Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Konstantin V. Nefedev

22 Complete Enumeration Approach for Calculation of Residual Entropy for Diluted Spin Ice

Authors: Yuriy A. Shevchenko, Konstantin V. Nefedev


We consider the antiferromagnetic systems of Ising spins located at the sites of the hexagonal, triangular and pyrochlore lattices. Such systems can be diluted to a certain concentration level by randomly replacing the magnetic spins with nonmagnetic ones. Quite recently we studied density of states (DOS) was calculated by the Wang-Landau method. Based on the obtained data, we calculated the dependence of the residual entropy (entropy at a temperature tending to zero) on the dilution concentration for quite large systems (more than 2000 spins). In the current study, we obtained the same data for small systems (less than 20 spins) by a complete search of all possible magnetic configurations and compared the result with the result for large systems. The shape of the curve remains unchanged in both cases, but the specific values of the residual entropy are different because of the finite size effect.

Keywords: entropy, pyrochlore, spin ice, Wang-Landau algorithm

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21 Supercomputer Simulation of Magnetic Multilayers Films

Authors: Vitalii Yu. Kapitan, Aleksandr V. Perzhu, Konstantin V. Nefedev


The necessity of studying magnetic multilayer structures is explained by the prospects of their practical application as a technological base for creating new storages medium. Magnetic multilayer films have many unique features that contribute to increasing the density of information recording and the speed of storage devices. Multilayer structures are structures of alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic layers. In frame of the classical Heisenberg model, lattice spin systems with direct short- and long-range exchange interactions were investigated by Monte Carlo methods. The thermodynamic characteristics of multilayer structures, such as the temperature behavior of magnetization, energy, and heat capacity, were investigated. The processes of magnetization reversal of multilayer structures in external magnetic fields were investigated. The developed software is based on the new, promising programming language Rust. Rust is a new experimental programming language developed by Mozilla. The language is positioned as an alternative to C and C++. For the Monte Carlo simulation, the Metropolis algorithm and its parallel implementation using MPI and the Wang-Landau algorithm were used. We are planning to study of magnetic multilayer films with asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction, interfacing effects and skyrmions textures. This work was supported by the state task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russia # 3.7383.2017/8.9

Keywords: The Monte Carlo methods, Heisenberg model, multilayer structures, magnetic skyrmion

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20 Frustration Measure for Dipolar Spin Ice and Spin Glass

Authors: Konstantin Nefedev, Petr Andriushchenko


Usually under the frustrated magnetics, it understands such materials, in which ones the interaction between located magnetic moments or spins has competing character, and can not to be satisfied simultaneously. The most well-known and simplest example of the frustrated system is antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle. Physically, the existence of frustrations means, that one cannot select all three pairs of spins anti-parallel in the basic unit of the triangle. In physics of the interacting particle systems, the vector models are used, which are constructed on the base of the pair-interaction law. Each pair interaction energy between one-component vectors can take two opposite in sign values, excluding the case of zero. Mathematically, the existence of frustrations in system means that it is impossible to have all negative energies of pair interactions in the Hamiltonian even in the ground state (lowest energy). In fact, the frustration is the excitation, which leaves in system, when thermodynamics does not work, i.e. at the temperature absolute zero. The origin of the frustration is the presence at least of one ''unsatisfied'' pair of interacted spins (magnetic moments). The minimal relative quantity of these excitations (relative quantity of frustrations in ground state) can be used as parameter of frustration. If the energy of the ground state is Egs, and summary energy of all energy of pair interactions taken with a positive sign is Emax, that proposed frustration parameter pf takes values from the interval [0,1] and it is defined as pf=(Egs+Emax)/2Emax. For antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle pf=1/3. We calculated the parameters of frustration in thermodynamic limit for different 2D periodical structures of Ising dipoles, which were on the ribs of the lattice and interact by means of the long-range dipolar interaction. For the honeycomb lattice pf=0.3415, triangular - pf=0.2468, kagome - pf=0.1644. All dependencies of frustration parameter from 1/N obey to the linear law. The given frustration parameter allows to consider the thermodynamics of all magnetic systems from united point of view and to compare the different lattice systems of interacting particle in the frame of vector models. This parameter can be the fundamental characteristic of frustrated systems. It has no dependence from temperature and thermodynamic states, in which ones the system can be found, such as spin ice, spin glass, spin liquid or even spin snow. It shows us the minimal relative quantity of excitations, which ones can exist in system at T=0.

