Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 175

Search results for: rabbit genetics

175 Quality Rabbit Skin Gelatin with Acetic Acid Extract

Authors: Wehandaka Pancapalaga


This study aimed to analyze the water content, yield, fat content, protein content, viscosity, gel strength, pH, melting and organoleptic rabbit skin gelatin with acetic acid extraction levels are different. The materials used in this study were Rex rabbit skin male. Treatments that P1 = the extraction of acetic acid 2% (v / v); P2 = the extraction of acetic acid 3% (v / v); P3 = the extraction of acetic acid 4 % (v / v). P5 = the extraction of acetic acid 5% (v / v). The results showed that the greater the concentration of acetic acid as the extraction of rabbit skin can reduce the water content and fat content of rabbit skin gelatin but increase the protein content, viscosity, pH, gel strength, yield and melting point rabbit skin gelatin. texture, color and smell of gelatin rabbits there were no differences with cow skin gelatin. The results showed that the quality of rabbit skin gelatin accordance Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Conclusion 5% acetic acid extraction produces the best quality gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, skin rabbit, acetic acid extraction, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
174 Assessing the Feasibility of Commercial Meat Rabbit Production in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

Authors: Nana Segu Acquaah-Harrison, James Osei Mensah, Richard Aidoo, David Amponsah, Amy Buah, Gilbert Aboagye


The study aimed at assessing the feasibility of commercial meat rabbit production in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. Structured and unstructured questionnaires were utilized in obtaining information from two hundred meat consumers and 15 meat rabbit farmers. Data were analyzed using Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)/Profitability Index (PI) technique, percentages and chi-square contingency test. The study found that the current demand for rabbit meat is low (36%). The desirable nutritional attributes of rabbit meat and other socio economic factors of meat consumers make the potential demand for rabbit meat high (69%). It was estimated that GH¢5,292 (approximately $ 2672) was needed as a start-up capital for a 40-doe unit meat rabbit farm in Kumasi Metropolis. The cost of breeding animals, housing and equipment formed 12.47%, 53.97% and 24.87% respectively of the initial estimated capital. A Net Present Value of GH¢ 5,910.75 (approximately $ 2984) was obtained at the end of the fifth year, with an internal rate return and profitability index of 70% and 1.12 respectively. The major constraints identified in meat rabbit production were low price of rabbit meat, shortage of fodder, pest and diseases, high cost of capital, high cost of operating materials and veterinary care. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that meat rabbit production is feasible in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The study recommends embarking on mass advertisement; farmer association and adapting to new technologies in the production process will help to enhance productivity.

Keywords: feasibility, commercial meat rabbit, production, Kumasi, Ghana

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
173 Utilization of Oat in Rabbit Feed for the Development of Healthier Rabbit Meat and Its Impact on Human Blood Lipid Profile

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tariq, Muhammad Issa Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Nasir, Muhammad Sameem Javed, Sheraz Ahmed


Functional foods may be a good tool that can be simply utilized in reducing community health expenses. Regular consumption of rabbit meat can offer patrons with bioactive components because the manipulation in rabbit feed is much successful to raise the levels of conjugated linoleic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, tocopherol etc. and to reduce the ω-3/ω-6 ratio which is performing a major role in curing of cardiovascular and several other diseases. In comparison to the meats of other species, rabbit meat has higher amounts of protein with essential amino acids, especially in the muscles and low cholesterol contents that also have elevated digestibility. The present study was carried out to develop the functional rabbit meat by modifying feed ingredient of rabbit diet. Thirty-day old rabbits were fed with feeds containing 2 % and 4 % oat. The feeding trial was carried out for eight weeks. Rabbits were divided into three different groups and reared for the period of two months. T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 4% oat, and T2 were on 2% oat in the feed. At the end of the 8 weeks, the rabbits were slaughtered. Results presented in this study concluded that 4 % oat seed supplementation enhanced n-3 PUFA in meat. It was observed that oat seed supplementation also reduced fat percentage in the meat. Utilization of oat in the feed of rabbits significantly affected the pH, protein, fat, textural and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A study trial was conducted in order to examine the impact of functional meat on the blood lipid profile of human subjects. They were given rabbit meat in comparison to the chicken meat for the period of one month. The cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein were found to be lower in blood serum of human subject group treated with 4 % oat meat.

