Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6667

Search results for: dynamic compression tests

6667 Elastic Constants of Fir Wood Using Ultrasound and Compression Tests

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Elastic constants of Fir wood (Abies cilicica) have been investigated by means of ultrasound and compression tests. Three modulus of elasticity in principal directions (EL, ER, ET), six Poisson’s ratios (ʋLR, ʋLT, ʋRT, ʋTR, ʋRL, ʋTL) and three shear modules (GLR, GRT, GLT) were determined. 20 x 20 x 60 mm samples were conditioned at 65 % relative humidity and 20ºC before testing. Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° angle with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured. 2.27 MHz longitudinal and 1 MHz shear sensors were used for obtaining sound velocities. Stress-strain curves of the samples in compression tests were obtained using bi-axial extensometer in order to calculate elastic constants. Test results indicated that most of the elastic constants determined in the study are within the acceptable range. Although elastic constants determined from ultrasound are usually higher than those determined from compression tests, the values of EL and GLR determined from compression tests were higher in the study. The results of this study can be used in the numerical modeling of elements or systems under load using Fir wood.

Keywords: compression tests, elastic constants, fir wood, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
6666 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia

Abstract:

In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
6665 Modeling and Prediction of Hot Deformation Behavior of IN718

Authors: M. Azarbarmas, J. M. Cabrera, J. Calvo, M. Aghaie-Khafri

Abstract:

The modeling of hot deformation behavior for unseen conditions is important in metal-forming. In this study, the hot deformation of IN718 has been characterized in the temperature range 950-1100 and strain rate range 0.001-0.1 s-1 using hot compression tests. All stress-strain curves showed the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. These curves were implemented quantitatively in mathematics, and then constitutive equation indicating the relationship between the flow stress and hot deformation parameters was obtained successfully.

Keywords: compression test, constitutive equation, dynamic recrystallization, hot working

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
6664 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma

Abstract:

Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6663 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo

Abstract:

Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
6662 Dynamic Compaction Assessment for Improving Pasdaran Highway

Authors: Alireza Motamadnia, Roohollah Zohdi Oliayi, Hümeyra Bolakar, Ahmet Tortum

Abstract:

Dynamic compression as a method of soil improvement in recent decades has been considered by engineers and experts. Three methods mainly, deep dynamic compaction, soil density, dynamic and rapid change have been proposed and implemented to improve subgrade conditions of highway road. Northern highway route in Tabriz (Pasdaran), Iran that was placed on the manual soil was the main concern. Engineering properties of soil have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Among the three methods rapid dynamic compaction for highway has been suggested to improve the soil subgrade conditions.

Keywords: manual soil, subsidence, improvement, dynamic compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
6661 The Microstructural Evolution of X45CrNiW189 Valve Steel during Hot Deformation

Authors: A. H. Meysami

Abstract:

In this paper, the hot compression tests were carried on X45CrNiW189 valve steel (X45) in the temperature range of 1000–1200°C and the strain rate range of 0.004–0.5 s^(-1) in order to study the high temperature softening behavior of the steel. For the exact prediction of flow stress, the effective stress - effective strain curves were obtained from experiments under various conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the dynamic recrystallization fraction (DRX), AGS, hot deformation and activation energy behavior were investigated. It was found that the calculated results were in a good agreement with the experimental flow stress and microstructure of the steel for different conditions of hot deformation.

Keywords: X45CrNiW189, valve steel, hot compression test, dynamic recrystallization, hot deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6660 Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Benyahia

Abstract:

Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.

Keywords: adhesively-bonded composite joints, damage, dynamic compression tests, energy balance, heat dissipation, SHPB, thermomechanical behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
6659 Determination of the Friction Coefficient of AL5754 Alloy by Ring Compression Test: Experimental and Numerical Survey

Authors: P. M. Keshtiban, M. Zadshakoyan

Abstract:

One of the important factors that alter different process and geometrical parameters on metal forming processes is friction between contacting surfaces. Some important factors that effected directly by friction are: stress, strain, required load, wear of surfaces and then geometrical parameters. In order to control friction effects permanent lubrication is necessary. In this article, the friction coefficient is elicited by the most effective method, ring compression tests. The tests were done by both finite element method and practical tests. Different friction curves that extracted by finite element simulations and has good conformity with published results, used for obtaining final friction coefficient. In this study Mos2 is used as the lubricant and Al5754 alloy used as the specimens material.

