Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: resonances

35 Study of the Electromagnetic Resonances of a Cavity with an Aperture Using Numerical Method and Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Ming-Chu Yin, Ping-An Du


The shielding ability of a shielding cavity is affected greatly by its resonances, which include resonance modes and frequencies. The equivalent circuit method and numerical method of transmission line matrix (TLM) are used to analyze the effect of aperture-cavity coupling on electromagnetic resonances of a cavity with an aperture in this paper. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the resonance modes of a shielding cavity with an aperture can be considered as the combination of cavity and aperture inherent resonance modes with resonance frequencies shifting, and the reason of this shift is aperture-cavity coupling. Because aperture sizes are important parameters to aperture-cavity coupling, variation rules of electromagnetic resonances of a shielding cavity with its aperture sizes are given, which will be useful for the design of shielding cavities.

Keywords: aperture-cavity coupling, equivalent circuit method, resonances, shielding equipment

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34 Transformations of Spatial Distributions of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions Induced by Resonance-Like Low Frequency Electrical Fields

Authors: A. A. Vasin, N. V. Klassen, A. M. Likhter


Water suspensions of in-organic (metals and oxides) and organic nano-objects (chitozan and collagen) were subjected to the treatment of direct and alternative electrical fields. In addition to quasi-periodical spatial patterning resonance-like performance of spatial distributions of these suspensions has been found at low frequencies of alternating electrical field. These resonances are explained as the result of creation of equilibrium states of groups of charged nano-objects with opposite signs of charges at the interparticle distances where the forces of Coulomb attraction are compensated by the repulsion forces induced by relatively negative polarization of hydrated regions surrounding the nanoparticles with respect to pure water. The low frequencies of these resonances are explained by comparatively big distances between the particles and their big masses with t\respect to masses of atoms constituting molecules with high resonance frequencies. These new resonances open a new approach to detailed modeling and understanding of mechanisms of the influence of electrical fields on the functioning of internal organs of living organisms at the level of cells and neurons.

Keywords: bio-polymers, chitosan, collagen, nanoparticles, coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances, transformations

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33 A Terahertz Sensor and Dynamic Switch Based on a Bilayer Toroidal Metamaterial

Authors: Angana Bhattacharya, Rakesh Sarkar, Gagan Kumar


Toroidal resonances, a new class of electromagnetic excitations, demonstrate exceptional properties as compared to electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. The advantage of narrow linewidth in toroidal resonance is utilized in this proposed work, where a bilayer metamaterial (MM) sensor has been designed in the terahertz frequency regime (THz). A toroidal MM geometry in a single layer is first studied. A second identical MM geometry placed on top of the first layer results in the coupling of toroidal excitations, leading to an increase in the quality factor (Q) of the resonance. The sensing capability of the resonance is studied. Further, the dynamic switching from an 'off' stage to an 'on' stage in the bilayer configuration is explored. The ardent study of such toroidal bilayer MMs could provide significant potential in the development of bio-molecular and chemical sensors, switches, and modulators.

Keywords: toroidal resonance, bilayer, metamaterial, terahertz, sensing, switching

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32 Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator

Authors: Abdallah H. Ramini, Alwathiqbellah I. Ibrahim, Mohammad I. Younis


We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler Vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation.

Keywords: electrostatically actuated resonator, multi-frequency excitation, nonlinear dynamics, AC harmonic signals

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31 Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, S. Bab, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-dependent partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.

Keywords: super harmonic resonances, non-linear vibration, axially moving beam, Galerkin method

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30 Experimental Evaluation of Contact Interface Stiffness and Damping to Sustain Transients and Resonances

