Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Yuriy A. Shevchenko

5 Complete Enumeration Approach for Calculation of Residual Entropy for Diluted Spin Ice

Authors: Yuriy A. Shevchenko, Konstantin V. Nefedev

Abstract:

We consider the antiferromagnetic systems of Ising spins located at the sites of the hexagonal, triangular and pyrochlore lattices. Such systems can be diluted to a certain concentration level by randomly replacing the magnetic spins with nonmagnetic ones. Quite recently we studied density of states (DOS) was calculated by the Wang-Landau method. Based on the obtained data, we calculated the dependence of the residual entropy (entropy at a temperature tending to zero) on the dilution concentration for quite large systems (more than 2000 spins). In the current study, we obtained the same data for small systems (less than 20 spins) by a complete search of all possible magnetic configurations and compared the result with the result for large systems. The shape of the curve remains unchanged in both cases, but the specific values of the residual entropy are different because of the finite size effect.

Keywords: entropy, pyrochlore, spin ice, Wang-Landau algorithm

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4 Isolation and Selection of Strains Perspective for Sewage Sludge Processing

Authors: A. Zh. Aupova, A. Ulankyzy, A. Sarsenova, A. Kussayin, Sh. Turarbek, N. Moldagulova, A. Kurmanbayev

Abstract:

One of the methods of organic waste bioconversion into environmentally-friendly fertilizer is composting. Microorganisms that produce hydrolytic enzymes play a significant role in accelerating the process of organic waste composting. We studied the enzymatic potential (amylase, protease, cellulase, lipase, urease activity) of bacteria isolated from the sewage sludge of Nur-Sultan, Rudny, and Fort-Shevchenko cities, the dacha soil of Nur-Sultan city, and freshly cut grass from the dacha for processing organic waste and identifying active strains. Microorganism isolation was carried out by the cultures enrichment method on liquid nutrient media, followed by inoculating on different solid media to isolate individual colonies. As a result, sixty-one microorganisms were isolated, three of which were thermophiles (DS1, DS2, and DS3). The highest number of isolates, twenty-one and eighteen, were isolated from sewage sludge of Nur-Sultan and Rudny cities, respectively. Ten isolates were isolated from the wastewater of the sewage treatment plant in Fort-Shevchenko. From the dacha soil of Nur-Sultan city and freshly cut grass - 9 and 5 isolates were revealed, respectively. The lipolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulolytic, ureolytic, and oil-oxidizing activities of isolates were studied. According to the results of experiments, starch hydrolysis (amylolytic activity) was found in 2 isolates - CB2/2, and CB2/1. Three isolates - CB2, CB2/1, and CB1/1 were selected for the highest ability to break down casein. Among isolated 61 bacterial cultures, three isolates could break down fats - CB3, CBG1/1, and IL3. Seven strains had cellulolytic activity - DS1, DS2, IL3, IL5, P2, P5, and P3. Six isolates rapidly decomposed urea. Isolate P1 could break down casein and cellulose. Isolate DS3 was a thermophile and had cellulolytic activity. Thus, based on the conducted studies, 15 isolates were selected as a potential for sewage sludge composting - CB2, CB3, CB1/1, CB2/2, CBG1/1, CB2/1, DS1, DS2, DS3, IL3, IL5, P1, P2, P5, P3. Selected strains were identified on a mass spectrometer (Maldi-TOF). The isolate - CB 3 was referred to the genus Rhodococcus rhodochrous; two isolates CB2 and CB1 / 1 - to Bacillus cereus, CB 2/2 - to Cryseobacterium arachidis, CBG 1/1 - to Pseudoxanthomonas sp., CB2/1 - to Bacillus megaterium, DS1 - to Pediococcus acidilactici, DS2 - to Paenibacillus residui, DS3 - to Brevibacillus invocatus, three strains IL3, P5, P3 - to Enterobacter cloacae, two strains IL5, P2 - to Ochrobactrum intermedium, and P1 - Bacillus lichenoformis. Hence, 60 isolates were isolated from the wastewater of the cities of Nur-Sultan, Rudny, Fort-Shevchenko, the dacha soil of Nur-Sultan city, and freshly cut grass from the dacha. Based on the highest enzymatic activity, 15 active isolates were selected and identified. These strains may become the candidates for bio preparation for sewage sludge processing.

Keywords: sewage sludge, composting, bacteria, enzymatic activity

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3 The Theory of Number "0"

Authors: Iryna Shevchenko

Abstract:

The science of mathematics was originated at the order of count of objects and subsequently for the measurement of size and quality of objects using the logical or abstract means. The laws of mathematics are based on the study of absolute values. The number 0 or "nothing" is the purely logical (as the opposite to absolute) value as the "nothing" should always assume the space for the something that had existed there; otherwise the "something" would never come to existence. In this work we are going to prove that the number "0" is the abstract (logical) and not an absolute number and it has the absolute value of “∞” (infinity). Therefore, the number "0" might not stand in the row of numbers that symbolically represents the absolute values, as it would be the mathematically incorrect. The symbolical value of number "0" in the row of numbers could be represented with symbol "∞" (infinity). As a result, we have the mathematical row of numbers: epsilon, ...4, 3, 2, 1, ∞. As the conclusions of the theory of number “0” we presented the statements: multiplication and division by fractions of numbers is illegal operation and the mathematical division by number “0” is allowed.

Keywords: illegal operation of division and multiplication by fractions of number, infinity, mathematical row of numbers, theory of number “0”

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2 Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria

Authors: Yuriy A. Knirel

Abstract:

Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.

Keywords: enteric bacteria, O-antigen gene cluster, polysaccharide biosynthesis, polysaccharide structure

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1 Wireless Gyroscopes for Highly Dynamic Objects

Authors: Dmitry Lukyanov, Sergey Shevchenko, Alexander Kukaev

Abstract:

Modern MEMS gyroscopes have strengthened their position in motion control systems and have led to the creation of tactical grade sensors (better than 15 deg/h). This was achieved by virtue of the success in micro- and nanotechnology development, cooperation among international experts and the experience gained in the mass production of MEMS gyros. This production is knowledge-intensive, often unique and, therefore, difficult to develop, especially due to the use of 3D-technology. The latter is usually associated with manufacturing of inertial masses and their elastic suspension, which determines the vibration and shock resistance of gyros. Today, consumers developing highly dynamic objects or objects working under extreme conditions require the gyro shock resistance of up to 65 000 g and the measurement range of more than 10 000 deg/s. Such characteristics can be achieved by solid-state gyroscopes (SSG) without inertial masses or elastic suspensions, which, for example, can be constructed with molecular kinetics of bulk or surface acoustic waves (SAW). Excellent effectiveness of this sensors production and a high level of structural integration provides basis for increased accuracy, size reduction and significant drop in total production costs. Existing principles of SAW-based sensors are based on the theory of SAW propagation in rotating coordinate systems. A short introduction to the theory of a gyroscopic (Coriolis) effect in SAW is provided in the report. Nowadays more and more applications require passive and wireless sensors. SAW-based gyros provide an opportunity to create one. Several design concepts incorporating reflective delay lines were proposed in recent years, but faced some criticism. Still, the concept is promising and is being of interest in St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University. Several experimental models were developed and tested to find the minimal configuration of a passive and wireless SAW-based gyro. Structural schemes, potential characteristics and known limitations are stated in the report. Special attention is dedicated to a novel method of a FEM modeling with piezoelectric and gyroscopic effects simultaneously taken into account.

Keywords: FEM simulation, gyroscope, OOFELIE, surface acoustic wave, wireless sensing

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