Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 783

Search results for: equivalent inbreeding

783 Inbreeding and Its Effect on Growth Performance in a Closed Herd of New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The influence of inbreeding on growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India was studied in a closed herd. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). The traits studied were body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing. The effects of inbreeding along with other non-genetic factors (sex of the kit, season and period of birth of the kit) were analyzed using least-squares method. The inbreeding (F) and equivalent inbreeding (EF) coefficients were taken as fixed classes as well as covariates in separate analyses. When taken as covariate, the effect was analyzed as partial regression of respective growth trait on individual inbreeding coefficient (F or EF). The mean body weights at weaning, post-weaning and marketing were 0.715, 1.276 and 2.187 kg, respectively. The maximum growth efficiency was noticed between weaning and post-weaning. Season and period had highly significant influence on all the growth parameters studied and sex of the kit had significant influence on certain growth efficiency traits only. The average coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding in the population were 13.233 and 17.585 percent, respectively. About 11.17 percent of total matings were highly inbred in which full-sib, half-sib and parent-offspring matings were 1.20, 6.30 and 3.67 percent, respectively. The regression of body weight traits on F and EF showed negative effect whereas most of the growth efficiency traits showed positive effects. Significant inbreeding depression was observed in W42 and W70. The depression in W42 was 0.214 kg and 0.139 kg and in W70 was 0.269 kg and 0.172 kg for every one unit increase in F and EF, respectively. Though the trait W135 showed positive value and ADG1 showed depression, the effects of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were non-significant in these traits. Higher values of inbreeding depression could be due to more variance of F or EF in the population. The analysis of the effect of level of inbreeding on growth traits revealed that the inbreeding class was significant on W70, ADG2, RGR2 and KR2 while EF classes had significant influence only on ADG2, RGR2 and KR2. Obviously, inbreeding does not have a positive effect, therefore, these results suggest that inbreeding had no effect on these traits.

Keywords: growth parameters, equivalent inbreeding, inbreeding effects, rabbit genetics

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782 Genetic Structure Analysis through Pedigree Information in a Closed Herd of the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The New Zealand White breed of rabbit is one of the most commonly used, well adapted exotic breeds in India. Earlier studies were limited only to analyze the environmental factors affecting the growth and reproductive performance. In the present study, the population of the New Zealand White rabbits in a closed herd was evaluated for its genetic structure. Data on pedigree information (n=2508) for 18 years (1995-2012) were utilized for the study. Pedigree analysis and the estimates of population genetic parameters based on gene origin probabilities were performed using the software program ENDOG (version 4.8). The analysis revealed that the mean values of generation interval, coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were 1.489 years, 13.233 percent and 17.585 percent, respectively. The proportion of population inbred was 100 percent. The estimated mean values of average relatedness and the individual increase in inbreeding were 22.727 and 3.004 percent, respectively. The percent increase in inbreeding over generations was 1.94, 3.06 and 3.98 estimated through maximum generations, equivalent generations, and complete generations, respectively. The number of ancestors contributing the most of 50% genes (fₐ₅₀) to the gene pool of reference population was 4 which might have led to the reduction in genetic variability and increased amount of inbreeding. The extent of genetic bottleneck assessed by calculating the effective number of founders (fₑ) and the effective number of ancestors (fₐ), as expressed by the fₑ/fₐ ratio was 1.1 which is indicative of the absence of stringent bottlenecks. Up to 5th generation, 71.29 percent pedigree was complete reflecting the well-maintained pedigree records. The maximum known generations were 15 with an average of 7.9 and the average equivalent generations traced were 5.6 indicating of a fairly good depth in pedigree. The realized effective population size was 14.93 which is very critical, and with the increasing trend of inbreeding, the situation has been assessed to be worse in future. The proportion of animals with the genetic conservation index (GCI) greater than 9 was 39.10 percent which can be used as a scale to use such animals with higher GCI to maintain balanced contribution from the founders. From the study, it was evident that the herd was completely inbred with very high inbreeding coefficient and the effective population size was critical. Recommendations were made to reduce the probability of deleterious effects of inbreeding and to improve the genetic variability in the herd. The present study can help in carrying out similar studies to meet the demand for animal protein in developing countries.