Authors: Krystof Kryniski, Asa Kassman Rudolphi, Su Zhao, Per Lindholm


ABB offers range of turbochargers from 500 kW to 80+ MW diesel and gas engines. Those operate on ships, power stations, generator-sets, diesel locomotives and large, off-highway vehicles. The units need to sustain harsh operating conditions, exposure to high speeds, temperatures and varying loads. They are expected to work at over-critical speeds damping effectively any transients and encountered resonances. Components are often connected via friction joints. Designs of those interfaces need to account for surface roughness, texture, pre-stress, etc. to sustain against fretting fatigue. The experience from field contributed with valuable input on components performance in hash sea environment and their exposure to high temperature, speed and load conditions. Study of tribological interactions of oxide formations provided an insight into dynamic activities occurring between the surfaces. Oxidation was recognized as the dominant factor of a wear. Microscopic inspections of fatigue cracks on turbine indicated insufficient damping and unrestrained structural stress leading to catastrophic failure, if not prevented in time. The contact interface exhibits strongly non-linear mechanism and to describe it the piecewise approach was used. Set of samples representing the combinations of materials, texture, surface and heat treatment were tested on a friction rig under range of loads, frequencies and excitation amplitudes. Developed numerical technique extracted the friction coefficient, tangential contact stiffness and damping. Vast amount of experimental data was processed with the multi-harmonics balance (MHB) method to categorize the components subjected to the periodic excitations. At the pre-defined excitation level both force and displacement formed semi-elliptical hysteresis curves having the same area and secant as the actual ones. By cross-correlating the terms remaining in the phase and out of the phase, respectively it was possible to separate an elastic energy from dissipation and derive the stiffness and damping characteristics.

Keywords: contact interface, fatigue, rotor-dynamics, torsional resonances

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29 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: Nour Hassan Ismail, Abdelmonem Nassar, Khaled Baz


Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper, new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: quantum dots, nano-particles, LSPR

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28 Dominant Correlation Effects in Atomic Spectra

Authors: Hubert Klar


High double excitation of two-electron atoms has been investigated using hyperpherical coordinates within a modified adiabatic expansion technique. This modification creates a novel fictitious force leading to a spontaneous exchange symmetry breaking at high double excitation. The Pauli principle must therefore be regarded as approximation valid only at low excitation energy. Threshold electron scattering from high Rydberg states shows an unexpected time reversal symmetry breaking. At threshold for double escape we discover a broad (few eV) Cooper pair.

Keywords: correlation, resonances, threshold ionization, Cooper pair

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27 Effect of Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Inhalation on Voice Resonances

Authors: Pallavi Marathe


Voice is considered to be a unique biometric property of human beings. Unlike other biometric evidence, for example, fingerprints and retina scans, etc., voice can be easily changed or mimicked. The present paper talks about how the inhalation of helium and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas affects the voice formant frequencies that are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract. Helium gas is low-density gas; hence, the voice travels with a higher speed than that of air. On the other side in SF6 gas voice travels with lower speed than that of air due to its higher density. These results in decreasing the resonant frequencies of voice in helium and increasing in SF6. Results are presented with the help of Praat software, which is used for voice analysis.

Keywords: voice formants, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, gas inhalation

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26 Miniaturized Wideband Single-Feed Shorted-Edge Stacked Patch Antenna for C-Band Applications

Authors: Abdelheq Boukarkar, Omar Guermoua


In this paper, we propose a miniaturized and wideband patch antenna for C-band applications. The antenna miniaturization is obtained by loading shorting vias along one patch edge. At the same time, the wideband performance is achieved by combining two resonances using one feed line. The measured results reveal that the antenna covers the frequency band 4.32 GHz to 6.52 GHz (41%) with a peak gain and a peak efficiency of 5.5 dBi and 87%, respectively. The antenna occupies a relatively small size of only 26 x 22 x 5.6 mm3, making it suitable for compact wireless devices requiring a stable unidirectional gain over a wide frequency range.

Keywords: miniaturized antennas, patch antennas, stable gain, wideband antennas

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25 Ballistic Transport in One-Dimensional Random Dimer Photonic Crystals

Authors: Samira Cherid, Samir Bentata, F. Zahira Meghoufel, Sabria Terkhi, Yamina Sefir, Fatima Bendahma, Bouabdellah Bouadjemi, Ali Z. Itouni


In this work, we examined the propagation of light in one-dimensional systems is examined by means of the random dimer model. The introduction of defect elements, randomly in the studied system, breaks down the Anderson localization and provides a set of propagating delocalized modes at the corresponding conventional dimer resonances. However, tuning suitably the defect dimer resonance on the host ones (or vice versa), the transmission magnitudes can be enhanced providing the optimized ballistic transmission regime as an average response. Hence, ballistic optical filters can be conceived at desired wavelengths.

