Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: brinkman

22 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi

Abstract:

The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: entropy generation, porous media, heat transfer, mixed convection, numerical methods, darcy, brinkman

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21 Brinkman Flow Past an Impervious Spheroid under Stokesian Assumption

Authors: D. Satish Kumar, T. K. V. Iyengar

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Brinkman flow, under Stokesian assumption, past an impervious prolate spheroid and obtain the expressions for the velocity and pressure fields in terms of Legendre functions, Associated Legendre functions, prolate radial and angular spheroidal wave functions. We further obtain an expression for the drag experienced by the spheroid and numerically study its variation with respect to the flow parameters and display the results through graphs.

Keywords: prolate spheoid, porous medium, stokesian assumption, brinkman model, velocity, pressure, drag

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20 Convective Brinkman-Forchiemer Extended Flow through Channel Filled with Porous Material: An Approximate Analytical Approach

Authors: Basant K. Jha, M. L. Kaurangini

Abstract:

An approximate analytical solution is presented for convective flow in a horizontal channel filled with porous material. The Brinkman-Forchheimer extension of Darcy equation is utilized to model the fluid flow while the energy equation is utilized to model temperature distribution in the channel. The solutions were obtained utilizing the newly suggested technique and compared with those obtained from an implicit finite-difference solution.

Keywords: approximate analytical, convective flow, porous material, Brinkman-Forchiemer

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19 Linear Stability of Convection in an Inclined Channel with Nanofluid Saturated Porous Medium

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, Nidhi Humnekar

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to numerically investigate the convection of nanofluid flow in an inclined porous channel. Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted for by nanofluid. In addition, the flow in the porous region governs Brinkman’s equation. The perturbed state of the generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained using normal mode analysis, and Chebyshev spectral collocation was used to solve this problem. For various values of the governing parameters, the critical wavenumber and critical Rayleigh number are calculated, and preferred modes are identified.

Keywords: Brinkman model, inclined channel, nanofluid, linear stability, porous media

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18 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh Kumar Sahu

Abstract:

In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen number, modified Brinkman number, slip flow, velocity slip

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17 Stabilizing Effect of Magnetic Field in a Thermally Modulated Porous Layer

Authors: M. Meenasaranya, S. Saravanan

Abstract:

Nonlinear stability analysis is carried out to determine the effect of surface temperature modulation in an infinite horizontal porous layer heated from below. The layer is saturated by an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible and Newtonian fluid. The Brinkman model is used for momentum equation, and the Boussinesq approximation is invoked. The system is assumed to be bounded by rigid boundaries. The energy theory is implemented to find the global exponential stability region of the considered system. The results are analysed for arbitrary values of modulation frequency and amplitude. The existence of subcritical instability region is confirmed by comparing the obtained result with the known linear result. The vertical magnetic field is found to stabilize the system.

Keywords: Brinkman model, energy method, magnetic field, surface temperature modulation

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16 Study of Rayleigh-Bénard-Brinkman Convection Using LTNE Model and Coupled, Real Ginzburg-Landau Equations

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, R. K. Vanishree, C. Kanchana

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A local nonlinear stability analysis using a eight-mode expansion is performed in arriving at the coupled amplitude equations for Rayleigh-Bénard-Brinkman convection (RBBC) in the presence of LTNE effects. Streamlines and isotherms are obtained in the two-dimensional unsteady finite-amplitude convection regime. The parameters’ influence on heat transport is found to be more pronounced at small time than at long times. Results of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection is obtained as a particular case of the present study. Additional modes are shown not to significantly influence the heat transport thus leading us to infer that five minimal modes are sufficient to make a study of RBBC. The present problem that uses rolls as a pattern of manifestation of instability is a needed first step in the direction of making a very general non-local study of two-dimensional unsteady convection. The results may be useful in determining the preferred range of parameters’ values while making rheometric measurements in fluids to ascertain fluid properties such as viscosity. The results of LTE are obtained as a limiting case of the results of LTNE obtained in the paper.

Keywords: coupled Ginzburg–Landau model, local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), local thermal equilibrium (LTE), Rayleigh–Bénard-Brinkman convection

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15 Effect of Different Porous Media Models on Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors: Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Sohrab Zendehboudi, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

Based on findings from clinical applications, most drug treatments fail to eliminate malignant tumors completely even though drug delivery through systemic administration may inhibit their growth. Therefore, better understanding of tumor formation is crucial in developing more effective therapeutics. For this purpose, nowadays, solid tumor modeling and simulation results are used to predict how therapeutic drugs are transported to tumor cells by blood flow through capillaries and tissues. A solid tumor is investigated as a porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multi scale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. In this work, the mathematical model in our previous studies is developed by considering two model of momentum equation for porous media: Darcy and Brinkman. The mathematical method involves processes such as fluid flow through solid tumor as porous media, extravasation of blood flow from vessels, blood flow through vessels and solute diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model does.