Keywords: functional food, functional rabbit meat, meat quality, rabbit

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
172 Nutritional Value of Rabbit Meat after Contamination with 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine

Authors: Balgabay Sadepovich Maikanov, Laura Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva, Seidenova Simbat Polatbekovna


In this article reduced nutritional value of the rabbits’ meat at 1, 1 dimethylhydrazine experimental toxicosis is shown. The assay was performed on liquid chromatograph SHIMADZU LC-20 Prominence (Japan) with fluorometric and spectrophotometric detector. This research has revealed that samples of rabbit meat of the experimental group had significant differences from the control group:in amino acids concentration from 1.2% to 9.1%; vitamin concentration from 11.2% to 60.5%, macro – minerals concentration from 17.4% to 78.1% and saturated fatty acids concentration from 17,1% to 34.5%, respectively. The decrease in the chemical composition of rabbits’ meat at 1,1 dimethylhydrazine toxicosis may be due to changes in the internal processes associated with impaired metabolic homeostasis of animals.

Keywords: 1, 1-dimethylhydrazine, metabolic homeostasis, nutritional value, rabbit meat

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
171 Assessment of Breeding Soundness by Comparative Radiography and Ultrasonography of Rabbit Testes

Authors: Adenike O. Olatunji-Akioye, Emmanual B Farayola


In order to improve the animal protein recommended daily intake of Nigerians, there is an upsurge in breeding of hitherto shunned food animals one of which is the rabbit. Radiography and ultrasonography are tools for diagnosing disease and evaluating the anatomical architecture of parts of the body non-invasively. As the rabbit is becoming a more important food animal, to achieve improved breeding of these animals, the best of the species form a breeding stock and will usually depend on breeding soundness which may be evaluated by assessment of the male reproductive organs by these tools. Four male intact rabbits weighing between 1.2 to 1.5 kg were acquired and acclimatized for 2 weeks. Dorsoventral views of the testes were acquired using a digital radiographic machine and a 5 MHz portable ultrasound scanner was used to acquire images of the testes in longitudinal, sagittal and transverse planes. Radiographic images acquired revealed soft tissue images of the testes in all rabbits. The testes lie in individual scrotal sacs sides on both sides of the midline at the level of the caudal vertebrae and thus are superimposed by caudal vertebrae and the caudal limits of the pelvic girdle. The ultrasonographic images revealed mostly homogenously hypoechogenic testes and a hyperechogenic mediastinum testis. The dorsal and ventral poles of the testes were heterogeneously hypoechogenic and correspond to the epididymis and spermatic cord. The rabbit is unique in the ability to retract the testes particularly when stressed and so careful and stressless handling during the procedures is of paramount importance. The imaging of rabbit testes can be safely done using both imaging methods but ultrasonography is a better method of assessment and evaluation of soundness for breeding.

Keywords: breeding soundness, rabbit, radiography, ultrasonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
170 Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors: Zeeshan Khan, Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noureen


European or common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha of family Leporidae. They are distributed worldwide and are native to Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) and Africa (Morocco and Algeria). LTR retrotransposons are major Class I mobile genetic elements of eukaryotic genomes and play a crucial role in genome expansion, evolution and diversification. They were mostly annotated in various genomes by conventional approaches of homology searches, which restricted the annotation of novel elements. Present work involved de novo identification of LTR retrotransposons by LTR_FINDER in haploid genome of rabbit (2247.74 Mb) distributed in 22 chromosomes, of which 7,933 putative full-length or partial copies were identified containing 69.38 Mb of elements, accounting 3.08% of the genome. Highest copy numbers (731) were found on chromosome 7, followed by chromosome 12 (705), while the lowest copy numbers (27) were detected in chromosome 19 with no elements identified from chromosome 21 due to partially sequenced chromosome, unidentified nucleotides (N) and repeated simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The identified elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 - 25.8 Kb with average sizes between 2-10 Kb. Highest percentage (4.77%) of elements was found in chromosome 15, while lowest (0.55%) in chromosome 19. The most frequent tRNA type was Arginine present in majority of the elements. Based on gained results, it was estimated that rabbit exhibits 15,866 copies having 137.73 Mb of elements accounting 6.16% of diploid genome (44 chromosomes). Further molecular analyses will be helpful in chromosomal localization and distribution of these elements on chromosomes.

Keywords: rabbit, LTR retrotransposons, genome, chromosome

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
169 The First Report of Aberrant Corneal Occlusion in Rabbit in Iran