Keywords: photonic crystals, random dimer model, ballistic resonance, localization and transmission

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24 Nonhomogeneous Linear Second Order Differential Equations and Resonance through Geogebra Program

Authors: F. Maass, P. Martin, J. Olivares


The aim of this work is the application of the program GeoGebra in teaching the study of nonhomogeneous linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Different kind of functions or forces will be considered in the right hand side of the differential equations, in particular, the emphasis will be placed in the case of trigonometrical functions producing the resonance phenomena. In order to obtain this, the frequencies of the trigonometrical functions will be changed. Once the resonances appear, these have to be correlationated with the roots of the second order algebraic equation determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. In this way, the physics and engineering students will understand resonance effects and its consequences in the simplest way. A large variety of examples will be shown, using different kind of functions for the nonhomogeneous part of the differential equations.

Keywords: education, geogebra, ordinary differential equations, resonance

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23 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun


This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

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22 Modeling and Controlling Nonlinear Dynamical Effects in Non-Contact Superconducting and Diamagnetic Suspensions

Authors: Sergey Kuznetsov, Yuri Urman


We present an approach to investigate non-linear dynamical effects occurring in the noncontact superconducting and diamagnetic suspensions, when levitated body has finite size. This approach is based on the calculation of interaction energy between spherical finite size superconducting or diamagnetic body with external magnetic field. Effects of small deviations from spherical shape may be also taken into account by introducing small corrections to the energy. This model allows investigating dynamical effects important for practical applications, such as nonlinear resonances, change of vibration plane, coupling of rotational and translational motions etc. We also show how the geometry of suspension affects various dynamical effects and how an inverse problem may be formulated to enforce or diminish various dynamical effects.

Keywords: levitation, non-linear dynamics, superconducting, diamagnetic stability

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21 High-Voltage Resonant Converter with Extreme Load Variation: Design Criteria and Applications

Authors: Jose A. Pomilio, Olavo Bet, Mateus P. Vieira


The power converter that feeds high-frequency, high-voltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively low-frequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid over voltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.

Keywords: high-voltage transformer, resonant converter, soft-commutation, external inductance

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20 Symmetry-Protected Dirac Semi-Metallic Phases in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Authors: Mohammad Saeed Bahramy


Transition metal dichalcogenides have experienced a resurgence of interest in the past few years owing to their rich properties, ranging from metals and superconductors to strongly spin-orbit-coupled semiconductors and charge-density-wave systems. In all these cases, the transition metal d-electrons mainly determine the ground state properties. This presentation focuses on the chalcogen-derived states. Combining density-functional theory calculations with spin- and angle-resolved photoemission, it is shown that these states generically host a coexistence of type I and type II three-dimensional bulk Dirac fermions as well as ladders of topological surface states and surface resonances. It will be discussed how these naturally arise within a single p-orbital manifold as a general consequence of a trigonal crystal field, and as such can be expected across many compounds. Our finding opens a new route to design topological materials with advanced functionalities.

Keywords: topology, electronic structure, Dirac semimetals, transition metal dichalcogenides

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19 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah


This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial

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18 Analytical Response Characterization of High Mobility Transistor Channels

Authors: F. Z. Mahi, H. Marinchio, C. Palermo, L. Varani


We propose an analytical approach for the admittance response calculation of the high mobility InGaAs channel transistors. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals determine the frequency-dependent small-signal admittance response. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand, to control the appearance of plasma resonances, and on the other hand, can give significant information about the admittance phase frequency dependence.

Keywords: small-signal admittance, Poisson equation, currents and potentials matrix, the drain and the gate terminals, analytical model

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17 Analytical Terahertz Characterization of In0.53Ga0.47As Transistors and Homogenous Diodes

Authors: Abdelmadjid Mammeri, Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani, H. Marinchoi


We propose an analytical model for the admittance and the noise calculations of the InGaAs transistor and diode. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The frequency-dependent of the small-signal admittance response is determined by the total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals. The noise is evaluated by using the real part of the transistor/diode admittance under a small-signal perturbation. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand; to control the appearance of the plasma resonances, and on other hand; can give significant information about the noise frequency dependence in the InGaAs transistor and diode.