Keywords: frustrations, parameter of order, statistical physics, magnetism

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19 Flat-Top Apodization of Laser Beams by Means of Acousto-Optics

Authors: Sergey I. Chizhikov, Vladimir Y. Molchanov, Konstantin B. Yushkov


We demonstrate a method for adaptive spatial shaping of laser beams by means of acousto-optic Bragg diffraction. Transformation of the angular spectrum during Bragg diffraction is used to convert Gaussian intensity distribution into a flat-top one. Theoretical model is supported by the experiment.

Keywords: acousto-optics, flat top, beam shaping, Bragg diffraction

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18 Flexible Technologies of Granulated Complex Fertilizers

Authors: Andrey M. Norov, Denis A. Pagaleshkin, Pavel S. Fedotov, Viacheslav M. Kolpakov, Konstantin G. Gorbovskiy


The article focuses on the latest research and developments (R&D) aimed at the development of plants for production of complex phosphorus-containing fertilizers which are in line with the principles of the best available techniques (BAT). The advantages of the implemented technical solutions are given. The paper describes developed options of flexible technologies for schemes with DGD (drum granulator dryer) and for schemes with AG-DD (ammoniator-granulator and dryer drum).

Keywords: ammoniator-granulator drier drum, phosphorus-containing fertilizer technology, PK, PKS and NPKS-fertilizers, WPA

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17 Automatic Intelligent Analysis of Malware Behaviour

Authors: Hermann Dornhackl, Konstantin Kadletz, Robert Luh, Paul Tavolato


In this paper we describe the use of formal methods to model malware behaviour. The modelling of harmful behaviour rests upon syntactic structures that represent malicious procedures inside malware. The malicious activities are modelled by a formal grammar, where API calls’ components are the terminals and the set of API calls used in combination to achieve a goal are designated non-terminals. The combination of different non-terminals in various ways and tiers make up the attack vectors that are used by harmful software. Based on these syntactic structures a parser can be generated which takes execution traces as input for pattern recognition.

Keywords: malware behaviour, modelling, parsing, search, pattern matching

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16 Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation

Authors: Konstantin A. Bochaver, Alexandra O. Savinkina


The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.

Keywords: compatibility, failure avoidance motivation, football, heterogeneity, homogeneity, soccer, sport team, success achievement motivation

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15 Shock Compressibility of Iron Alloys Calculated in the Framework of Quantum-Statistical Models

Authors: Maxim A. Kadatskiy, Konstantin V. Khishchenko


Iron alloys are widespread components in various types of structural materials which are exposed to intensive thermal and mechanical loads. Various quantum-statistical cell models with the approximation of self-consistent field can be used for the prediction of the behavior of these materials under extreme conditions. The application of these models is even more valid, the higher the temperature and the density of matter. Results of Hugoniot calculation for iron alloys in the framework of three quantum-statistical (the Thomas–Fermi, the Thomas–Fermi with quantum and exchange corrections and the Hartree–Fock–Slater) models are presented. Results of quantum-statistical calculations are compared with results from other reliable models and available experimental data. It is revealed a good agreement between results of calculation and experimental data for terra pascal pressures. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are shown.

Keywords: alloy, Hugoniot, iron, terapascal pressure

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14 Rollet vs Rocket: A New in-Space Propulsion Concept

Authors: Arthur Baraov


Nearly all rocket and spacecraft propulsion concepts in existence today can be linked one way or the other to one of the two ancient warfare devices: the gun and the sling. Chemical, thermoelectric, ion, nuclear thermal and electromagnetic rocket engines – all fall into the first group which, for obvious reasons, can be categorized as “hot” space propulsion concepts. Space elevator, orbital tower, rolling satellite, orbital skyhook, tether propulsion and gravitational assist – are examples of the second category which lends itself for the title “cold” space propulsion concepts. The “hot” space propulsion concepts skyrocketed – literally and figuratively – from the naïve ideas of Jules Verne to the manned missions to the Moon. On the other hand, with the notable exception of gravitational assist, hardly any of the “cold” space propulsion concepts made any progress in terms of practical application. Why is that? This article aims to show that the right answer to this question has the potential comparable by its implications and practical consequences to that of transition from Jules Verne’s stillborn and impractical conceptions of space flight to cogent and highly fertile ideas of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Yuri Kondratyuk.