Keywords: solid tumor, porous media, Darcy model, Brinkman model, drug delivery

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14 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy

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The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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13 Weakly Non-Linear Stability Analysis of Newtonian Liquids and Nanoliquids in Shallow, Square and Tall High-Porosity Enclosures

Authors: Pradeep G. Siddheshwar, K. M. Lakshmi

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The present study deals with weakly non-linear stability analysis of Rayleigh-Benard-Brinkman convection in nanoliquid-saturated porous enclosures. The modified-Buongiorno-Brinkman model (MBBM) is used for the conservation of linear momentum in a nanoliquid-saturated-porous medium under the assumption of Boussinesq approximation. Thermal equilibrium is imposed between the base liquid and the nanoparticles. The thermophysical properties of nanoliquid are modeled using phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The fifth-order Lorenz model is derived for the problem and is then reduced to the first-order Ginzburg-Landau equation (GLE) using the multi-scale method. The analytical solution of the GLE for the amplitude is then used to quantify the heat transport in closed form, in terms of the Nusselt number. It is found that addition of dilute concentration of nanoparticles significantly enhances the heat transport and the dominant reason for the same is the high thermal conductivity of the nanoliquid in comparison to that of the base liquid. This aspect of nanoliquids helps in speedy removal of heat. The porous medium serves the purpose of retainment of energy in the system due to its low thermal conductivity. The present model helps in making a unified study for obtaining the results for base liquid, nanoliquid, base liquid-saturated porous medium and nanoliquid-saturated porous medium. Three different types of enclosures are considered for the study by taking different values of aspect ratio, and it is observed that heat transport in tall porous enclosure is maximum while that of shallow is the least. Detailed discussion is also made on estimating heat transport for different volume fractions of nanoparticles. Results of single-phase model are shown to be a limiting case of the present study. The study is made for three boundary combinations, viz., free-free, rigid-rigid and rigid-free.

Keywords: Boungiorno model, Ginzburg-Landau equation, Lorenz equations, porous medium

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12 Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Zahra Neffah, Henda Kahalerras

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A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers, the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.

Keywords: chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer, oscillating flow, porous channel

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11 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Brahim Fersadou, Henda Kahalerras

Abstract:

This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel

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10 Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Performance by Use of Porous Baffles and Nanofluids

Authors: N. Targui, H. Kahalerras

Abstract:

The present work is a numerical simulation of nanofluids flow in a double pipe heat exchanger provided with porous baffles. The hot nanofluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas the cold nanofluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the porous regions, and the governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the finite volume method. The results reveal that the addition of metallic nanoparticles enhances the rate of heat transfer in comparison to conventional fluids but this augmentation is accompanied by an increase in pressure drop. The highest heat exchanger performances are obtained when nanoparticles are added only to the cold fluid.

Keywords: double pipe heat exchanger, nanofluids, nanoparticles, porous baffles

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9 Forced Heat Transfer Convection in a Porous Channel with an Oriented Confined Jet

Authors: Azzedine Abdedou, Khedidja Bouhadef

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The present study is an analysis of the forced convection heat transfer in porous channel with an oriented jet at the inlet with uniform velocity and temperature distributions. The upper wall is insulated when the bottom one is kept at constant temperature higher than that of the fluid at the entrance. The dynamic field is analysed by the Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model and the thermal field is traduced by the energy one equation model. The numerical solution of the governing equations is obtained by using the finite volume method. The results mainly concern the effect of Reynolds number, jet angle and thermal conductivity ratio on the flow structure and local and average Nusselt numbers evolutions.

Keywords: forced convection, porous media, oriented confined jet, fluid mechanics

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8 The Pore–Scale Darcy–Brinkman–Stokes Model for the Description of Advection–Diffusion–Precipitation Using Level Set Method