Keywords: InGaAs transistors, InGaAs diode, admittance, resonant peaks, plasma waves, analytical model

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16 A Novel Dual Band-pass filter Based On Coupling of Composite Right/Left Hand CPW and (CSRRs) Uses Ferrite Components

Authors: Mohammed Berka, Khaled Merit


Recent works on microwave filters show that the constituent materials such filters are very important in the design and realization. Several solutions have been proposed to improve the qualities of filtering. In this paper, we propose a new dual band-pass filter based on the coupling of a composite (CRLH) coplanar waveguide with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The (CRLH) CPW is composed of two resonators, each one has an interdigital capacitor (CID) and two short-circuited stubs parallel to top ground plane. On the lower ground plane, we use defected ground structure technology (DGS) to engrave two (CSRRs) offered with different shapes and dimensions. Between the top ground plane and the substrate, we place a ferrite layer to control the electromagnetic coupling between (CRLH) CPW and (CSRRs). The global filter that has coplanar access will have a dual band-pass behavior around the magnetic resonances of (CSRRs). Since there’s no scientific or experimental result in the literature for this kind of complicated structure, it was necessary to perform simulation using HFSS Ansoft designer.

Keywords: complementary split ring resonators, coplanar waveguide, ferrite, filter, stub.

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15 Dynamic Stability of Axially Moving Viscoelastic Plates under Nonuniform in-Plane Edge Excitations

Authors: T. H. Young, S. J. Huang, Y. S. Chiu


This paper investigates the parametric stability of an axially moving web subjected to nonuniform in-plane edge excitations on two opposite, simply-supported edges. The web is modeled as a viscoelastic plate whose constitutive relation obeys the Kelvin-Voigt model, and the in-plane edge excitations are expressed as the sum of a static tension and a periodical perturbation. Due to the in-plane edge excitations, the moving plate may bring about parametric instability under certain situations. First, the in-plane stresses of the plate due to the nonuniform edge excitations are determined by solving the in-plane forced vibration problem. Then, the dependence on the spatial coordinates in the equation of transverse motion is eliminated by the generalized Galerkin method, which results in a set of discretized system equations in time. Finally, the method of multiple scales is utilized to solve the set of system equations analytically if the periodical perturbation of the in-plane edge excitations is much smaller as compared with the static tension of the plate, from which the stability boundaries of the moving plate are obtained. Numerical results reveal that only combination resonances of the summed-type appear under the in-plane edge excitations considered in this work.

Keywords: axially moving viscoelastic plate, in-plane periodic excitation, nonuniformly distributed edge tension, dynamic stability

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14 Acoustic Blood Plasmapheresis in Polymeric Resonators

Authors: Itziar Gonzalez, Pilar Carreras, Alberto Pinto, Roque Ruben Andres


Acoustophoretic separation of plasma from blood is based on a collection process of the blood cells, driven by an acoustic radiation force. The number of cells, their concentration, and the sample hydrodynamics are involved in these processes. However, their influence on the acoustic blood response has not yet been reported in the literature. Addressing it, this paper presents an experimental study of blood samples exposed to ultrasonic standing waves at different hematocrit levels and hydrodynamic conditions. The experiments were performed in a glass capillary (700µm-square cross section) actuated by a piezoelectric ceramic at 1MHz, hosting 2D orthogonal half-wavelength resonances transverse to the channel length, with a single-pressure-node along its central axis where cells collected driven by the acoustic radiation force. Four blood dilutions in PBS of 1:20, 1:10, 1:5, and 1:2 were tested at eight flow rate conditions Q=0:120µL/min. The 1:5 dilution (H=9%) demonstrated to be optimal for the plasmapheresis at any of the flow rates analyzed, requiring the shortest times to achieve plasma free of cells. The study opens new possibilities to optimize processes of plasmapheresis processes by ultrasounds at different hematocrit conditions in future personalized diagnoses/treatments involving blood samples.

Keywords: ultrasounds, microfluidics, flow rate, acoustophoresis, polymeric resonators

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13 Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Modelling of Microstrip Circular Antenna