Keywords: propulsion, rocket, rollet, spacecraft

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13 Genetically Encoded Tool with Time-Resolved Fluorescence Readout for the Calcium Concentration Measurement

Authors: Tatiana R. Simonyan, Elena A. Protasova, Anastasia V. Mamontova, Eugene G. Maksimov, Konstantin A. Lukyanov, Alexey M. Bogdanov


Here, we describe two variants of the calcium indicators based on the GCaMP sensitive core and BrUSLEE fluorescent protein (GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145). In contrast to the conventional GCaMP6-family indicators, these fluorophores are characterized by the well-marked responsiveness of their fluorescence decay kinetics to external calcium concentration both in vitro and in cellulo. Specifically, we show that the purified GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 exhibit three-component fluorescence decay kinetics, with the amplitude-normalized lifetime component (t3*A3) of GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 changing four-fold (500-2000 a.u.) in response to a Ca²⁺ concentration shift in the range of 0—350 nM. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of live cells displays the two-fold change of the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 mean lifetime upon histamine-stimulated calcium release. The aforementioned Ca²⁺-dependence calls considering the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 as a prospective Ca²⁺-indicator with the signal read-out in the time domain.

Keywords: calcium imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescent proteins, genetically encoded indicators

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12 One-Step Time Series Predictions with Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Vaidehi Iyer, Konstantin Borozdin


Time series prediction problems have many important practical applications, but are notoriously difficult for statistical modeling. Recently, machine learning methods have been attracted significant interest as a practical tool applied to a variety of problems, even though developments in this field tend to be semi-empirical. This paper explores application of Long Short Term Memory based Recurrent Neural Networks to the one-step prediction of time series for both trend and stochastic components. Two types of data are analyzed - daily stock prices, that are often considered to be a typical example of a random walk, - and weather patterns dominated by seasonal variations. Results from both analyses are compared, and reinforced learning framework is used to select more efficient between Recurrent Neural Networks and more traditional auto regression methods. It is shown that both methods are able to follow long-term trends and seasonal variations closely, but have difficulties with reproducing day-to-day variability. Future research directions and potential real world applications are briefly discussed.

Keywords: long short term memory, prediction methods, recurrent neural networks, reinforcement learning

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11 Tuberculosis in Patients with HIV-Infection in Russia: Cohort Study over the Period of 2015-2016 Years

Authors: Marina Nosik, Irina Rymanova, Konstantin Ryzhov, Joan Yarovaya, Alexander Sobkin


Tuberculosis (TB) associated with HIV is one of the top causes of death worldwide. However, early detection and treatment of TB in HIV-infected individuals significantly reduces the risk of developing severe forms of TB and mortality. The goal of the study was to analyze the peculiarities of TB associated with HIV infection. Over the period of 2015-2016 a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 377 patients with TB/HIV co-infection who attended the Moscow Tuberculosis Clinic. The majority of the patients was male (64,5%). The median age was: men 37,9 (24÷62) and women 35,4 (22÷72) years. The most prevalent age group was 30-39 years both for men and women (73,3% and 54,7%, respectively). The ratio of patients in age group 50-59 and senior was 3,9%. Socioeconomic status of patients was rather low: only 2.3% of patients had a university degree; 76,1% was unemployed (of whom 21,7% were disabled). Most patients had disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in the phase of infiltration/ decay (41,5%). The infiltrative TB was detected in 18,9% of patients; 20,1% patients had tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes. The occurrence of MDR-TB was 16,8% and XDR-TB – 17,9%. The number of HIV-positive patients with newly diagnosed TB was n=261(69,2%). The active TB-form (MbT+) among new TB/HIV cases was 44,7 %. The severe clinical forms of TB and a high TB incidence rate among HIV-infected individuals alongside with a large number of cases of newly diagnosed tuberculosis, indicate the need for more intense interaction with TB services for timely diagnosis of TB which will optimize treatment outcomes.

