Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: non-enzymatic

5 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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4 Fine Characterization of Glucose Modified Human Serum Albumin by Different Biophysical and Biochemical Techniques at a Range

Authors: Neelofar, Khursheed Alam, Jamal Ahmad


Protein modification in diabetes mellitus may lead to early glycation products (EGPs) or amadori product as well as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Early glycation involves the reaction of glucose with N-terminal and lysyl side chain amino groups to form Schiff’s base which undergoes rearrangements to form more stable early glycation product known as Amadori product. After Amadori, the reactions become more complicated leading to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that interact with various AGE receptors, thereby playing an important role in the long-term complications of diabetes. Millard reaction or nonenzymatic glycation reaction accelerate in diabetes due to hyperglycation and alter serum protein’s structure, their normal functions that lead micro and macro vascular complications in diabetic patients. In this study, Human Serum Albumin (HSA) with a constant concentration was incubated with different concentrations of glucose at 370C for a week. At 4th day, Amadori product was formed that was confirmed by colorimetric method NBT assay and TBA assay which both are authenticate early glycation product. Conformational changes in native as well as all samples of Amadori albumin with different concentrations of glucose were investigated by various biophysical and biochemical techniques. Main biophysical techniques hyperchromacity, quenching of fluorescence intensity, FTIR, CD and SDS-PAGE were used. Further conformational changes were observed by biochemical assays mainly HMF formation, fructoseamine, reduction of fructoseamine with NaBH4, carbonyl content estimation, lysine and arginine residues estimation, ANS binding property and thiol group estimation. This study find structural and biochemical changes in Amadori modified HSA with normal to hyperchronic range of glucose with respect to native HSA. When glucose concentration was increased from normal to chronic range biochemical and structural changes also increased. Highest alteration in secondary and tertiary structure and conformation in glycated HSA was observed at the hyperchronic concentration (75mM) of glucose. Although it has been found that Amadori modified proteins is also involved in secondary complications of diabetes as AGEs but very few studies have been done to analyze the conformational changes in Amadori modified proteins due to early glycation. Most of the studies were found on the structural changes in Amadori protein at a particular glucose concentration but no study was found to compare the biophysical and biochemical changes in HSA due to early glycation with a range of glucose concentration at a constant incubation time. So this study provide the information about the biochemical and biophysical changes occur in Amadori modified albumin at a range of glucose normal to chronic in diabetes. Although many implicates currently in use i.e. glycaemic control, insulin treatment and other chemical therapies that can control many aspects of diabetes. However, even with intensive use of current antidiabetic agents more than 50 % of diabetic patient’s type 2 suffers poor glycaemic control and 18 % develop serious complications within six years of diagnosis. Experimental evidence related to diabetes suggests that preventing the nonenzymatic glycation of relevant proteins or blocking their biological effects might beneficially influence the evolution of vascular complications in diabetic patients or quantization of amadori adduct of HSA by authentic antibodies against HSA-EGPs can be used as marker for early detection of the initiation/progression of secondary complications of diabetes. So this research work may be helpful for the same.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, glycation, albumin, amadori, biophysical and biochemical techniques

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3 Efficacy of Pisum sativum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metalloids from Soil

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Manoj Paul


A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on metal(loid) uptake and accumulation efficiency of Pisum sativum along with physiological and biochemical response. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 50 and 100 mg kg-1 Pb, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 Cd, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 As and a combination of all three metal(loid)s. A parallel set was maintained and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for comparison. After 60 days, plants were harvested and analysed for metal(loid) content. A steady increase in metal(loid) accumulation was observed on increment of metal(loid) dose and also on AMF inoculation. Plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoid and carbohydrate content reduced upon metal(loid) exposure. Increase in enzymatic (CAT, SOD and APX) and nonenzymatic (Proline) defence proteins was observed on metal(loid) exposure. AMF inoculation leads to an increase in plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrate and enzymatic defence proteins (p≤0.001) under study; whereas proline content was reduced. Considering the accumulation efficiency and adaptive response of plants and alleviation of stress by AMF, this symbiosis can be applied for on-site remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soil.