Authors: Bahador Bardshiri, Omid Moradi, Amir Komeilian, Nima Panahifar


Formation of a conjunctival membrane over the corneal surface is a condition unique to rabbits that has been labeled aberrant corneal occlusion or pseudopterygium. In the summer of 2013, a five years old male Standard Chinchilla rabbit were presented to Karaj Central Veterinary hospital and the owner complained that his rabbit shows degrees of blindness and there were opacities on both eyes of the presented rabbit. Ophthalmic examination of the affected eyes revealed a conjunctival fold stretching over the cornea of both eyes. The fold originated from limbus and it was vascularized and centrally thickened. There were no attachments to the corneal epithelium and the fold could be easily lifted. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The conjunctival fold was incised centrifugally up to its attachment at the limbus and the lid margin using small scissors. The central rim of the segment was then replaced to its normal position in the fornix and fixed with mattress sutures (7/0) passing through outside skin. After the surgery, eye drops containing dexamethasone, gentamicin and polymixin were applied twice daily up to 3 weeks. Within the observation period (8 months) no recurrence was noted. "Pseudo" in the term pseudopterygium refers to the fact that the conjunctival membrane is not adhering to the underlying cornea, but growing over it. In rare cases, the membrane may be loosely attached to the cornea, but can be easily separated without causing damage. It can cover only a small part of the cornea with an annular peripheral opacification of the cornea, or cover it almost fully, leading to blindness. Ethiopathogenesis remains unclear and recurrence of the problem is very likely. The surgical technique that used here decreases probability of recurrence of conjunctival fold.

Keywords: rabbit, cornea, aberrant corneal occlusion, pseudopterygium

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
168 Destruction of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Pulse Ultrasound with a Planar Rectangular Ultrasound Transducer

Authors: Christakis Damianou, Christos Christofi, Nicos Mylonas


The aim of the proposed study was to evaluate mechanical mode ultrasound using a flat rectangular (3x10 mm2) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for destroying atherosclerotic plaque. The system was tested initially in a Hydroxyapatite-polyalactide (HA/PLA) model. An optimized protocol was decided and then applied in atherosclerotic plaque of a rabbit. The plaque in the rabbit was created using a high cholesterol diet. The atherosclerotic plaque was imaged using MRI. This study shows that the destruction of atherosclerotic plaque is feasible.

Keywords: mri, ultrasound, atherosclerotic, plaque, pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
167 Nutritive Value of Three-Stage Olive Cake (Olea europaea L.) for Growing Rabbit

Authors: Zahia Dorbane, Si Ammar Kadi, Dalila Boudouma, Thierry Gidenne


In rabbits feeding, minimum fibre intake is essential to avoid digestive disorders. However, this concentration of fibre is not easy to obtain when formulating feeds, without reduction of nutritional value. Three stage olive cake, the residual material after oil extraction by centrifugation, including pulp and stones, can be used as a fibre source in rabbit diet. The incorporation of olive cake can allow a better balance between different fibre fractions and reduce health disorder. However, for practical use of any raw material, it is necessary to know its chemical and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritive value of three-stage olive cake (TSOC) for growing rabbits. Thus, 36 rabbits weaned at 35 days (702.8 ± 28.5) were divided into three groups of 12 receiving one of the following diets: control with 0% of TSOC, TSOC10 (10% of TSOC) and TSOC20 (20% TSOC). The rabbits were individually housed in digestibility cages and received ad libitum one of the three diets, fresh and clean water was provided ad libitum. After an adaptation period of 7d, feces were collected for 4d. Collected feces were frozen and stored for further analysis. The chemical composition of TSOC shows that it is a rich fiber raw material since it contains (%DM): 6% of CP; 7.4% of EE; 78.7% of NDF; 55.4% of ADF and 24.3% of ADL. The inclusion of TSOC at 20% of basal diet reduced the digestibility coefficient of organic matter, crude protein and NDF from 67.8 to 55.3%, 80.4 to 75.3% and from 31.5 to 18.4% (p < 0.001) respectively. The digestible energy and digestible protein content of the three-stage olive cake estimated by regression was 2.94 ± 0.52MJ DE/kg DM and 22.4 ± 6 g DP/kg DM respectively. In conclusion, based on the results of the present experiment, the three-stage olive cake can be used as a fibre source for rabbit.

Keywords: digestibility, nutritive value, olive cake, rabbit

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
166 Antibacterial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Potential Multidrug - Resistant Pathogens Isolated from Rabbit

Authors: Checkfaith I. Aizebeoje, Temitope O. Lawal, Bolanle A. Adeniyi


The overuse and abuse of antibiotics in treating zoonotic infections in humans and opportunistic infections in rabbit has contributed to the increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, therefore, an alternative to antibiotics is needed in treating these infections. The study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from rabbit’s faeces against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens isolated from the same rabbit. Twelve faecal samples and twelve swabs from fur samples were randomly collected aseptically from apparently healthy rabbits from Ajibode, Ibadan and University of Ibadan research farm in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Lactic acid bacteria and multidrug-resistant pathogens were isolated using appropriate agar media and identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria and LAB were determined by the agar diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the LAB against the test pathogens was determined using the agar overlay and agar diffusion methods. The pathogens Myroides gitamensis, Citrobacter rodentium, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter oryzendophyticus and Serratia marcescens as well as twenty-eight (28) species of LAB belonging to Acetobacter and Lactobacillus genera were identified and characterized. Lactobacillus plantarum had the highest (60.71%) occurrence of the LAB. Viable cells and cell free supernatant (CFS) of isolated LAB inhibited the growth of the test organisms with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Citrobacter rodentium. This study showed that LAB from rabbit possess considerable antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria from the same environment.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, cell-free supernatant, lactic acid bacteria; multidrug-resistant pathogens, rabbits’ faeces