Keywords: HIV, tuberculosis (TB), TB associated with HIV, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)

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10 Virtual and Visual Reconstructions in Museum Expositions

Authors: Ekaterina Razuvalova, Konstantin Rudenko


In this article the most successful examples of international visual and virtual reconstructions of historical and culture objects, which are based on informative and communicative technologies, are represented. 3D reconstructions can demonstrate outward appearance, visualize different hypothesis, connected to represented object. Virtual reality can give us any daytime and season, any century and environment. We can see how different people from different countries and different era lived; we can get different information about any object; we can see historical complexes in real city environment, which are damaged or vanished. These innovations confirm the fact, that 3D reconstruction is important in museum development. Considering the most interesting examples of visual and virtual reconstructions, we can notice, that visual reconstruction is a 3D image of different objects, historical complexes, buildings and phenomena. They are constant and we can see them only as momentary objects. And virtual reconstruction is some environment with its own time, rules and phenomena. These reconstructions are continuous; seasons, daytime and natural conditions can change there. They can demonstrate abilities of virtual world existence. In conclusion: new technologies give us opportunities to expand the boundaries of museum space, improve abilities of museum expositions, create emotional atmosphere of game immersion, which can interest visitor. Usage of network sources allows increasing the number of visitors and virtual reconstruction opportunities show creative side of museum business.

Keywords: computer technologies, historical reconstruction, museums, museum expositions, virtual reconstruction

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9 Transgression, Resistance and Independent Art in Russia

Authors: Oxana Vasilyeva


This paper draws on research in progress focusing on independent art in the Russian Federation. I am using the concept of independent art to mean art free from state control and established restrictive narratives. The Russian state pursues its interests by supporting or forbidding certain forms of art, and art that promotes values in opposition to the official political course is often forbidden. Arguments presented below draw from fieldwork carried out in Russian cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg in June – August 2019, which included in-depth interviews with artists. This research explores socially engaged artistic works and their effect on socio-political state of affairs. It argues that artistic works entering public places have a potential to challenge autocratic system and inspire civil society to be critically engaged and to be capable to resist state propaganda. I am focusing on those artists who have a critical stance towards the current Russian political regime and analyzing their works in terms of transgression. By using the framework of transgression I aim to demonstrate how artists step across existing norms with their art influencing political and social order. To show the connection between the factors mentioned above, I will turn to two examples of transgressive aesthetics; one is individual and another is collective. The first example is Konstantin Benkovich, an artist who makes his works out of steel rebar, which is considered to be a symbol of the lack of freedom, as it is usually encountered in prison settings. The second example is a collective art practice called Monstration. It combines techniques of a demonstration and a carnival atmosphere. In 2019 Monstration was held in 30 Russian cities, despite the dissatisfaction of the authorities.

Keywords: art, culture, resistance, Russia

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8 Ion Beam Polishing of Si in W/Si Multilayer X-Ray Analyzers

Authors: Roman Medvedev, Andrey Yakshin, Konstantin Nikolaev, Sergey Yakunin, Fred Bijkerk


Multilayer structures are used as spectroscopic elements in fluorescence analysis. These serve the purpose of analyzing soft x-ray emission spectra of materials upon excitation by x-rays or electrons. The analysis then allows quantitative determination of the x-ray emitting elements in the materials. Shorter wavelength range for this application, below 2.5nm, can be covered by using short period multilayers, with a period of 2.5 nm and lower. Thus the detrimental effect on the reflectivity of morphological roughness between materials of the multilayers becomes increasingly pronounced. Ion beam polishing was previously shown to be effective in reducing roughness in some multilayer systems with Si. In this work, we explored W/Si multilayers with the period of 2.5 nm. Si layers were polishing by Ar ions, employing low energy ions, 100 and 80 eV, with the etched Si thickness being in the range 0.1 to 0.5 nm. CuK X-ray diffuse scattering measurements revealed a significant reduction in the diffused scattering in the polished multilayers. However, Grazing Incidence CuK X-ray showed only a marginal reduction of the overall roughness of the systems. Still, measurements of the structures with Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray scattering indicated that the vertical correlation length of roughness was strongly reduced in the polished multilayers. These results together suggest that polishing results in the reduction of the vertical propagation of roughness from layer to layer, while only slightly affecting the overall roughness. This phenomenon can be explained by ion-induced surface roughening inherently present in the ion polishing methods. Alternatively, ion-induced densification of thin Si films should also be considered. Finally, the reflectivity of 40% at 0.84 nm at grazing incidence of 9 degrees has been obtained in this work for W/Si multilayers. Analysis of the obtained results is expected to lead to further progress in reflectance.