Keywords: experiment, FEM, friction coefficient, ring compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
6658 Dynamic Test for Stability of Bar Loaded by a Compression Force Directed Towards the Pole

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

The phenomenon of buckling of structural elements under compression is revealed in many cases of loading and found consideration in many structures and mechanisms. In the present work the method and results of dynamic test for buckling of bar loaded by a compression force directed towards the pole are considered. Experimental determination of critical force for such system has not been made previously. The tested object is a bar with semi-rigid connection to the base at one of its ends, and with a hinge moving along a circle at the other. The test includes measuring the natural frequency of the bar at different values of compression load. The lateral stiffness is calculated based on natural frequency and reduced mass on the bar's movable end. The critical load is determined by extrapolation the values of lateral stiffness up to zero value. For the experimental investigation the special test-bed was created that allows the stability testing at positive and negative curvature of the movable end's trajectory, as well as varying the rotational stiffness of the other end connection. Decreasing a friction at the movable end allows extend the diapason of applied compression force. The testing method includes : - methodology of the experiment planning, that allows determine the required number of tests under various loads values in the defined range and the type of extrapolating function; - methodology of experimental determination of reduced mass at the bar's movable end including its own mass; - methodology of experimental determination of lateral stiffness of uncompressed bar rotational semi-rigid connection at the base. For planning the experiment and for comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values of critical load, the analytical dependencies of lateral stiffness of the bar with defined end conditions on compression load. In the particular case of perfectly rigid connection of the bar to the base, the critical load value corresponds to solution by S.P. Timoshenko. Correspondence of the calculated and experimental values was obtained.

Keywords: buckling, dynamic method, end-fixity factor, force directed towards a pole

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
6657 Cellular Automata Modelling of Titanium Alloy

Authors: Jyoti Jha, Asim Tewari, Sushil Mishra

Abstract:

The alpha-beta Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is the most common alloy in the aerospace industry. The hot workability of Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated by means of hot compression tests carried out in the 750–950 °C temperature range and 0.001–10s-1 strain rate range. Stress-strain plot obtained from the Gleeble 3800 test results show the dynamic recrystallization at temperature 950 °C. The effect of microstructural characteristics of the deformed specimens have been studied and correlated with the test temperature, total strain and strain rate. Finite element analysis in DEFORM 2D has been carried out to see the effect of flow stress parameters in different zones of deformed sample. Dynamic recrystallization simulation based on Cellular automata has been done in DEFORM 2D to simulate the effect of hardening and recovery during DRX. Simulated results well predict the grain growth and DRX in the deformed sample.

Keywords: compression test, Cellular automata, DEFORM , DRX

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
6656 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content and Liquid Limit and Void Ratio Using Statistics Method

Authors: Lizhou Chen, Abdelhamid Belgaid, Assem Elsayed, Xiaoming Yang

Abstract:

Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
6655 Non-Destructive Test of Bar for Determination of Critical Compression Force Directed towards the Pole

Authors: Boris Blostotsky, Elia Efraim

Abstract:

The phenomenon of buckling of structural elements under compression is revealed in many cases of loading and found consideration in many structures and mechanisms. In the present work the method and results of dynamic test for buckling of bar loaded by a compression force directed towards the pole are considered. Experimental determination of critical force for such system has not been made previously. The tested object is a bar with semi-rigid connection to the base at one of its ends, and with a hinge moving along a circle at the other. The test includes measuring the natural frequency of the bar at different values of compression load. The lateral stiffness is calculated based on natural frequency and reduced mass on the bar's movable end. The critical load is determined by extrapolation the values of lateral stiffness up to zero value. For the experimental investigation the special test-bed was created that allows the stability testing at positive and negative curvature of the movable end's trajectory, as well as varying the rotational stiffness of the other end connection. Decreasing a friction at the movable end allows extend the diapason of applied compression force. The testing method includes: - Methodology of the experiment planning, that allows determine the required number of tests under various loads values in the defined range and the type of extrapolating function; - Methodology of experimental determination of reduced mass at the bar's movable end including its own mass; - Methodology of experimental determination of lateral stiffness of uncompressed bar rotational semi-rigid connection at the base. For planning the experiment and for comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values of critical load, the analytical dependencies of lateral stiffness of the bar with defined end conditions on compression load. In the particular case of perfectly rigid connection of the bar to the base, the critical load value corresponds to solution by S.P. Timoshenko. Correspondence of the calculated and experimental values was obtained.