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
165 Evaluation of Compressive Mechanical Properties of the Radial Bone Defect Treated with Selected Bone Graft Substitute Materials in Rabbit

Authors: Omid Gholipoor Bashiri, Ghafur Mosavi, Aliasghar Behnamghader, Seyed Mahmood Rabiee


Objective: To determine the effect of selected bone graft on the compression properties of radial bone in rabbit. Design-Experimental in vivo study. Animals: A total of 45 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Procedures: The rabbits were anesthetized and a one-cm-full thickness piece of radial bone was removed using oscillating saw in the all rabbit. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups on the basis of the material used to fill the bone defect: group 1: the paste of bone cement calcium phosphate; group II: the paste of calcium phosphate mixture with type I collagen; group III: tricalcium phosphate mixed with hydroxyapatite (TCP & HP) with 5% porosity; group IV: the same scaffold as group III with 10% porosity; and group V: the same scaffold as group III and IV with 20% porosity, with 9 rabbits in each group. Subsequently subdivided into 3 subgroups of 3 rabbits each. Results: There was a significant increase in compression properties of radial bone in the group II and V in 2nd and 3rd months as compared with groups I, III and IV. The mean endurable crack-strength in group II and V were slightly higher than that of normal radius (P<0.05). Conclusion and clinical relevance: Application of calcium phosphate paste with type I collagen and scaffold of tricalcium phosphate with hydroxyapatite having 20% porosity indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.

Keywords: calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, radial bone, compressive properties, porosity, type i collagen, rabbit

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
164 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Feed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: N. S. Okoro


An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 2% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that hematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P < 0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23g/dl) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: hematology, internal organs, Pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
163 Evaluation Rabbit Serum of the Immunodominant Proteins of Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis Extracts

Authors: Maryam Hashemi, Nematollah Razmi, Rasool Madani


M. paratuberculosis is a slow growing mycobactin dependent mycobacterial species known to be the causative agent of Johne’s disease in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. JD is characterized by gradual weight loss; decreased milk production. Excretion of the organism may occur for prolonged periods (1 to 2.5 years) before the onset of clinical disease. In recent years, researchers focus on identification a specific antigen of MAP to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. In this paper, for production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell wall a rabbit immunization at a certain time period with antigen. After immunization of the animal, blood samples were collected from the rabbit for producing enriched serum. Antibodies were purified with ion exchange chromatography. For exact measurement of interaction, western blotting test was used and as it is demonstrated in the study, sharp bands appear in nitrocellulose paper and specific bands were 50 and 150 KD molecular weight. These were indicating immunodominant proteins.

Keywords: immunodominant, paratuberculosis, Western blotting, cell wall proteins, protein purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
162 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Fed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: Nnennaya Samuel Okoro


An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PPSM). The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that haematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P<0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23 g/d) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: haematology, internal organs, pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
161 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová


The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
160 Haematology and Reproductive Performance of Pubertal Rabbit Do Administer Crude Moringa oleifera (LAM.) Leaf Extract

Authors: Ewuola E. O., Sokunbi O. A., Oyedemi O. M., Sanni K. M


Moringa oleifera leaf has been traditionally used in the local medicine as an ingredient in some herbal formulations for blood purifier, cholesterol reducing agent, immune and reproductive enhancers. Twenty-four pubertal rabbit are divided equally into four groups were administered with varied concentrations of crude extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera gavage at doses of 2.5ml/kg body weight (BW) in every 48 hours for 63 days. These rabbits were allotted into four treatments and each treatment was replicated six times to investigate the effect of administered crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on haematology and reproductive performance of pubertal rabbit does. Four experimental treatments were used. The animals on the control (T1) were administered water only. Rabbits on treatments 2, 3, and 4 were administered 100ml CMOLE/L, 200ml CMOLE/L, and 300ml CMOLE/L, respectively. The does were placed on extract two weeks before mating, five weeks after mating and continued for another two weeks after kindling. Six proven untreated bucks were used for the mating of the twenty-four treated does and these bucks were randomly allotted to the does such that each buck mated at least one treated does in each treatment. The same management practices and experimental diets were given ad libitum to all animals. Blood was sampled from the gestating does at the third trimester for haematological analysis. The haematology results showed that treated rabbits with 100ml CMOLE/L with mean corpuscular volume value of 93.38fl significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those on the control which is water only (82.24fl) but not significantly different from T3 (200ml CMOLE/L) and T4 (300ml CMOLE/L) which had mean values of 91.69fl and 91.49fl, respectively. While the erythrocyte counts, leukocyte counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and eosinophil count were not significantly different across the treatments. For platelets, treated animals on T2 (100ml CMOLE/L) had the highest numerical value of 148.80 x 109/L which was identical with those on T3 (200ml CMOLE/L) with mean value of 141.50x109/L but significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those on T4 (300ml CMOLE/L) with mean value of 135.00 x 109/L and those on the control which had the least mean value of 126.60 x 109/L. The percentage conception rate of the treated animals was higher than those in the control group. The animals administered 300ml CMOLE/L had the apparently highest litter size of 5.75, while gestation length and litter weight tended to decline with increase in CMOLE concentrations The investigation demonstrated the potential effect of crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract on pubertal rabbit does. The administration of up to 300ml crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract per liter did not adversely affect but improved the haematological response and reproductive potential in gestating rabbit does.