Keywords: interface roughness, ion polishing, multilayer structures, W/Si

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7 Metagenomics-Based Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases

Authors: Vyacheslav Furtak, Merja Roivainen, Olga Mirochnichenko, Majid Laassri, Bella Bidzhieva, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Vladimir Chizhikov, Konstantin Chumakov


Molecular epidemiology and environmental surveillance are parts of a rational strategy to control infectious diseases. They have been widely used in the worldwide campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, which otherwise would be complicated by the inability to rapidly respond to outbreaks and determine sources of the infection. The conventional scheme involves isolation of viruses from patients and the environment, followed by their identification by nucleotide sequences analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships. This is a tedious and time-consuming process that yields definitive results when it may be too late to implement countermeasures. Because of the difficulty of high-throughput full-genome sequencing, most such studies are conducted by sequencing only capsid genes or their parts. Therefore the important information about the contribution of other parts of the genome and inter- and intra-species recombination to viral evolution is not captured. Here we propose a new approach based on the rapid concentration of sewage samples with tangential flow filtration followed by deep sequencing and reconstruction of nucleotide sequences of viruses present in the samples. The entire nucleic acids content of each sample is sequenced, thus preserving in digital format the complete spectrum of viruses. A set of rapid algorithms was developed to separate deep sequence reads into discrete populations corresponding to each virus and assemble them into full-length consensus contigs, as well as to generate a complete profile of sequence heterogeneities in each of them. This provides an effective approach to study molecular epidemiology and evolution of natural viral populations.

Keywords: poliovirus, eradication, environmental surveillance, laboratory diagnosis

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6 Development of NO-Ergic Synaptic Transmission in Sympathetic Neurons of Mammals: Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Konstantin Yu. Moiseev, Antonina F. Budnik, Andrey I. Emanuilov, Petr M. Masliukov


The vast majority of sympathetic ganglionic neurons are catecholaminergic. Some sympathetic neurons lack catecholamines and mostly use acetylcholine as their main neurotransmitter. Some cholinergic postganglionic neurons also express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Preganglionic sympathetic neurons are cholinergic and most of them are also nNOS-immunoreactive (IR). The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the neuroplasticity of sympathetic neurons during postnatal ontogenesis by comparing the development of pre- and postganglionic neurons expressing nNOS in different mammals. nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG), stellate ganglion (SG), celiac ganglion (CG) and spinal cord from rats, mice and cats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old and 2-year-old). In rats and mice, nNOS-positive neurons were not found in sympathetic ganglia from birth onwards. In cats, non-catecholaminergic nNOS-IR sympathetic ganglionic neurons are present from the moment of birth. In all studied age groups, substantial populations of nNOS-IR cells (up to 8.3%) was found in the SG, with a much smaller population found in the SCG (<1%) and only few cells observed in the CG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons in the CG and SCG did not significantly change during development. The proportion of nNOS-IR neuron profiles in the SG increased in first 20 days of life from 2.3±0.15% to 8.3±0.56%. In the SG, percentages of nNOS-IR sympathetic neurons colocalizing vasoactive intestinal peptide increased in the first 20 days of life. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IR and calcitonin gene-related peptide-IR neurons were not observed in the sympathetic ganglia of newborn animals and did not appear until 10 days after birth. In the SG of newborn and 10-day-old kittens, the majority of NOS-IR neurons were calbindin (CB)-IR, whereas in the SCG and CG of cats of all age groups and in the SG of 30-day-old and older kittens, the vast majority of NOS-IR neurons lacked CB. In newborn mammals, the most of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the nucleus intermediolateralis thoracolumbalis pars principalis (nucl.ILp) were nNOS-IR. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons decreased and the same parameter of ChAT-IR neurons increased during the development. We conclude that the development of nNOS-IR preganglionic and ganglionic sympathetic neurons in different mammals has time and species differences.

