforcement, self-lubricating materials, Ti-DLC, UHMWPE tribological performance

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4883 Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution on Toughening Performance of Polybutadiene in Polystyrene

Authors: Mohamad Mohsen Yavarizadeh


Polystyrene (PS) and related homopolymers are brittle materials that typically fail in tensile tests at very low strains. These polymers can be toughened by the addition of rubbery particles which initiate a large number of crazes that produce substantial plastic strain at relatively low stresses. Considerable energy is dissipated in the formation of these crazes, producing a relatively tough material that shows an impact toughness of more than 5 times of pure PS. While cross linking of rubbery phase is necessary in aforementioned mechanism of toughening, another mechanism of toughening was also introduced in which low molecular weight liquid rubbers can also toughen PS when dispersed in the form of small pools in the glassy matrix without any cross linking. However, this new mechanism which is based on local plasticization, fails to act properly at high strain rate deformations, i.e. impact tests. In this work, the idea of combination of these two mechanisms was tried. To do so, Polybutadiene rubbers (PB) with bimodal distribution of molecular weight were prepared in which, comparable fractions of very high and very low molecular weight rubbers were mixed. Incorporation of these materials in PS matrix in a reactive process resulted in more significant increases in toughness of PS. In other words, although low molecular weight PB is ineffective in high strain rate impact test by itself, it showed a significant synergistic effect when combined with high molecular weight PB. Surprisingly, incorporation of just 10% of low molecular weight PB doubled the impact toughness of regular high impact PS (HIPS). It was observed that most of rubbery particles could initiate crazes. The effectiveness of low molecular weight PB in impact test was attributed to low strain rate deformation of each individual craze as a result of producing a large number of crazes in this material. In other words, high molecular weight PB chains make it possible to have an appropriate dispersion of rubbery phase in order to create a large number of crazes in the PS matrix and consequently decrease the velocity of each craze. Low molecular weight PB, in turn, would have enough time to locally plasticize craze fibrils and enhance the energy dissipation.

Keywords: molecular weight distribution, polystyrene, toughness, homopolymer

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4882 Alterations of Molecular Characteristics of Polyethylene under the Influence of External Effects

Authors: Vigen Barkhudaryan


The influence of external effects (γ-, UV–radiations, high temperature) in presence of air oxygen on structural transformations of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been investigated dependent on the polymers’ thickness, the intensity and the dose of external actions. The methods of viscosimetry, light scattering, turbidimetry and gelation measuring were used for this purpose. The comparison of influence of external effects on LDPE shows, that the destruction and cross-linking processes of macromolecules proceed simultaneously with all kinds of external effects. A remarkable growth of average molecular mass of LDPE along with the irradiation doses and heat treatment exposure growth was established. It was linear for the mass average molecular mass and at the initial doses is mainly the result of the increase of the macromolecular branching. As a result, the macromolecular hydrodynamic volumes have been changed, and therefore the dependence of viscosity average molecular mass on the doses was going through the minimum at initial doses. A significant change of molecular mass, sizes and shape of macromolecules of LDPE occurs under the influence of external effects. The influence is limited only by diffusion of oxygen during -irradiation and heat treatment. At UV–irradiation the influence is limited both by diffusion of oxygen and penetration of radiation. Consequently, the molecular transformations are deeper and evident in case of -irradiation, as soon as the polymer is transformed in a whole volume. It was also established, that the mechanism of molecular transformations in polymers from the surface layer distinctly differs from those of the sample deeper layer. A comparison of the results of these investigations allows us to conclude, that the mechanisms of influence of investigated external effects on polyethylene are similar.

Keywords: cross-linking, destruction, high temperature, LDPE, γ-radiations, UV-radiations

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4881 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi


In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

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4880 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari


The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: mushroom, polyethylene film, quality, UV-c irradiation

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4879 High-Yield Synthesis of Nanohybrid Shish-Kebab of Polyethylene on Carbon NanoFillers