Keywords: conception, haematology, moringa leaf extract, rabbit does

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
159 Libido and Semen Quality Characteristics of Post-Pubertal Rabbit Bucks Fed Ginger Rhizome Meal Based Diets

Authors: I. P. Ogbuewu, I. F. Etuk, V. U. Odoemelam, I. C. Okoli, M. U. Iloeje


The effect of dietary ginger rhizome meal on libido and semen characteristics of post-pubertal rabbit bucks was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 12 weeks. Thirty-six post-pubertal bucks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups of 9 rabbits each in a completely randomized design. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain ginger rhizome meal at 0 g/kg feed (BT0), 5g/kg feed (BT5), 10 g/kg feed (BT10), and 15g/kg feed (BT15) were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals. Results revealed that semen colour changed from cream milky to milky. Data on semen pH and sperm concentration were similar (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. Semen volume for the bucks in BT0 (0.64 mL) and BT5 (0.60 mL) groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in BT10 (0.44 mL) and BT15 (0.46 mL) groups. Total spermatozoa concentration value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in BT0 and BT5 groups than those in BT10 and BT15 groups. Sperm motility and percent live sperm declined (p<0.05) progressively among the treatment groups. Percent dead sperm were significantly (p<0.05) lower for bucks in BT0 group than in BT10 and BT15 groups. Reaction time had a dose-dependent increase; however, the observed difference was not significant (p>0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of ginger rhizome meal at 5-15g per kg feed in ration for post-pubertal rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effect on semen production and quality.

Keywords: rabbits, semen, libido, ginger

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
158 An Alternative Semi-Defined Larval Diet for Rearing of Sand Fly Species Phlebotomus argentipes in Laboratory

Authors: Faizan Hassan, Seema Kumari, V. P. Singh, Pradeep Das, Diwakar Singh Dinesh


Phlebotomus argentipes is an established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian subcontinent. Laboratory colonization of Sand flies is imperative in research on vectors, which requires a proper diet for their larvae and adult growth that ultimately affects their survival and fecundity. In most of the laboratories, adult Sand flies are reared on rabbit blood feeding/artificial blood feeding and their larvae on fine grinded rabbit faeces as a sole source of food. Rabbit faeces are unhygienic, difficult to handle, high mites infestation as well as owing to bad odour which creates menacing to human users ranging from respiratory problems to eye infection and most importantly it does not full fill all the nutrients required for proper growth and development. It is generally observed that the adult emergence is very low in comparison to egg hatched, which may be due to insufficient food nutrients provided to growing larvae. To check the role of food nutrients on larvae survival and adult emergence, a high protein rich artificial diet for sand fly larvae were used in this study. The composition of artificial diet to be tested includes fine grinded (9 gm each) Rice, Pea nuts & Soyabean balls. These three food ingredients are rich source of all essential amino acids along with carbohydrate and minerals which is essential for proper metabolism and growth. In this study artificial food was found significantly more effective for larval development and adult emergence than rabbit faeces alone (P value >0.05). The weight of individual larvae was also found higher in test pots than the control. This study suggest that protein plays an important role in insect larvae development and adding carbohydrate will also enhances the fecundity of insects larvae.

Keywords: artificial food, nutrients, Phlebotomus argentipes, sand fly

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
157 MRI R2* of Liver in an Animal Model

Authors: Chiung-Yun Chang, Po-Chou Chen, Jiun-Shiang Tzeng, Ka-Wai Mac, Chia-Chi Hsiao, Jo-Chi Jao


This study aimed to measure R2* relaxation rates in the liver of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the composition of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterward, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) (2/4/6/8/10/12/14/16 ms) to acquire images for R2* calculations. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(SI) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8  10.9 s-1 and 37.4  9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, R2* is correlated with iron contents in tissue. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbit might be valuable for further exploration.