Keywords: heavy metal, mycorrhiza, pea, phyroremediation

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2 Gold Nano Particle as a Colorimetric Sensor of HbA0 Glycation Products

Authors: Ranjita Ghoshmoulick, Aswathi Madhavan, Subhavna Juneja, Prasenjit Sen, Jaydeep Bhattacharya


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a very complex and multifactorial metabolic disease where the blood sugar level goes up. One of the major consequence of this elevated blood sugar is the formation of AGE (Advance Glycation Endproducts), from a series of chemical or biochemical reactions. AGE are detrimental because it leads to severe pathogenic complications. They are a group of structurally diverse chemical compounds formed from nonenzymatic reactions between the free amino groups (-NH2) of proteins and carbonyl groups (>C=O) of reducing sugars. The reaction is known as Maillard Reaction. It starts with the formation of reversible schiff’s base linkage which after sometime rearranges itself to form Amadori Product along with dicarbonyl compounds. Amadori products are very unstable hence rearrangement goes on until stable products are formed. During the course of the reaction a lot of chemically unknown intermediates and reactive byproducts are formed that can be termed as Early Glycation Products. And when the reaction completes, structurally stable chemical compounds are formed which is termed as Advanced Glycation Endproducts. Though all glycation products have not been characterized well, some fluorescence compounds e.g pentosidine, Malondialdehyde (MDA) or carboxymethyllysine (CML) etc as AGE and α-dicarbonyls or oxoaldehydes such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) etc as the intermediates have been identified. In this work Gold NanoParticle (GNP) was used as an optical indicator of glycation products. To achieve faster glycation kinetics and high AGE accumulation, fructose was used instead of glucose. Hemoglobin A0 (HbA0) was fructosylated by in-vitro method. AGE formation was measured fluorimetrically by recording emission at 450nm upon excitation at 350nm. Thereafter this fructosylated HbA0 was fractionated by column chromatography. Fractionation separated the proteinaceous substance from the AGEs. Presence of protein part in the fractions was confirmed by measuring the intrinsic protein fluorescence and Bradford reaction. GNPs were synthesized using the templates of chromatographically separated fractions of fructosylated HbA0. Each fractions gave rise to GNPs of varying color, indicating the presence of distinct set of glycation products differing structurally and chemically. Clear solution appeared due to settling down of particles in some vials. The reactive groups of the intermediates kept the GNP formation mechanism on and did not lead to a stable particle formation till Day 10. Whereas SPR of GNP showed monotonous colour for the fractions collected in case of non fructosylated HbA0. Our findings accentuate the use of GNPs as a simple colorimetric sensing platform for the identification of intermediates of glycation reaction which could be implicated in the prognosis of the associated health risk due to T2DM and others.

Keywords: advance glycation endproducts, glycation, gold nano particle, sensor

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1 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Coconut Oil and Fabrication of a Non Enzymatic Cholesterol Biosensor

Authors: Mitali Saha, Soma Das


The fabrication of nanoscale materials for use in chemical sensing, biosensing and biological analyses has proven a promising avenue in the last few years. Cholesterol has aroused considerable interest in recent years on account of its being an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. There is a strong positive correlation between high serum cholesterol level and arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors have shown high selectivity and excellent sensitivity, but the enzyme is easily denatured during its immobilization procedure and its activity is also affected by temperature, pH, and toxic chemicals. Besides, the reproducibility of enzyme-based sensors is not very good which further restrict the application of cholesterol biosensor. It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes could promote electron transfer with various redox active proteins, ranging from cytochrome c to glucose oxidase with a deeply embedded redox center. In continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and applications of carbon and metal based nanoparticles, we have reported here the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CCNT) by burning coconut oil under insufficient flow of air using an oil lamp. The soot was collected from the top portion of the flame, where the temperature was around 6500C which was purified, functionalized and then characterized by SEM, p-XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM micrographs showed the formation of tubular structure of CCNT having diameter below 100 nm. The XRD pattern indicated the presence of two predominant peaks at 25.20 and 43.80, which corresponded to (002) and (100) planes of CCNT respectively. The Raman spectrum (514 nm excitation) showed the presence of 1600 cm-1 (G-band) related to the vibration of sp2-bonded carbon and at 1350 cm-1 (D-band) responsible for the vibrations of sp3-bonded carbon. A nonenzymatic cholesterol biosensor was then fabricated on an insulating Teflon material containing three silver wires at the surface, covered by CCNT, obtained from coconut oil. Here, CCNTs worked as working as well as counter electrodes whereas reference electrode and electric contacts were made of silver. The dimensions of the electrode was 3.5 cm×1.0 cm×0.5 cm (length× width × height) and it is ideal for working with 50 µL volume like the standard screen printed electrodes. The voltammetric behavior of cholesterol at CCNT electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammeter and differential pulse voltammeter using 0.001 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. The influence of the experimental parameters on the peak currents of cholesterol like pH, accumulation time, and scan rates were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current was found to be linear in the cholesterol concentration range from 1 µM to 50 µM with a sensitivity of ~15.31 μAμM−1cm−2 with lower detection limit of 0.017 µM and response time of about 6s. The long-term storage stability of the sensor was tested for 30 days and the current response was found to be ~85% of its initial response after 30 days.

Keywords: coconut oil, CCNT, cholesterol, biosensor

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