Keywords: non-destructive test, buckling, dynamic method, semi-rigid connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
6654 Hot Deformation Behavior and Recrystallization of Inconel 718 Superalloy under Double Cone Compression

Authors: Wang Jianguo, Ding Xiao, Liu Dong, Wang Haiping, Yang Yanhui, Hu Yang

Abstract:

The hot deformation behavior of Inconel 718 alloy was studied by uniaxial compression tests under the deformation temperature of 940~1040℃ and strain rate of 0.001-10s⁻¹. The double cone compression (DCC) tests develop strains range from 30% to the 79% strain including all intermediate values of stains at different temperature (960~1040℃). DCC tests were simulated by finite element software which shown the strain and strain rates distribution. The result shows that the peak stress level of the alloy decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, which could be characterized by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation. The characterization method of hot processing window containing recrystallization volume fraction and average grain size was proposed for double cone compression test of uniform coarse grain, mixed crystal and uniform fine grain double conical specimen in hydraulic press and screw press. The results show that uniform microstructures can be obtained by low temperature with high deformation followed by high temperature with small deformation on the hydraulic press and low temperature, medium deformation, multi-pass on the screw press. The two methods were applied in industrial forgings process, and the forgings with uniform microstructure were obtained successfully.

Keywords: inconel 718 superalloy, hot processing windows, double cone compression, uniform microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
6653 Undrained Shear Strength and Anisotropic Yield Surface of Diatomaceous Mudstone

Authors: Najibullah Arsalan, Masaru Akaishi, Motohiro Sugiyama

Abstract:

When constructing a structure on soft rock, adequate research and study are required concerning the shear behavior in the over-consolidation region because soft rock is considered to be in a heavily over-consolidated state. In many of the existing studies concerning the strength of soft rock, triaxial compression tests were conducted using isotropically consolidated samples. In this study, the strength of diatomaceous soft rock anisotropically consolidated under a designated consolidation pressure is examined in undrained triaxial compression tests, and studies are made of the peak and residual strengths of the sample in the over-consolidated state in the initial yield surface and the anisotropic yield surface.

Keywords: diatomaceouse mudstone, shear strength, yield surface, triaxial compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
6652 An Experimental Study of Dynamic Compressive Strength of Bushveld Complex Brittle Rocks under Impact Loadingsa Chemicals and Fibre Corporation, Changhua Branch

Authors: A. Mudau, T. R. Stacey, R. A. Govender

Abstract:

This paper reports for the first time the findings on the dynamic compressive strength data of Bushveld Complex brittle rock materials. These rocks were subjected to both quasi-static and impact loading tests to help understand their behaviour both under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Unlike quasi-static tests, characterization of dynamic behaviour of materials is challenging, in particularly brittle rock materials. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) results reported for anorthosite and norite showed relatively low values for dynamic compressive strength compared to the quasi-static uniaxial compressive strength data. It was noticed that the dynamic stress conditions were not fully attained during testing, as well as constant strain rate.

Keywords: Bushveld Complex, dynamic comperession, rock brittleness, stress equilibrium

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
6651 Reinforcement Effect on Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sand

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Alibolandi

Abstract:

Dynamic behavior of soil are evaluated relative to a number of factors including: strain level, density, number of cycles, material type, fine content, geosynthetic inclusion, saturation, and effective stress. This paper investigate the dynamic behavior of saturated reinforced sand under cyclic stress condition. The cyclic triaxial tests are conducted on remolded specimens under various CSR which reinforced by different arrangement of non-woven geotextile. Aforementioned tests simulate field reinforced saturated deposits during earthquake or other cyclic loadings. This analysis revealed that the geotextile arrangement played dominant role on dynamic soil behavior and as geotextile close to top of specimen, the liquefaction resistance increased.