Authors: Dilip Depan, Austin Simoneaux, William Chirdon, Ahmed Khattab


In this study, we present a novel approach to synthesize polymer nanocomposites with nanohybrid shish-kebab architecture (NHSK). For this low-density and high density polyethylene (PE) was crystallized on various carbon nano-fillers using a novel and convenient method to prepare high-yield NHSK. Polymer crystals grew epitaxially on carbon nano-fillers using a solution crystallization method. The mixture of polymer and carbon fillers in xylene was flocculated and precipitated in ethanol to improve the product yield. Carbon nanofillers of varying diameter were also used as a nucleating template for polymer crystallization. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposites was characterized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to quantify the amount of crystalline polymer. Interestingly, whatever the diameter of the carbon nanofiller is, the lamellae of PE is always perpendicular to the long axis of nanofiller. Surface area analysis was performed using BET. Our results indicated that carbon nanofillers of varying diameter can be used to effectively nucleate the crystallization of polymer. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of the polymer was discussed on the basis of chain mobility and crystallization capability of the polymer matrix. Our work shows a facile, rapid, yet high-yield production method to form polymer nanocomposites to reveal application potential of NHSK architecture.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polyethylene, nanohybrid shish-kebab, crystallization, morphology

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4878 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek


Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

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4877 The Effect of Extrusion Processing on Solubility and Molecular Weight of Water-Soluble Arabinoxylan

Authors: Abdulmannan Fadel


Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), which is one of the most important polysaccharides contained within cereal grains. Wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran contain a significant amount of arabinoxylan (7% in rice bran and 10-12% in wheat endosperm pentosan). Several methods have been used for arabinoxylan extraction with varying degrees of success e.g. enzymatic and alkaline treatment. Yet, the use of extrusion alone as a pre-treatment to increase the yield and reduce the molecular weight in wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran has not been investigated. The samples (wheat pentosan and rice bran) were extruded using a Twin-screw extruder at a range of screw speeds (80 and 160 rpm) and barrel temperatures range (80 to 140°C) with a throughput of 30 Kg hr-1 and moisture content of 25%. Arabinoxylans were extracted with water and the extraction yield and molecular weight was determined using size exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography system. It was found that increasing screw speed from 80 rpm to 160 rpm, did not effect the extraction yield (p < 0.05) of arabinoxylan from either the wheat endosperm pentosan or the rice bran. However, the molecular weight of the extracted arabinoxylans from pentosan was found to decrease with increasing screw speed in wheat endosperm pentosan. These low molecular weight arabinoxylans have been suggested as immunomodulators.

Keywords: arabinoxylans, extrusion, wheat endosperm pentosan, rice bran

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4876 Preparation and Characterization of Antifouling Polysulfone Flat Sheet Membrane by Phase Inversion

Authors: Bharti Saini, Sukanta K. Dash


In this work polymeric Nanofiltration (NF) membranes of polysulfone (PSF) (average molecular weight of 22400 Da) were prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG) (average molecular weight of 200 Da) as an organic additive and ZnCl2 as an inorganic additive. Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) was used as the solvent, and Deionised water as nonsolvent. The membranes were prepared by phase inversion (immersion precipitation) method. PEG 200 and ZnCl2 in varying concentration are directly added into the casting solution of PSF and DMAc. PEG 200 was used in concentration varying from 0 to 10 % (w/w) in the solution of PSF and DMAc, while ZnCl2 is varied from 0 to 2% (w/w). Membranes were characterized for surface morphology, water uptake, porosity and contact angle, with respect to concentration of PEG and ZnCl2. It was observed that with the increase in additive PEG 200, the porosity and hence, hydrophilicity increase. As a result, the number of pores increases as justified by the SEM analysis as well. The study revealed that the synergistic effect of PEG with ZnCl2 is more effective, and the best results were produced by the solution containing 2% PEG 200 and 1% ZnCl2. It was inferred that with the increase in concentration of additives, the pore size goes on decreasing. The membranes obtained gradually move from microfiltration range to nanofiltration range, and this change is primarily brought about by the addition of ZnCl2.