Keywords: sympathetic neuron, nitric oxide synthase, immunohistochemistry, development

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5 Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of an Enantiomerically Pure β-Dipeptide Derivative through PI3K/Akt-Dependent and -Independent Pathways in Human Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells

Authors: Mei-Ling Chan, Jin-Ming Wu, Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev, Jih-Hwa Guh


Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant disease in men. KUD983 is an enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative, which may have anti-cancer effects. In the present study, KUD983 exhibits powerful activity against hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 and DU145 cells. The IC50 values of KUD983 in PC-3 and DU145 cells are 0.56±0.07M and 0.50±0.04 M respectively. KUD983 induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis associated with the down-regulation of several related proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin E and Cdk4, and the de-phosphorylation of RB. The protein expressions of nuclear and total c-Myc protein, which was able to regulate the expression of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E, were significantly suppressed by KUD983. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling pathway that influences the energy metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells, and is associated with numerous other signaling pathways. The Western Blot data revealed that KUD983 inhibited PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathways. The transient transfection of constitutively active myristylated Akt (myr-Akt) cDNA significantly reversed KUD983-induced caspase activation but did not abolish the suppression of mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling cascade indicating the presence of both Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, KUD983-induced effect was collaborated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (e.g., Bcl-2, and Mcl-1) and IAP family members (e.g., survivin). Furthermore, KUD983 induced autophagic cell death using confocal microscopic examination, investigating the level of conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and flow cytometric detection of AVO-positive cells. Taken together, the data suggest that KUD983 is an anticancer β-dipeptide against HRPCs through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death. The suppression of signaling pathways mediated by c-Myc, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and the collaboration with down-regulation of Mcl-1 and survivin may indicate the mechanism of KUD983 against HRPC.

Keywords: β-dipeptide, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, mTOR, PI3K/Akt

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4 Two-Component Biocompartible Material for Reconstruction of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

Authors: Alena O. Stepanova, Vera S. Chernonosova, Tatyana S. Godovikova, Konstantin A. Bulatov, Andrey Y. Patrushev, Pavel P. Laktionov


Trauma and arthrosis, not to mention cartilage destruction in overweight and elders put hyaline cartilage lesion among the most frequent diseases of locomotor system. These problems combined with low regeneration potential of the cartilage make regeneration of articular cartilage a high-priority task of tissue engineering. Many types of matrices, the procedures of their installation and autologous chondrocyte implantation protocols were offered, but certain aspects including adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage/bone, prevention of the ossification and fibrosis were not resolved. Simplification and acceleration of the procedures resulting in restoration of normal cartilage are also required. We have demonstrated that human chondroblasts can be successfully cultivated at the surface of electrospun scaffolds and produce extracellular matrix components in contrast to chondroblasts grown in homogeneous hydrogels. To restore cartilage we offer to use stacks of electrospun scaffolds fixed with photopolymerized solution of prepared from gelatin and chondroitin-4-sulfate both modified by glycidyl methacrylate and non-toxic photoinitator Darocur 2959. Scaffolds were prepared from nylon 6, polylactide-co-glicolide and their mixtures with modified gelatin. Illumination of chondroblasts in photopolymerized solution using 365 nm LED light had no effect on cell viability at compressive strength of the gel less than0,12 MPa. Stacks of electrospun scaffolds provide good compressive strength and have the potential for substitution with cartilage when biodegradable scaffolds are used. Vascularization can be prevented by introduction of biostable scaffolds in the layers contacting the subchondral bone. Studies of two-component materials (2-3 sheets of electrospun scaffold) implanted in the knee-joints of rabbits and fixed by photopolymerization demonstrated good crush resistance, biocompatibility and good adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage. Histological examination of the implants 3 month after implantation demonstrates absence of any inflammation and signs of replacement of the biodegradable scaffolds with normal cartilage. The possibility of intraoperative population of the implants with autologous cells is being investigated.