Authors: Jugoslav Jokovic, Tijana Dimitrijevic, Nebojsa Doncov


The goal of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and effectiveness of the TLM (Transmission Line Matrix) method for modelling of up-to-date microstrip antennas with circular geometry that have significant application in modern wireless communication systems. The coaxially fed microstrip antenna configurations with circular patch are analyzed by using the in-house 3DTLMcyl_cw solver based on computational electromagnetic TLM method adapted to the cylindrical grid and enhanced with the compact wire model. Opposed to the widely used rectangular TLM mesh, where a staircase approximation has to be used to describe curved boundaries, precise modelling of circular boundaries can be accomplished in the cylindrical grid irrespective of the mesh resolution. Using the compact wire model incorporated in cylindrical mesh, it is possible to model coaxial feed and include the influence of the real excitation in the antenna model. The conventional and inverted configuration of a coaxially fed circular patch antenna are considered, comparing the resonances obtained using TLM cylindrical model with results reached by the corresponding model in a rectangular grid as well as with experimental ones. Bearing in mind that accuracy of simulated results depends on a relevantly created model, besides structure geometry and dimensions, it is important to consider additional modelling issues, regarding appropriate mesh resolution and a relevant extension of a mesh around the considered structure that would provide convergence of the results.

Keywords: computational electromagnetic, coaxial feed, microstrip antenna, TLM modelling

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12 Cytotoxic and Biocompatible Evaluation of Silica Coated Silver Nanoparticle Against Nih-3t3 Cells

Authors: Chen-En Lin, Lih-Rou Rau, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai


The unique optical properties of plasmon resonance metallic particles have attracted considerable applications in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect is one of the useful applications. MEF effect stated that fluorescence intensity can be quenched or be enhanced depending on the distance between fluorophores and the metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have used widely in antibacterial studies. However, the major limitation for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in biomedical application is well-known cytotoxicity on cells. There were numerous literatures have been devoted to overcome the disadvantage. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of silica coated AgNPs against NIH-3T3 cells. The results were shown that NIH-3T3 cells started to detach, shrink, become rounded and finally be irregular in shape after 24 h of exposure at 10 µg/ml AgNPs. Besides, compared with untreated cells, the cell viability significantly decreased to 60% and 40% which were exposed to 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml AgNPs respectively. The result was consistent with previously reported findings that AgNPs induced cytotoxicity was concentration dependent. However, the morphology and cell viability of cells appeared similar to the control group when exposed to 20 µg/ml of silica coated AgNPs. We further utilized the dark-field hyperspectral imaging system to analysis the optical properties of the intracellular nanoparticles. The image displayed that the red shift of the surface plasmonic resonances band of the enclosed AgNPs further confirms the agglomerate of the AgNPs rather than their distribution in cytoplasm. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the silica coated of AgNPs showed well biocompatibility and significant lower cytotoxicity compared with bare AgNPs.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, silica, cell viability, morphology

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11 Nietzsche's 'Will to Power' as a Potentially Irrational-Rational Psychopathology: How and Why Amor Fati May Prove to Be Its 'Horse Whisperer'

Authors: Nikolai David Blaskow


Nietzsche's scholarship in the main has never quite resolved its deeply divided, at times self-contradictory responses to what Friedrich Nietzsche might have actually meant by his notion of the 'will to power'. Yet, in the context of the current global pandemic and climate change crisis, never has there been a more urgent need to investigate and resolve that contradiction. This paper argues for the 'will to power' as being a potentially irrational-rational psychopathology, one that can properly be understood only by means of Nietzsche's agonistic insights into another psychopathology—that of ressentiment. The argument also makes a case for the contention that amor fati (Nietzsche’s positive affirmation of life) may prove to be ressentiment's cure. In addition, as an integral part of the case’s methodology, the lens defined as the Mimetic and Scapegoat theory of Rene Girard (1923-2015) is brought to bear on resolving the contradiction. Ressentiment and Mimetic Theory will prove to be key players in the investigation, in as much as they expose the reasons for a modernity in crisis. The major finding of this study is that when the explanatory power of the two theories is applied, an understanding of the dynamics of the crisis in which we find ourselves emerges. The keys to that insight will include: (1) how these two psychopathologies closely resemble the contemporary neurologically defined 'borderline conditions' and their implications for culture (2) how identity politics stifle exemplary leadership, and so create toxic cultures (3) a critical assessment of Achille Mbembe's (2019) re-working of Frantz Fanon's 'ethics of the passerby' and its resonances with Nietzsche's amor fati.