Keywords: liver, magnetic resonance imaging, muscle, R2* relaxation rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
156 Growth Stimulating Effects of Aspilia africana Fed to Female Pseudo-Ruminant Herbivores (Rabbits) at Different Physiological States

Authors: Nseabasi Nsikakabasi Etim


In recent times, there has been a significant shortfall in between the production and supply of animal protein to meet the ever increasing population. To meet the increasing demand for animal protein, there is a need to focus attention on the production of livestock whose nutritional requirement does not put much strain on the limited sources of feed ingredients to which men subscribe. An example of such livestock is the rabbit. Rabbit is a pseudo-ruminant herbivore which utilizes much undigested and unabsorbed feed materials as sources of nutrient for maintenance and production. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Aspilia africana as forage on the growth rates of female pseudo-ruminant herbivores (rabbits) at different physiological states. Thirty (30) Dutch breed rabbit does of 5–6 months of age were used for the experiment which was conducted in a completely randomized design for four months. The rabbits were divided into three treatment groups, ten does per treatment group; which consisted of mixed forages (Centrosema pubescent (200g), Panicum maximum (200g) and Ipomea batatas leaves (100g) without Aspilia africana (T1; control), fresh Aspilia africana (500g/dose/day) (T2) and wilted Aspilia africana (500g/dose/day) (T3). Rabbits in all treatment groups received the same concentrate (300g/animal/day) throughout the period of the study and mixed forages from the commencement of the experiment till the does kindled. After parturition, fresh and wilted Aspilia africana were introduced in treatments 2 and three respectively, whereas the control group continued on mixed forages throughout the study. The result of the study revealed that the initial average body weight of the rabbit does was 1.74kg. At mating and gestation periods, the body weights of the does in T2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the rest. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) in the body weights of does at kindling between the various treatment groups. During the physiological states of lactation, weaning and re-mating, the control group (T1) had significantly lower body weight than those of the treated groups (T2 and T3). Furthermore, T2 had significantly higher body weight than T3. The study revealed that Aspilia africana; mainly the fresh leaves have greater growth stimulating effects when fed to pseudo-ruminants (rabbits), thereby enhancing body weights of does during lactation and weaning.

Keywords: Aspilia africana, herbivores, pseudo-ruminants, physiological states

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155 Genetic Structure Analysis through Pedigree Information in a Closed Herd of the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi


The New Zealand White breed of rabbit is one of the most commonly used, well adapted exotic breeds in India. Earlier studies were limited only to analyze the environmental factors affecting the growth and reproductive performance. In the present study, the population of the New Zealand White rabbits in a closed herd was evaluated for its genetic structure. Data on pedigree information (n=2508) for 18 years (1995-2012) were utilized for the study. Pedigree analysis and the estimates of population genetic parameters based on gene origin probabilities were performed using the software program ENDOG (version 4.8). The analysis revealed that the mean values of generation interval, coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were 1.489 years, 13.233 percent and 17.585 percent, respectively. The proportion of population inbred was 100 percent. The estimated mean values of average relatedness and the individual increase in inbreeding were 22.727 and 3.004 percent, respectively. The percent increase in inbreeding over generations was 1.94, 3.06 and 3.98 estimated through maximum generations, equivalent generations, and complete generations, respectively. The number of ancestors contributing the most of 50% genes (fₐ₅₀) to the gene pool of reference population was 4 which might have led to the reduction in genetic variability and increased amount of inbreeding. The extent of genetic bottleneck assessed by calculating the effective number of founders (fₑ) and the effective number of ancestors (fₐ), as expressed by the fₑ/fₐ ratio was 1.1 which is indicative of the absence of stringent bottlenecks. Up to 5th generation, 71.29 percent pedigree was complete reflecting the well-maintained pedigree records. The maximum known generations were 15 with an average of 7.9 and the average equivalent generations traced were 5.6 indicating of a fairly good depth in pedigree. The realized effective population size was 14.93 which is very critical, and with the increasing trend of inbreeding, the situation has been assessed to be worse in future. The proportion of animals with the genetic conservation index (GCI) greater than 9 was 39.10 percent which can be used as a scale to use such animals with higher GCI to maintain balanced contribution from the founders. From the study, it was evident that the herd was completely inbred with very high inbreeding coefficient and the effective population size was critical. Recommendations were made to reduce the probability of deleterious effects of inbreeding and to improve the genetic variability in the herd. The present study can help in carrying out similar studies to meet the demand for animal protein in developing countries.