Keywords: chondroblasts, electrospun scaffolds, hyaline cartilage, photopolymerized gel

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3 Na Doped ZnO UV Filters with Reduced Photocatalytic Activity for Sunscreen Application

Authors: Rafid Mueen, Konstantin Konstantinov, Micheal Lerch, Zhenxiang Cheng


In the past two decades, the concern for skin protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation has attracted considerable attention due to the increased intensity of UV rays that can reach the Earth’s surface as a result of the breakdown of ozone layer. Recently, UVA has also attracted attention, since, in comparison to UVB, it can penetrate deeply into the skin, which can result in significant health concerns. Sunscreen agents are one of the significant tools to protect the skin from UV irradiation, and it is either organic or in organic. Developing of inorganic UV blockers is essential, which provide efficient UV protection over a wide spectrum rather than organic filters. Furthermore inorganic UV blockers are good comfort, and high safety when applied on human skin. Inorganic materials can absorb, reflect, or scatter the ultraviolet radiation, depending on their particle size, unlike the organic blockers, which absorb the UV irradiation. Nowadays, most inorganic UV-blocking filters are based on (TiO2) and ZnO). ZnO can provide protection in the UVA range. Indeed, ZnO is attractive for in sunscreen formulization, and this relates to many advantages, such as its modest refractive index (2.0), absorption of a small fraction of solar radiation in the UV range which is equal to or less than 385 nm, its high probable recombination of photogenerated carriers (electrons and holes), large direct band gap, high exciton binding energy, non-risky nature, and high tendency towards chemical and physical stability which make it transparent in the visible region with UV protective activity. A significant issue for ZnO use in sunscreens is that it can generate ROS in the presence of UV light because of its photocatalytic activity. Therefore it is essential to make a non-photocatalytic material through modification by other metals. Several efforts have been made to deactivate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO by using inorganic surface modifiers. The doping of ZnO by different metals is another way to modify its photocatalytic activity. Recently, successful doping of ZnO with different metals such as Ce, La, Co, Mn, Al, Li, Na, K, and Cr by various procedures, such as a simple and facile one pot water bath, co-precipitation, hydrothermal, solvothermal, combustion, and sol gel methods has been reported. These materials exhibit greater performance than undoped ZnO towards increasing the photocatalytic activity of ZnO in visible light. Therefore, metal doping can be an effective technique to modify the ZnO photocatalytic activity. However, in the current work, we successfully reduce the photocatalytic activity of ZnO through Na doped ZnO fabricated via sol-gel and hydrothermal methods.

Keywords: photocatalytic, ROS, UVA, ZnO

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2 Non-Perturbative Vacuum Polarization Effects in One- and Two-Dimensional Supercritical Dirac-Coulomb System