Keywords: effective population size, genetic structure, pedigree analysis, rabbit genetics

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781 Inbreeding Study Using Runs of Homozygosity in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari

Abstract:

The best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) is a method commonly used in genetic evaluations of breeding programs. However, this approach can lead to higher inbreeding coefficients in the population due to the intensive use of few bulls with higher genetic potential, usually presenting some degree of relatedness. High levels of inbreeding are associated to low genetic viability, fertility, and performance for some economically important traits and therefore, should be constantly monitored. Unreliable pedigree data can also lead to misleading results. Genomic information (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism – SNP) is a useful tool to estimate the inbreeding coefficient. Runs of homozygosity have been used to evaluate homozygous segments inherited due to direct or collateral inbreeding and allows inferring population selection history. This study aimed to evaluate runs of homozygosity (ROH) and inbreeding in a population of Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and the quality control was carried out excluding SNPs located in non-autosomal regions, with unknown position, with a p-value in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium lower than 10⁻⁵, call rate lower than 0.98 and samples with the call rate lower than 0.90. After the quality control, 809 animals and 509,107 SNPs remained for analyses. For the ROH analysis, PLINK software was used considering segments with at least 50 SNPs with a minimum length of 1Mb in each animal. The inbreeding coefficient was calculated using the ratio between the sum of all ROH sizes and the size of the whole genome (2,548,724kb). A total of 25.711 ROH were observed, presenting mean, median, minimum, and maximum length of 3.34Mb, 2Mb, 1Mb, and 80.8Mb, respectively. The number of SNPs present in ROH segments varied from 50 to 14.954. The longest ROH length was observed in one animal, which presented a length of 634Mb (24.88% of the genome). Four bulls were among the 10 animals with the longest extension of ROH, presenting 11% of ROH with length higher than 10Mb. Segments longer than 10Mb indicate recent inbreeding. Therefore, the results indicate an intensive use of few sires in the studied data. The distribution of ROH along the chromosomes showed that chromosomes 5 and 6 presented a large number of segments when compared to other chromosomes. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum inbreeding coefficients were 5.84%, 5.40%, 0.00%, and 24.88%, respectively. Although the mean inbreeding was considered low, the ROH indicates a recent and intensive use of few sires, which should be avoided for the genetic progress of breed.

Keywords: autozygosity, Bos taurus indicus, genomic information, single nucleotide polymorphism

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780 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
779 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu

Abstract:

In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
778 On Chromaticity of Wheels

Authors: Zainab Yasir Abed Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf

Abstract:

Let the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W12 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

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777 Infringement of Patent Rights with Doctrine of Equivalent for Turkey

Authors: Duru Helin Ozaner

Abstract:

Due to the doctrine of equivalent, the words in the claims' sentences are insufficient for the protection area provided by the patent registration. While this situation widens the boundaries of the protection area, it also obscures the boundaries of the protected area of patents. In addition, it creates distrust for third parties. Therefore, the doctrine of equivalent aims to establish a balance between the rights of patent owners and the legal security of third parties. The current legal system of Turkey has been tried to be created as a parallel judicial system to the widely applied regulations. Therefore, the regulations regarding the protection provided by patents in the current Turkish legal system are similar to many countries. However, infringement through equivalent is common by third parties. This study, it is aimed to explain that the protection provided by the patent is not only limited to the words of the claims but also the wide-ranging protection provided by the claims for the doctrine of equivalence. This study is important to determine the limits of the protection provided by the patent right holder and to indicate the importance of the equivalent elements of the protection granted to the patent right holder.

Keywords: patent, infringement, intellectual property, the doctrine of equivalent

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
776 A Study of Chromatic Uniqueness of W14

Authors: Zainab Yasir Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf

Abstract:

Coloring the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W14 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically Equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
775 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong

Abstract:

Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

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774 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri

Abstract:

One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
773 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu

Abstract:

This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping, finite element model, shake table test

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772 Stability Design by Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis Using Equivalent Geometric Imperfections

Authors: S. Fominow, C. Dobert

Abstract:

The present article describes the research that deals with the development of equivalent geometric imperfections for the stability design of steel members considering lateral-torsional buckling. The application of these equivalent imperfections takes into account the stiffness-reducing effects due to inelasticity and residual stresses, which lead to a reduction of the load carrying capacity of slender members and structures. This allows the application of a simplified design method, that is performed in three steps. Application of equivalent geometric imperfections, determination of internal forces using geometrical non-linear analysis (GNIA) and verification of the cross-section resistance at the most unfavourable location. All three verification steps are closely related and influence the results. The derivation of the equivalent imperfections was carried out in several steps. First, reference lateral-torsional buckling resistances for various rolled I-sections, slenderness grades, load shapes and steel grades were determined. This was done either with geometric and material non-linear analysis with geometrical imperfections and residual stresses (GMNIA) or for standard cases based on the equivalent member method. With the aim of obtaining identical lateral-torsional buckling resistances as the reference resistances from the application of the design method, the required sizes for equivalent imperfections were derived. For this purpose, a program based on the FEM method has been developed. Based on these results, several proposals for the specification of equivalent geometric imperfections have been developed. These differ in the shape of the applied equivalent geometric imperfection, the model of the cross-sectional resistance and the steel grade. The proposed design methods allow a wide range of applications and a reliable calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling resistances, as comparisons between the calculated resistances and the reference resistances have shown.

Keywords: equivalent geometric imperfections, GMNIA, lateral-torsional buckling, non-linear finite element analysis

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771 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath

Abstract:

Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators, and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between the mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics, etc. This paper indicates the need of developing the electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of the microcantilever, the equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using a force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to a powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits. Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantilevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
770 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy

Abstract:

The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution networks, series compensation, voltage rise

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
769 A Survey on Positive Real and Strictly Positive Real Scalar Transfer Functions

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions are important concepts in the control theory. In this paper, the results of researches in these areas are summarized. Definitions together with their graphical interpretations are mentioned. The equivalent conditions in the frequency domain and state space representations are reviewed. Their equivalent electrical networks are explained. Also, a comprehensive discussion about a difference between behavior of real part of positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions in high frequencies is presented. Furthermore, several illustrative examples are given.

Keywords: real rational transfer functions, positive realness property, strictly positive realness property, equivalent conditions

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768 Equivalent Circuit Representation of Lossless and Lossy Power Transmission Systems Including Discrete Sampler

Authors: Yuichi Kida, Takuro Kida

Abstract:

In a new smart society supported by the recent development of 5G and 6G Communication systems, the im- portance of wireless power transmission is increasing. These systems contain discrete sampling systems in the middle of the transmission path and equivalent circuit representation of lossless or lossy power transmission through these systems is an important issue in circuit theory. In this paper, for the given weight function, we show that a lossless power transmission system with the given weight is expressed by an equivalent circuit representation of the Kida’s optimal signal prediction system followed by a reactance multi-port circuit behind it. Further, it is shown that, when the system is lossy, the system has an equivalent circuit in the form of connecting a multi-port positive-real circuit behind the Kida’s optimal signal prediction system. Also, for the convenience of the reader, in this paper, the equivalent circuit expression of the reactance multi-port circuit and the positive- real multi-port circuit by Cauer and Ohno, whose information is currently being lost even in the world of the Internet.

Keywords: signal prediction, pseudo inverse matrix, artificial intelligence, power transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
767 Developing a Translator Career Path: Based on the Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition

Authors: Noha A. Alowedi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Translator Career Path (TCP) which is based on the Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition as the conceptual framework. In this qualitative study, the methodology to collect and analyze the data takes an inductive approach that draws upon the literature to form the criteria for the different steps in the TCP. This path is based on descriptors of expert translator performance and best employees’ practice documented in the literature. Each translator skill will be graded as novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Consequently, five levels of translator performance are identified in the TCP as five ranks. The first rank is the intern translator, which is equivalent to the novice level; the second rank is the assistant translator, which is equivalent to the advanced beginner level; the third rank is the associate translator, which is equivalent to the competent level; the fourth rank is the translator, which is equivalent to the proficient level; finally, the fifth rank is the expert translator, which is equivalent to the expert level. The main function of this career path is to guide the processes of translator development in translation organizations. Although it is designed primarily for the need of in-house translators’ supervisors, the TCP can be used in academic settings for translation trainers and teachers.