Keywords: effective population size, genetic structure, pedigree analysis, rabbit genetics

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154 In vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Simona Baldovská, Ľubomír Ondruška, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová


This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed by using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated by using the metabolic activity MTT assay, and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P<0.05 with respect to time 8h). At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 100 µg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P<0.05 in case of 5, 50 and 100 µg/mL; P<0.01 with respect to 1 and 10 µg/mL, time 8h). 1 and 5 µg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the ROS production, particularly notable at time 8h (P<0.01). The results indicate that the Viscum extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the spermatozoon by the in vitro environment.

Keywords: CASA, mistletoe, mitochondrial activity, motility, reactive oxygen species, rabbits, spermatozoa, Viscum album

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153 Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone Defects Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Poly(L-Lactide)

Authors: Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Fang Su, Xia Wu, Zhan-Ping Shi, Yan Lv, Jia-Zhu Wang


Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)(nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Methods: Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favoured osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2 and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs contribution to new bone were detected through transfected eGFP genes. Conclutions: Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSCs seeding, proliferation and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects.

Keywords: nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide), dental pulp stem cell, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, bone tissue engineering, alveolar bone

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152 Evaluation of Milk Production of an Algerian Rabbit Population Raised in Aures Area

Authors: Moumen Souad, Melizi Mohamed


In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria, a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10–15 min between the two weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21 g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240 and 2801 g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation, respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, litter size, rabbit, Aures area, Algeria

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151 Effect of the Average Kits Birth Weight and of the Number of Born Alive per Liter on the Milk Production of Algerian Rabbit Raised in Aures Area

Authors: S. Moumen, M. Melizi


In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria; a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10-15 min between the 2 weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240, and 2801g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, litter size, rabbit, Aures area, Algeria

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150 Treatment of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear Using Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Polydeoxyribonucleotides in a Rabbit Model

Authors: Sang Chul Lee, Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate regenerative effects of ultrasound (US)-guided injection with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and/or polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injection in a chronic traumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear (FTRCTT) in a rabbit model. Material and Methods: Rabbits (n = 32) were allocated into 4 groups. After a 5-mm sized FTRCTT just proximal to the insertion site on the subscapularis tendon was created by excision, the wound was immediately covered by silicone tube to prevent natural healing. After 6 weeks, 4 injections (0.2 mL normal saline, G1; 0.2 mL PDRN, G2; 0.2 mL UCB-MSCs, G3; and 0.2 mL UCB-MSCs with 0.2ml PDRN, G4) were injected into FTRCTT under US guidance. We evaluated gross morphologic changes on all rabbits after sacrifice. Masson’s trichrome, anti-type 1 collagen antibody, bromodeoxyuridine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule stain were performed to evaluate histological changes. Motion analysis was also performed. Results: The gross morphologic mean tendon tear size in G3 and 4 was significantly smaller than that of G1 and 2 (p < .05). However, there were no significant differences in tendon tear size between G3 and 4. In G4, newly regenerated collagen type 1 fibers, proliferating cells activity, angiogenesis, walking distance, fast walking time, and mean walking speed were greater than in the other three groups on histological examination and motion analysis. Conclusion: Co-injection of UCB-MSCs and PDRN was more effective than UCB-MSCs injection alone in histological and motion analysis in a rabbit model of chronic traumatic FTRCTT. However, there was no significant difference in gross morphologic change of tendon tear between UCB-MSCs with/without PDRN injection. The results of this study regarding the combination of UCB-MSCs and PDRN are worth additional investigations.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, umbilical cord, polydeoxyribonucleotides, shoulder, rotator cuff, ultrasonography, injections

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149 A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Abiotic Environmental Variables on Early Diptera Carrion Colonizers in Algiers, Algeria

Authors: M. Taleb, G. Tail, F. Z. Kara, B. Djedouani T. Moussa


Necrophagous insects usually colonize cadavers within a short time after death. However, they are influenced by weather conditions, and their distribution and activity vary according to different time scales, which can affect the post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. As no data have been published in Algeria on necrophagous insects visiting corpses, two field surveys were conducted in July 2012 and March 2013 at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (INCC) using rabbit carcasses (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). The trials were designed to identify the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algiers, Algeria and examine their variations according to environmental variables. Four hundred and eighteen Diptera adults belonging to five families were captured during this study. The species which were identified on human corpses in different regions of Algeria were also observed on the rabbit carcasses. Although seasonal variations of the species were observed, their abundance did not significantly vary between the two seasons. In addition to seasonal effects, the ambient temperature, the wind speed, and precipitation affect the number of trapped flies. These conclusions highlight the necessity of considering the environmental factors at a scene to estimate the post-mortem interval accurately. It is hoped that these findings provide basic information regarding the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algeria.