Authors: Andrey Davydov, Konstantin Sveshnikov, Yulia Voronina


There is now a lot of interest to the non-perturbative QED-effects, caused by diving of discrete levels into the negative continuum in the supercritical static or adiabatically slowly varying Coulomb fields, that are created by the localized extended sources with Z > Z_cr. Such effects have attracted a considerable amount of theoretical and experimental activity, since in 3+1 QED for Z > Z_cr,1 ≈ 170 a non-perturbative reconstruction of the vacuum state is predicted, which should be accompanied by a number of nontrivial effects, including the vacuum positron emission. Similar in essence effects should be expected also in both 2+1 D (planar graphene-based hetero-structures) and 1+1 D (one-dimensional ‘hydrogen ion’). This report is devoted to the study of such essentially non-perturbative vacuum effects for the supercritical Dirac-Coulomb systems in 1+1D and 2+1D, with the main attention drawn to the vacuum polarization energy. Although the most of works considers the vacuum charge density as the main polarization observable, vacuum energy turns out to be not less informative and in many respects complementary to the vacuum density. Moreover, the main non-perturbative effects, which appear in vacuum polarization for supercritical fields due to the levels diving into the lower continuum, show up in the behavior of vacuum energy even more clear, demonstrating explicitly their possible role in the supercritical region. Both in 1+1D and 2+1D, we explore firstly the renormalized vacuum density in the supercritical region using the Wichmann-Kroll method. Thereafter, taking into account the results for the vacuum density, we formulate the renormalization procedure for the vacuum energy. To evaluate the latter explicitly, an original technique, based on a special combination of analytical methods, computer algebra tools and numerical calculations, is applied. It is shown that, for a wide range of the external source parameters (the charge Z and size R), in the supercritical region the renormalized vacuum energy could significantly deviate from the perturbative quadratic growth up to pronouncedly decreasing behavior with jumps by (-2 x mc^2), which occur each time, when the next discrete level dives into the negative continuum. In the considered range of variation of Z and R, the vacuum energy behaves like ~ -Z^2/R in 1+1D and ~ -Z^3/R in 2+1D, exceeding deeply negative values. Such behavior confirms the assumption of the neutral vacuum transmutation into the charged one, and thereby of the spontaneous positron emission, accompanying the emergence of the next vacuum shell due to the total charge conservation. To the end, we also note that the methods, developed for the vacuum energy evaluation in 2+1 D, with minimal complements could be carried over to the three-dimensional case, where the vacuum energy is expected to be ~ -Z^4/R and so could be competitive with the classical electrostatic energy of the Coulomb source.

Keywords: non-perturbative QED-effects, one- and two-dimensional Dirac-Coulomb systems, supercritical fields, vacuum polarization

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1 Assessing of Social Comfort of the Russian Population with Big Data

Authors: Marina Shakleina, Konstantin Shaklein, Stanislav Yakiro


The digitalization of modern human life over the last decade has facilitated the acquisition, storage, and processing of data, which are used to detect changes in consumer preferences and to improve the internal efficiency of the production process. This emerging trend has attracted academic interest in the use of big data in research. The study focuses on modeling the social comfort of the Russian population for the period 2010-2021 using big data. Big data provides enormous opportunities for understanding human interactions at the scale of society with plenty of space and time dynamics. One of the most popular big data sources is Google Trends. The methodology for assessing social comfort using big data involves several steps: 1. 574 words were selected based on the Harvard IV-4 Dictionary adjusted to fit the reality of everyday Russian life. The set of keywords was further cleansed by excluding queries consisting of verbs and words with several lexical meanings. 2. Search queries were processed to ensure comparability of results: the transformation of data to a 10-point scale, elimination of popularity peaks, detrending, and deseasoning. The proposed methodology for keyword search and Google Trends processing was implemented in the form of a script in the Python programming language. 3. Block and summary integral indicators of social comfort were constructed using the first modified principal component resulting in weighting coefficients values of block components. According to the study, social comfort is described by 12 blocks: ‘health’, ‘education’, ‘social support’, ‘financial situation’, ‘employment’, ‘housing’, ‘ethical norms’, ‘security’, ‘political stability’, ‘leisure’, ‘environment’, ‘infrastructure’. According to the model, the summary integral indicator increased by 54% and was 4.631 points; the average annual rate was 3.6%, which is higher than the rate of economic growth by 2.7 p.p. The value of the indicator describing social comfort in Russia is determined by 26% by ‘social support’, 24% by ‘education’, 12% by ‘infrastructure’, 10% by ‘leisure’, and the remaining 28% by others. Among 25% of the most popular searches, 85% are of negative nature and are mainly related to the blocks ‘security’, ‘political stability’, ‘health’, for example, ‘crime rate’, ‘vulnerability’. Among the 25% most unpopular queries, 99% of the queries were positive and mostly related to the blocks ‘ethical norms’, ‘education’, ‘employment’, for example, ‘social package’, ‘recycling’. In conclusion, the introduction of the latent category ‘social comfort’ into the scientific vocabulary deepens the theory of the quality of life of the population in terms of the study of the involvement of an individual in the society and expanding the subjective aspect of the measurements of various indicators. Integral assessment of social comfort demonstrates the overall picture of the development of the phenomenon over time and space and quantitatively evaluates ongoing socio-economic policy. The application of big data in the assessment of latent categories gives stable results, which opens up possibilities for their practical implementation.

Keywords: big data, Google trends, integral indicator, social comfort

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