Keywords: Dreyfus model, translation organization, translator career path, translator development, translator evaluation, translator promotion

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766 The Nature of Mineralizing Fluids in the Hammam Zriba Deposit (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) in North-eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, David Banks

Abstract:

The Hammam Zriba (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) ore deposits of the Zaghouan district are located in northeast Tunisia, 60 Km south of Tunis. The host rocks belong to the Ressas Formation (Tithonian age) and lower Cretaceous layers. Mineralization occurs as stratiform replacement heaps and lenses. The mineral assemblage is composed of fluorite, barite, sphalerite, and galena. Primary fluid inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures ranging from 83 to 140°C, final melting temperature range from −18 to −7.0, corresponding to salinities of 5 to 21 wt % NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in fluorite homogenize to the liquid phase between 132 and 178°C. Final ice melting temperatures range from −25 to −6.8 °C, corresponding to salinities between 17 and 24 wt% NaCl Equivalent. The LA-ICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions in fluorite show that these fluids are dominated by Na>Ca>K>Mg, with the concentration of Fe being equivalent to that of Mg. Microthermometric analyses of the fluid inclusions observed in fluorite and sphalerite show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralization deposition: a warmer saline fluid (132-178°C, 17-24 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler saline fluid (83°C-140, 5-21 wt %NaCl equivalent). The ore fluid result from highly saline and Na-Ca dominated with lower Mg concentrations come from the leaching of the dolomitic host rocks by the fluids.

Keywords: Hammam Zriba , fluid inclusions, LA-ICP-MS, Zaghouan district

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765 Equivalent Electrical Model of a Shielded Pulse Planar Transformer in Isolated Gate Drivers for SiC MOSFETs

Authors: Loreine Makki, Marc Anthony Mannah, Christophe Batard, Nicolas Ginot, Julien Weckbrodt

Abstract:

Planar transformers are extensively utilized in high-frequency, high power density power electronic converters. The breakthrough of wide-bandgap technology compelled power electronic system miniaturization while inducing pivotal effects on system modeling and manufacturing within the power electronics industry. A significant consideration to simulate and model the unanticipated parasitic parameters emerges with the requirement to mitigate electromagnetic disturbances. This paper will present an equivalent circuit model of a shielded pulse planar transformer quantifying leakage inductance and resistance in addition to the interwinding capacitance of the primary and secondary windings. ANSYS Q3D Extractor was utilized to model and simulate the transformer, intending to study the immunity of the simulated equivalent model to high dv/dt occurrences. A convenient correlation between simulation and experimental results is presented.

Keywords: Planar transformers, wide-band gap, equivalent circuit model, shielded, ANSYS Q3D Extractor, dv/dt

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764 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: actuator, piezoelectric, performance, unimorph

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
763 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
762 An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Vural

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.

Keywords: Tomato production, energy ratio, energy input, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
761 Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform

Authors: Xie Kefeng, Zhang He

Abstract:

For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system.

Keywords: 2-HUS/U platform, dynamics, Lagrange, parallel platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
760 Study of the Electromagnetic Resonances of a Cavity with an Aperture Using Numerical Method and Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Ming-Chu Yin, Ping-An Du

Abstract:

The shielding ability of a shielding cavity is affected greatly by its resonances, which include resonance modes and frequencies. The equivalent circuit method and numerical method of transmission line matrix (TLM) are used to analyze the effect of aperture-cavity coupling on electromagnetic resonances of a cavity with an aperture in this paper. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the resonance modes of a shielding cavity with an aperture can be considered as the combination of cavity and aperture inherent resonance modes with resonance frequencies shifting, and the reason of this shift is aperture-cavity coupling. Because aperture sizes are important parameters to aperture-cavity coupling, variation rules of electromagnetic resonances of a shielding cavity with its aperture sizes are given, which will be useful for the design of shielding cavities.

Keywords: aperture-cavity coupling, equivalent circuit method, resonances, shielding equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
759 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani

Abstract:

Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
758 Designing Equivalent Model of Floating Gate Transistor

Authors: Birinderjit Singh Kalyan, Inderpreet Kaur, Balwinder Singh Sohi

Abstract:

In this paper, an equivalent model for floating gate transistor has been proposed. Using the floating gate voltage value, capacitive coupling coefficients has been found at different bias conditions. The amount of charge present on the gate has been then calculated using the transient models of hot electron programming and Fowler-Nordheim Tunnelling. The proposed model can be extended to the transient conditions as well. The SPICE equivalent model is designed and current-voltage characteristics and Transfer characteristics are comparatively analysed. The dc current-voltage characteristics, as well as dc transfer characteristics, have been plotted for an FGMOS with W/L=0.25μm/0.375μm, the inter-poly capacitance of 0.8fF for both programmed and erased states. The Comparative analysis has been made between the present model and capacitive coefficient coupling methods which were already available.