Keywords: agon, amor fati, borderline conditions, ethics of the passer by, exemplary leadership, identity politics, mimesis, ressentiment, scapegoat mechanism

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10 Development of New Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Interfaces Based on ITO Au NPs/ Polymer for Nickel Detection

Authors: F. Z. Tighilt, N. Belhaneche-Bensemra, S. Belhousse, S. Sam, K. Lasmi, N. Gabouze


Recently, the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) became an active multidisciplinary research topic. First, Au thin films fabricated by alkylthiol-functionalized Au NPs were found to have vapor sensitive conductivities, they were hence widely investigated as electrical chemiresistors for sensing different vapor analytes and even organic molecules in aqueous solutions. Second, Au thin films were demonstrated to have speciallocalized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), so that highly ordered 2D Au superlattices showed strong collective LSPR bands due to the near-field coupling of adjacent nanoparticles and were employed to detect biomolecular binding. Particularly when alkylthiol ligands were replaced by thiol-terminated polymers, the resulting polymer-modified Au NPs could be readily assembled into 2D nanostructures on solid substrates. Monolayers of polystyrene-coated Au NPs showed typical dipolar near-field interparticle plasmon coupling of LSPR. Such polymer-modified Au nanoparticle films have an advantage that the polymer thickness can be feasibly controlled by changing the polymer molecular weight. In this article, the effect of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coatings on the plasmonic properties of ITO interfaces modified with gold nanostructures (Au NSs) is investigated. The interest in developing ITO overlayers is multiple. The presence of a con-ducting ITO overlayer creates a LSPR-active interface, which can serve simultaneously as a working electrode in an electro-chemical setup. The surface of ITO/ Au NPs contains hydroxyl groups that can be used to link functional groups to the interface. Here the covalent linking of nickel /Au NSs/ITO hybrid LSPR platforms will be presented.

Keywords: conducting polymer, metal nanoparticles (NPs), LSPR, poly (3-(pyrrolyl)–carboxylic acid), polypyrrole

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9 The Competing Roles of Educator, Music Teacher, and Musician in Professional Identity Development: A Longitudinal Autoethnography

Authors: Thomas LaRocca


This study explores the development of a public-school music teacher’s professional identity within three domains: as an educator in the profession at large, as a music teacher in a school, and as a professional musician. An autoethnographic method is employed by calling upon undergraduate student teaching reflections, graduate writing assignments and presentations, cover letters for employment, professional correspondence, and reflective memos. These artifacts provide a reference for phenomenological insights into the values, hopes, and criticisms within each domain over time –all of which provide a window into the overall ontological perspective of one’s professional life at different moments in their career. While the topic of music teacher identity has been examined using autoethnographical methods before, by accessing materials over the course of ten years, the study is able to investigate the ‘how’ of identity development in a temporal context; from undergraduate student to established professional. Additionally, while the field offers a considerable amount of work surrounding the child and adolescent identity development, there are unmined opportunities to examine identity development in the adult years, especially surrounding adult professional life. Employing a postpositivist approach with social constructionism as a backdrop, this study examines adult identity formation and the contradictions, resonances, and priorities within each domain, between each domain, and perceived expectations of the professional community. What is revealed is a journey of self-improvement motivated by failure and success, marked by negotiation and sacrifice; as each domain competes for mental and temporal resources, identity is viewed as not just who one is, but also as what one leaves behind. These insights offer a window into the ontology of identity of a music educator and may provide considerations for differentiating professional development based on what stage educators are at in their careers.

Keywords: identity, longitudinal autoethnography, music teacher education, music teacher ontology

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8 A Study on the Different Components of a Typical Back-Scattered Chipless RFID Tag Reflection

Authors: Fatemeh Babaeian, Nemai Chandra Karmakar


Chipless RFID system is a wireless system for tracking and identification which use passive tags for encoding data. The advantage of using chipless RFID tag is having a planar tag which is printable on different low-cost materials like paper and plastic. The printed tag can be attached to different items in the labelling level. Since the price of chipless RFID tag can be as low as a fraction of a cent, this technology has the potential to compete with the conventional optical barcode labels. However, due to the passive structure of the tag, data processing of the reflection signal is a crucial challenge. The captured reflected signal from a tag attached to an item consists of different components which are the reflection from the reader antenna, the reflection from the item, the tag structural mode RCS component and the antenna mode RCS of the tag. All these components are summed up in both time and frequency domains. The effect of reflection from the item and the structural mode RCS component can distort/saturate the frequency domain signal and cause difficulties in extracting the desired component which is the antenna mode RCS. Therefore, it is required to study the reflection of the tag in both time and frequency domains to have a better understanding of the nature of the captured chipless RFID signal. The other benefits of this study can be to find an optimised encoding technique in tag design level and to find the best processing algorithm the chipless RFID signal in decoding level. In this paper, the reflection from a typical backscattered chipless RFID tag with six resonances is analysed, and different components of the signal are separated in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the time domain signal corresponding to each resonator of the tag is studied. The data for this processing was captured from simulation in CST Microwave Studio 2017. The outcome of this study is understanding different components of a measured signal in a chipless RFID system and a discovering a research gap which is a need to find an optimum detection algorithm for tag ID extraction.