Authors: Jiahui You, Kyung Jae Lee

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) is widely used in shale reservoir productions. HFF contains diverse chemical additives, which result in the dissolution and precipitation of minerals through multiple chemical reactions. In this study, a new pore-scale Darcy–Brinkman–Stokes (DBS) model coupled with Level Set Method (LSM) is developed to address the microscopic phenomena occurring during the iron–HFF interaction, by numerically describing mass transport, chemical reactions, and pore structure evolution. The new model is developed based on OpenFOAM, which is an open-source platform for computational fluid dynamics. Here, the DBS momentum equation is used to solve for velocity by accounting for the fluid-solid mass transfer; an advection-diffusion equation is used to compute the distribution of injected HFF and iron. The reaction–induced pore evolution is captured by applying the LSM, where the solid-liquid interface is updated by solving the level set distance function and reinitialized to a signed distance function. Then, a smoothened Heaviside function gives a smoothed solid-liquid interface over a narrow band with a fixed thickness. The stated equations are discretized by the finite volume method, while the re-initialized equation is discretized by the central difference method. Gauss linear upwind scheme is used to solve the level set distance function, and the Pressure–Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO) method is used to solve the momentum equation. The numerical result is compared with 1–D analytical solution of fluid-solid interface for reaction-diffusion problems. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with various Damkohler number (DaII) and Peclet number (Pe). We categorize the Fe (III) precipitation into three patterns as a function of DaII and Pe: symmetrical smoothed growth, unsymmetrical growth, and dendritic growth. Pe and DaII significantly affect the location of precipitation, which is critical in determining the injection parameters of hydraulic fracturing. When DaII<1, the precipitation uniformly occurs on the solid surface both in upstream and downstream directions. When DaII>1, the precipitation mainly occurs on the solid surface in an upstream direction. When Pe>1, Fe (II) transported deeply into and precipitated inside the pores. When Pe<1, the precipitation of Fe (III) occurs mainly on the solid surface in an upstream direction, and they are easily precipitated inside the small pore structures. The porosity–permeability relationship is subsequently presented. This pore-scale model allows high confidence in the description of Fe (II) dissolution, transport, and Fe (III) precipitation. The model shows fast convergence and requires a low computational load. The results can provide reliable guidance for injecting HFF in shale reservoirs to avoid clogging and wellbore pollution. Understanding Fe (III) precipitation, and Fe (II) release and transport behaviors give rise to a highly efficient hydraulic fracture project.

Keywords: reactive-transport , Shale, Kerogen, precipitation

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7 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

Authors: Hamid Maidat, Khedidja Bouhadef, Djamel Eddine Ameziani, Azzedine Abdedou

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This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: local thermal non equilibrium model, mixed convection, porous medium, power generation

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6 A Numerical Study on Electrophoresis of a Soft Particle with Charged Core Coated with Polyelectrolyte Layer

Authors: Partha Sarathi Majee, S. Bhattacharyya

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Migration of a core-shell soft particle under the influence of an external electric field in an electrolyte solution is studied numerically. The soft particle is coated with a positively charged polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) and the rigid core is having a uniform surface charge density. The Darcy-Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the motion of the ionized fluid, the non-linear Nernst-Planck equations for the ion transport and the Poisson equation for the electric potential. A pressure correction based iterative algorithm is adopted for numerical computations. The effects of convection on double layer polarization (DLP) and diffusion dominated counter ions penetration are investigated for a wide range of Debye layer thickness, PEL fixed surface charge density, and permeability of the PEL. Our results show that when the Debye layer is in order of the particle size, the DLP effect is significant and produces a reduction in electrophoretic mobility. However, the double layer polarization effect is negligible for a thin Debye layer or low permeable cases. The point of zero mobility and the existence of mobility reversal depending on the electrolyte concentration are also presented.

Keywords: debye length, double layer polarization, electrophoresis, mobility reversal, soft particle

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5 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang

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This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: entropy generation, exothermicity or endothermicity, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, analytical modelling

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4 On the Influence of Thermal Radiation Upon Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Porous Media Under Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium Condition

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi

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The present work investigates numerically the effect of thermal radiation from the solid phase on the rate of heat transfer inside a porous medium. Forced convection heat transfer process within a pipe filled with a porous media is considered. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is utilized to represent the fluid transport within the porous medium. A local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), two-equation model is used to represent the energy transport for the solid and fluid phases. The radiative heat transfer equation is solved by discrete ordinate method (DOM) to compute the radiative heat flux in the porous medium. Two primary approaches (models A and B) are used to represent the boundary conditions for constant wall heat flux. The effects of radiative heat transfer on the Nusselt numbers of the two phases are examined by comparing the results obtained by the application of models A and B. The fluid Nusselt numbers calculated by the application of models A and B show that the Nusselt number obtained by model A for the radiative case is higher than those predicted for the non-radiative case. However, for model B the fluid Nusselt numbers obtained for the radiative and non-radiative cases are similar.

Keywords: porous media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection heat transfer, thermal radiation, Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM)

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3 Temperature Fields in a Channel Partially-Filled by Porous Material with Internal Heat Generations: On Exact Solution

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi

Abstract:

The present work examines analytically the effect internal heat generation on temperature fields in a channel partially-filled with a porous under local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The Darcy-Brinkman model is used to represent the fluid transport through the porous material. Two fundamental models (models A and B) represent the thermal boundary conditions at the interface between the porous medium and the clear region. The governing equations of the problem are manipulated, and for each interface model, exact solutions for the solid and fluid temperature fields are developed. These solutions incorporate the porous material thickness, Biot number, fluid to solid thermal conductivity ratio Darcy number, as the non-dimensional energy terms in fluid and solid as parameters. Results show that considering any of the two models and under zero or negative heat generation (heat sink) and for any Darcy number, an increase in the porous thickness increases the amount of heat flux transferred to the porous region. The obtained results are applicable to the analysis of complex porous media incorporating internal heat generation, such as heat transfer enhancement (THE), tumor ablation in biological tissues and porous radiant burners (PRBs).