Keywords: forensic entomology, necrophagous diptera, post-mortem interval, abiotic factors, Algeria

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148 Effects of Punicalagin on Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in Virgin Rabbit Does

Authors: Nada A. El-Shahaw, Anas A.Salem, M. Kobeisy, Hoda M. Shabaan


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is collective term both oxygen radical, such superoxide (O₂•), hydroxyl(OH•), peroxyl (RO₂), and hydroperoxyl (HO₂•), and certain non-radical oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), hypochlorous acid (HOCL), and ozone (O₃), that can be convert easily to radical. The importance of antioxidants is shown here punicalagin. Punicalagin is preventing the harmful effect of (ROS) in all cells, specially gonadal cells. So, the aim of study was to investigate effects of punicalagin (PL) on maternal live body weight (MLBW), number of services/conception (NS), conception rate (CR), gestation length (GL), kindling rate (KR), total litter size (TLS), live litter size (LLS), kit weight (KW), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations at 1st and 2nd pregnancy of young does. A total of 28 healthy virgin does (6 months old) were divided into 2 equal groups. Group I, each doe, was injected IM with 100 ug PL twice/week pre-mating and one time 3 days post-mating. Group II, each doe was injected IM with sterilized water (control). Blood samples were taken at pre-mating, mating, post-mating, throughout pregnancy, and immediately post-kindling for assaying P4 and E2. All does were naturally mated with fertile bucks. Results revealed that PL displayed their significant impacts on MLBW, NS/conception, CR, GL, KR, TLS, LLS, KWs (birth and weaning), P4 and E2 concentrations either at 1ˢᵗ/2ⁿᵈ pregnancy or both of them. Conclusively, PL improved pregnancy outcomes of young do particularly at 2ⁿᵈ pregnancy and could be recommended in rabbit's farms.

Keywords: punicalagin, pregnancy, estradiol-17β, progesterone, does

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147 Prediction of Slaughter Body Weight in Rabbits: Multivariate Approach through Path Coefficient and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: K. A. Bindu, T. V. Raja, P. M. Rojan, A. Siby


The multivariate path coefficient approach was employed to study the effects of various production and reproduction traits on the slaughter body weight of rabbits. Information on 562 rabbits maintained at the university rabbit farm attached to the Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics, and Breeding, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala State, India was utilized. The manifest variables used in the study were age and weight of dam, birth weight, litter size at birth and weaning, weight at first, second and third months. The linear multiple regression analysis was performed by keeping the slaughter weight as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. The model explained 48.60 percentage of the total variation present in the market weight of the rabbits. Even though the model used was significant, the standardized beta coefficients for the independent variables viz., age and weight of the dam, birth weight and litter sizes at birth and weaning were less than one indicating their negligible influence on the slaughter weight. However, the standardized beta coefficient of the second-month body weight was maximum followed by the first-month weight indicating their major role on the market weight. All the other factors influence indirectly only through these two variables. Hence it was concluded that the slaughter body weight can be predicted using the first and second-month body weights. The principal components were also developed so as to achieve more accuracy in the prediction of market weight of rabbits.

Keywords: component analysis, multivariate, slaughter, regression

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146 Genetics, Law and Society: Regulating New Genetic Technologies

Authors: Aisling De Paor


Scientific and technological developments are driving genetics and genetic technologies into the public sphere. Scientists are making genetic discoveries as to the make up of the human body and the cause and effect of disease, diversity and disability amongst individuals. Technological innovation in the field of genetics is also advancing, with the development of genetic testing, and other emerging genetic technologies, including gene editing (which offers the potential for genetic modification). In addition to the benefits for medicine, health care and humanity, these genetic advances raise a range of ethical, legal and societal concerns. From an ethical perspective, such advances may, for example, change the concept of humans and what it means to be human. Science may take over in conceptualising human beings, which may push the boundaries of existing human rights. New genetic technologies, particularly gene editing techniques create the potential to stigmatise disability, by highlighting disability or genetic difference as something that should be eliminated or anticipated. From a disability perspective, use (and misuse) of genetic technologies raise concerns about discrimination and violations to the dignity and integrity of the individual. With an acknowledgement of the likely future orientation of genetic science, and in consideration of the intersection of genetics and disability, this paper highlights the main concerns raised as genetic science and technology advances (particularly with gene editing developments), and the consequences for disability and human rights. Through the use of traditional doctrinal legal methodologies, it investigates the use (and potential misuse) of gene editing as creating the potential for a unique form of discrimination and stigmatization to develop, as well as a potential gateway to a form of new, subtle eugenics. This article highlights the need to maintain caution as to the use, application and the consequences of genetic technologies. With a focus on the law and policy position in Europe, it examines the need to control and regulate these new technologies, particularly gene editing. In addition to considering the need for regulation, this paper highlights non-normative approaches to address this area, including awareness raising and education, public discussion and engagement with key stakeholders in the field and the development of a multifaceted genetics advisory network.

Keywords: disability, gene-editing, genetics, law, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 293