Keywords: antenna mode RCS, chipless RFID tag, resonance, structural mode RCS

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7 Electrical Interactions and Patterning of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions

Authors: N. V. Klassen, A. A. Vasin, A. M. Likhter, K. A. Voronin, A. V. Mariasevskaya, I. M. Shmit’ko


Regular patterning in mixtures of bio-polymers (chitosan and collagen) and nanoparticles in water suspensions has been found by means of optical microscopy. The patterning was created either by external electrical field of moderate amplitude (200–1000 v/cm) or spontaneously. Simultaneously with the patterning pushing out of water drops mixed with nanoparticles to the external regions was observed. These phenomena are explained by interactions of charged bio-polymers and nanoparticles with external and internal electrical fields as well as with the regions of decreased dielectrical permittivity surrounding nano-objects in water which possesses anomalously high dielectrical permittivity. Electrical charges of opposite signs of the nano-objects induce their mutual attraction whereas dipole moments created around these nano-objects by the electrical fields are pushing these particles to the regions with lower fields. Due to this reason, non-homogeneities of dielectrical permittivity around nano-objects immersed into water suspension induces mutual repulsion of the objects. This spatial decrease of this repulsion with the inter-particle distances is more sharp than that of the Coulomb attraction. So, at longer distances, the attractions are stronger whereas at shorter distances the repulsion prevails. At a certain distance these two forces compensate each other creating the equilibrium state of the mixture of nano-objects with opposite charges. When the groups of positive and negative nano-objects consist from identical particles, quasi-periodical pattern of the suspension is observed like mesoscopic two-dimensional super-crystal. These results can clarify the mechanisms of healing of internal organs with direct or alternative electrical fields.

Keywords: bio-polymers, chitosan, collagen, nanoparticles, Coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances

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6 Quantum Graph Approach for Energy and Information Transfer through Networks of Cables

Authors: Mubarack Ahmed, Gabriele Gradoni, Stephen C. Creagh, Gregor Tanner


High-frequency cables commonly connect modern devices and sensors. Interestingly, the proportion of electric components is rising fast in an attempt to achieve lighter and greener devices. Modelling the propagation of signals through these cable networks in the presence of parameter uncertainty is a daunting task. In this work, we study the response of high-frequency cable networks using both Transmission Line and Quantum Graph (QG) theories. We have successfully compared the two theories in terms of reflection spectra using measurements on real, lossy cables. We have derived a generalisation of the vertex scattering matrix to include non-uniform networks – networks of cables with different characteristic impedances and propagation constants. The QG model implicitly takes into account the pseudo-chaotic behavior, at the vertices, of the propagating electric signal. We have successfully compared the asymptotic growth of eigenvalues of the Laplacian with the predictions of Weyl law. We investigate the nearest-neighbour level-spacing distribution of the resonances and compare our results with the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). To achieve this, we will compare our graphs with the generalisation of Wigner distribution for open systems. The problem of scattering from networks of cables can also provide an analogue model for wireless communication in highly reverberant environments. In this context, we provide a preliminary analysis of the statistics of communication capacity for communication across cable networks, whose eventual aim is to enable detailed laboratory testing of information transfer rates using software defined radio. We specialise this analysis in particular for the case of MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) protocols. We have successfully validated our QG model with both TL model and laboratory measurements. The growth of Eigenvalues compares well with Weyl’s law and the level-spacing distribution agrees so well RMT predictions. The results we achieved in the MIMO application compares favourably with the prediction of a parallel on-going research (sponsored by NEMF21.)

Keywords: eigenvalues, multiple-input multiple-output, quantum graph, random matrix theory, transmission line

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