Keywords: porous media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection, heat transfer, exact solution, internal heat generation

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2 Hemodynamics of a Cerebral Aneurysm under Rest and Exercise Conditions

Authors: Shivam Patel, Abdullah Y. Usmani

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Physiological flow under rest and exercise conditions in patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models is numerically investigated. A finite-volume based code with BiCGStab as the linear equation solver is used to simulate unsteady three-dimensional flow field through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow characteristics are first established in a healthy cerebral artery for both physiological conditions. The effect of saccular aneurysm on cerebral hemodynamics is then explored through a comparative analysis of the velocity distribution, nature of flow patterns, wall pressure and wall shear stress (WSS) against the reference configuration. The efficacy of coil embolization as a potential strategy of surgical intervention is also examined by modelling coil as a homogeneous and isotropic porous medium where the extended Darcy’s law, including Forchheimer and Brinkman terms, is applicable. The Carreau-Yasuda non-Newtonian blood model is incorporated to capture the shear thinning behavior of blood. Rest and exercise conditions correspond to normotensive and hypertensive blood pressures respectively. The results indicate that the fluid impingement on the outer wall of the arterial bend leads to abnormality in the distribution of wall pressure and WSS, which is expected to be the primary cause of the localized aneurysm. Exercise correlates with elevated flow velocity, vortex strength, wall pressure and WSS inside the aneurysm sac. With the insertion of coils in the aneurysm cavity, the flow bypasses the dilatation, leading to a decline in flow velocities and WSS. Particle residence time is observed to be lower under exercise conditions, a factor favorable for arresting plaque deposition and combating atherosclerosis.

Keywords: 3D FVM, Cerebral aneurysm, hypertension, coil embolization, non-Newtonian fluid

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1 Influence of Intra-Yarn Permeability on Mesoscale Permeability of Plain Weave and 3D Fabrics

Authors: Debabrata Adhikari, Mikhail Matveev, Louise Brown, Andy Long, Jan Kočí

Abstract:

A good understanding of mesoscale permeability of complex architectures in fibrous porous preforms is of particular interest in order to achieve efficient and cost-effective resin impregnation of liquid composite molding (LCM). Fabrics used in structural reinforcements are typically woven or stitched. However, 3D fabric reinforcement is of particular interest because of the versatility in the weaving pattern with the binder yarn and in-plain yarn arrangements to manufacture thick composite parts, overcome the limitation in delamination, improve toughness etc. To predict the permeability based on the available pore spaces between the inter yarn spaces, unit cell-based computational fluid dynamics models have been using the Stokes Darcy model. Typically, the preform consists of an arrangement of yarns with spacing in the order of mm, wherein each yarn consists of thousands of filaments with spacing in the order of μm. The fluid flow during infusion exchanges the mass between the intra and inter yarn channels, meaning there is no dead-end of flow between the mesopore in the inter yarn space and the micropore in the yarn. Several studies have employed the Brinkman equation to take into account the flow through dual-scale porosity reinforcement to estimate their permeability. Furthermore, to reduce the computational effort of dual scale flow, scale separation criteria based on the ratio between yarn permeability to the yarn spacing was also proposed to quantify the dual scale and negligible micro-scale flow regime for the prediction of mesoscale permeability. In the present work, the key parameter to identify the influence of intra yarn permeability on the mesoscale permeability has been investigated with the systematic study of weft and warp yarn spacing on the plane weave as well as the position of binder yarn and number of in-plane yarn layers on 3D weave fabric. The permeability tensor has been estimated using an OpenFOAM-based model for the various weave pattern with idealized geometry of yarn implemented using open-source software TexGen. Additionally, scale separation criterion has been established based on the various configuration of yarn permeability for the 3D fabric with both the isotropic and anisotropic yarn from Gebart’s model. It was observed that the variation of mesoscale permeability Kxx within 30% when the isotropic porous yarn is considered for a 3D fabric with binder yarn. Furthermore, the permeability model developed in this study will be used for multi-objective optimizations of the preform mesoscale geometry in terms of yarn spacing, binder pattern, and a number of layers with an aim to obtain improved permeability and reduced void content during the LCM process.

Keywords: permeability, 3D fabric, dual-scale flow, liquid composite molding

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