Keywords: membrane, phase inversion method, polysulfone, porous structure

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4875 Development of A MG-Gd-Er-Zn-Zr Alloy with Ultrahigh Strength and Ductility via Extrusion, Pre-Deformation, and Two-Stage Aging

Authors: Linyue Jia, Wenbo Du, Zhaohui Wang, Ke Liu, Shubo Li


Due to the great potential for weight reduction in aerospace and automotive industries, magnesium-rare earth (Mg-RE) based alloys with outstanding mechanical performance have been widely investigated for decades. However, magnesium alloys are still restricted in engineering applications because of their lower strength and ductility. Hence, there are large spaces and challenges in achieving high-performance Mg alloys. This work reports an Mg-Gd-Er-Zn-Zr alloy with ultrahigh strength and good ductility developed via hot extrusion, pre-deformation, and two-stage aging. The extruded alloy comprises fine dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grains and coarse worked grains with a large aspect ratio. Pre-deformation has little effect on the microstructure and macro-texture and serves primarily to introduce a large number of dislocations, resulting in strain hardening and higher precipitation strengthening during subsequent aging due to more nucleation sites. As a result, the alloy exhibits a yield strength (YS) of 506 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 549 MPa, and elongation (EL) of 8.2% at room temperature, showing superior strength-ductility balance than the other wrought Mg-RE alloys previously reported. The current study proposes a combination of pre-deformation and two-stage aging to further improve the mechanical properties of wrought Mg alloys for engineering applications.

Keywords: magnesium alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure, pre-deformation, two-stage aging

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4874 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Henequen Microfiber (NF) Filled High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Composites

Authors: Pravin Gaikwad, Prakash Mahanwar


The main objective of incorporating natural fibers such as Henequen microfibers (NF) into the High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) polymer matrix is to reduce the cost and to enhance the mechanical as well as other properties. The Henequen microfibers were chopped manually to 5-7mm in length and added into the polymer matrix at the optimized concentration of 8 wt %. In order to facilitate the link between Henequen microfibers (NF) and HDPE matrix, coupling agent such as Glycidoxy (Epoxy) Functional Methoxy Silane (GPTS) at various concentrations from 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9%, and 1% by weight to the total fibers were added. The tensile strength of the composite increased marginally while % elongation at break of the composites decreased with increase in silane loading by wt %. Tensile modulus and stiffness observed increased at 0.9 wt % GPTS loading. Flexural as well as impact strength of the composite decreased with increase in GPTS loading by weight %. Dielectric strength of the composite also found increased marginally upto 0.5wt % silane loading and thereafter remained constant.

Keywords: Henequen microfibers (NF), polymer composites, HDPE, coupling agent, GPTS

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4873 An Approach to Study the Biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene Using Microbial Strains of Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence in Different Media Form and Salt Condition

Authors: Monu Ojha, Rahul Rana, Satywati Sharma, Kavya Dashora


The global production rate of plastics has increased enormously and global demand for polyethylene resins –High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is expected to rise drastically, with very high value. These get accumulated in the environment, posing a potential ecological threat as they are degrading at a very slow rate and remain in the environment indefinitely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of commonly found soil microbes like Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence for their ability to biodegrade LDPE in the lab on solid and liquid media conditions as well as in presence of 1% salt in the soil. This study was conducted at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India from July to September where average temperature and RH (Relative Humidity) were 33 degrees Celcius and 80% respectively. It revealed that the weight loss of LDPE strip obtained from market of approximately 4x6 cm dimensions is more in liquid broth media than in solid agar media. The percentage weight loss by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus observed after 80 days of incubation was 15.52, 9.24 and 8.99% respectively in broth media and 6.93, 2.18 and 4.76 % in agar media. The LDPE strips from same source and on the same were subjected to soil in presence of above microbes with 1% salt (NaCl: obtained from commercial table salt) with temperature and RH 33 degree Celcius and 80%. It was found that the rate of degradation increased in the soil than under lab conditions. The rate of weight loss of LDPE strips under same conditions given in lab was found to be 32.98, 15.01 and17.09 % by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. The breaking strength was found to be 9.65N, 29N and 23.85 N for P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. SEM analysis conducted on Zeiss EVO 50 confirmed that surface of LDPE becomes physically weak after biological treatment. There was the increase in the surface roughness indicating Surface erosion of LDPE film. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the degraded LDPE films showed stretching of aldehyde group at 3334.92 and 3228.84 cm-1,, C–C=C symmetric of aromatic ring at 1639.49 cm-1.There was also C=O stretching of aldehyde group at 1735.93 cm-1. N=O peak bend was also observed which corresponds to 1365.60 cm-1, C–O stretching of ether group at 1217.08 and 1078.21 cm-1.

Keywords: microbial degradation, LDPE, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilus, Peudomonas fluroscence, common salt

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