Keywords: FGMOS, floating gate transistor, capacitive coupling coefficient, SPICE model

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757 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

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756 Selected Ethnomedicinal Plants of Northern Surigao Del Sur: Their Antioxidant Activities in Terms of Total Phenolics, ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Power, and Ferric Reducing Ability

Authors: Gemma A. Gruyal

Abstract:

Plants can contain a wide variety of substances with antioxidative properties which are associated to important health benefits. These positive health effects are of great importance at a time when the environment is laden with many toxic substances. Five selected herbal plants namely, Mimosa pudica, Phyllanthus niruri, Ceiba pentandra, Eleusine polydactyla and Trema amboinensis, were chosen for the experiment to investigate their total phenolics content and antioxidant activities using ABTS radical cation decolorization power, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The total phenolic content of each herbal plants ranges from 0.84 to 42.59 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The antioxidant activity in the ABTS radical cation decolorization power varies from 0.005 to 0.362 mg trolox equivalent/g and the FRAP ranges from 0.30 to 28.42 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. Among the five medicinal plants, Mimosa pudica has been an excellent performer in terms of the 3 parameters measured; it is followed by Phyllanthus niruri. The five herbal plants do not have equivalent antioxidant power. The relative high values for M. pudica and P. niruri supports the medicinal value of both plants. The total phenolics, ABTS and FRAP correlate strongly with one another.

Keywords: ABTS, FRAP, Leaf extracts, phenol

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755 A Small Signal Model for Resonant Tunneling Diode

Authors: Rania M. Abdallah, Ahmed A. S. Dessouki, Moustafa H. Aly

Abstract:

This paper has presented a new simple small signal model for a resonant tunnelling diode device. The resonant tunnelling diode equivalent circuit elements were calculated and the results led to good agreement between the calculated equivalent circuit elements and the measurement results.

Keywords: resonant tunnelling diode, small signal model, negative differential conductance, electronic engineering

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754 Wind Energy Resources Assessment and Micrositting on Different Areas of Libya: The Case Study in Darnah

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Bouker, K. Hatem

Abstract:

This paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual and diurnal variations at different areas of Libya. The data of the wind speed and direction are taken each ten minutes for a period, at least two years, are used in the analysis. ‘WindPRO’ software and Excel workbook were used for the wind statistics and energy calculations. As for Derna, average speeds are 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m, and respectively 6.57 m/s, 7.18 m/s, and 8.09 m/s. Highest wind speeds are observed at SSW, followed by S, WNW and NW sectors. Lowest wind speeds are observed between N and E sectors. Most frequent wind directions are NW and NNW. Hence, wind turbines can be installed against these directions. The most powerful sector is NW (29.4 % of total expected wind energy), followed by 19.9 % SSW, 11.9% NNW, 8.6% WNW and 8.2% S. Furthermore in Al-Maqrun: the most powerful sector is W (26.8 % of total expected wind energy), followed by 12.3 % WSW and 9.5% WNW. While in Goterria: the most powerful sector is S (14.8 % of total expected wind energy), followed by SSE, SE, and WSW. And Misalatha: the most powerful sector is S, by far represents 28.5% of the expected power, followed by SSE and SE. As for Tarhuna, it is by far SSE and SE, representing each one two times the expected energy of the third powerful sector (NW). In Al-Asaaba: it is SSE by far represents 50% of the expected power, followed by S. It can to be noted that the high frequency of the south direction winds, that come from the desert could cause a high frequency of dust episodes. This fact then, should be taken into account in order to take appropriate measures to prevent wind turbine deterioration. In Excel workbook, an estimation of annual energy yield at position of Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna, and Al-Asaaba meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 1.65 MW. (mtORRES, TWT 82-1.65MW) in position of meteorological mast. Three other turbines have been tested. At 80 m, the estimation of energy yield for Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna, and Asaaba is 6.78 GWh or 3390 equivalent hours, 5.80 GWh or 2900 equivalent hours, 4.91 GWh or 2454 equivalent hours and 5.08 GWh or 2541 equivalent hours respectively. It seems a fair value in the context of a possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Furthermore, an estimation of annual energy yield at positions of Misalatha, Azizyah and Goterria meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 2 MW. We found that, at 80 m, the estimation of energy yield is 3.12 GWh or 1557 equivalent hours, 4.47 GWh or 2235 equivalent hours and 4.07GWh or 2033 respectively . It seems a very poor value in the context of possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Anyway, more data and a detailed wind farm study would be necessary to draw conclusions.

Keywords: wind turbines, wind data, energy yield, micrositting

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