Keywords: dynamic behavior, reinforced sand, triaxial test, non-woven geotextile

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
6650 Experimental Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Double Lap Joints

Authors: H. I. Beloufa, M. Tarfaoui

Abstract:

For many applications, adhesively bonded assemblies have gained an increasing interest in the industry due to several advantages over welding, riveting and bolting, such as reduction of stress concentrations, lightness, low cost and easy manufacturing. This work is largely concerned to show the effects of the loading rate of the adhesively bonded joints under different speed rates. The tensile tests were conducted at four different rates; static (5mm/min, 50mm/min) and dynamic tests (1m/s, and 10m/s). An attempt was made to determine the damage kinetic and a comparison between the use of aluminium and composite laminate substrates is introduced. Aluminum T6082 and glass/vinylester laminated composite Substrates were used to construct aluminum/aluminum and laminate/laminate specimens. The adhesive used in this study was Araldite 2015. The results showed the effects of the loading rate évolution on the double joint strength. The comparison of the results of static and dynamic tests showed a raise of the strength of the specimens while the load velocity is elevated. In the case of composite substrates double joint lap, the stiffness increased by more than 60% between static and dynamic tests. However, in the case of aluminum substrates, the rigidity improved about 28% from static to moderately high velocity loading. For both aluminum and composite double joint lap, the strength increased by approximately 25% when the tensile velocity is increased from 5 mm/min to 50 mm/min (static tests). Nevertheless, the tensile velocity is extended to 1m/s the strength increased by 13% and 25% respectively for composite and aluminum substrates.

Keywords: adhesive, double lap joints, static and dynamic behavior, tensile tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
6649 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: kaolinite, Nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
6648 Low-Level Forced and Ambient Vibration Tests on URM Building Strengthened by Dampers

Authors: Rafik Taleb, Farid Bouriche, Mehdi Boukri, Fouad Kehila

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to investigate the dynamic behavior of an unreinforced masonry (URM) building strengthened by DC-90 dampers by ambient and low-level forced vibration tests. Ambient and forced vibration techniques are usually applied to reinforced concrete or steel buildings to understand and identify their dynamic behavior, however, less is known about their applicability for masonry buildings. Ambient vibrations were measured before and after strengthening of the URM building by DC-90 dampers system. For forced vibration test, a series of low amplitude steady state harmonic forced vibration tests were conducted after strengthening using eccentric mass shaker. The resonant frequency curves, mode shapes and damping coefficients as well as stress distribution in the steel braces of the DC-90 dampers have been investigated and could be defined. It was shown that the dynamic behavior of the masonry building, even if not regular and with deformable floors, can be effectively represented. It can be concluded that the strengthening of the building does not change the dynamic properties of the building due to the fact of low amplitude excitation which do not activate the dampers.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, masonry buildings, forced vibrations, structural dynamic identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
6647 Elastic Constants of Heat Treated Wood

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Effects of heat treatment on elastic constants of Black pine (Pinus nigra) wood were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures (180 and 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus in three anatomical directions, six Poisson’s ratios and three Shear modulus values associated with the main directions were evaluated by compression tests. Compression strength of the samples in three principal directions was also determined. All of the properties of the specimens tested were altered by heat treatment. The degree of alteration depends on the temperature as well as duration applied. Results indicate that EL and compression strength in L direction were not significantly influenced, compression strength in R direction significantly decreased, ER, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then dropped for 8-hour application of 180 ºC. ER was not significantly affected, compression strength in R direction and EL was significantly decreased, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then decreased for 8-hour application of 210 ºC. The shear modulus of the samples was decreased with application of treatment combinations. Most of the Poisson’s ratios were not affected by heat treatment.

Keywords: black pine, elastic constants, heat treatment, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6646 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke

Abstract:

In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: composite, dynamic mechanical analysis, long fibre reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, time temperature superposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
6645 Evaluating the Performance of Existing Full-Reference Quality Metrics on High Dynamic Range (HDR) Video Content

Authors: Maryam Azimi, Amin Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Yuanyuan Dong, Mahsa T. Pourazad, Panos Nasiopoulos

Abstract:

While there exists a wide variety of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) quality metrics, only a limited number of metrics are designed specifically for the High Dynamic Range (HDR) content. With the introduction of HDR video compression standardization effort by international standardization bodies, the need for an efficient video quality metric for HDR applications has become more pronounced. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the existing full-reference LDR and HDR video quality metrics on HDR content and identify the most effective one for HDR applications. To this end, a new HDR video data set is created, which consists of representative indoor and outdoor video sequences with different brightness, motion levels and different representing types of distortions. The quality of each distorted video in this data set is evaluated both subjectively and objectively. The correlation between the subjective and objective results confirm that VIF quality metric outperforms all to their tested metrics in the presence of the tested types of distortions.

Keywords: HDR, dynamic range, LDR, subjective evaluation, video compression, HEVC, video quality metrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
6644 In-situ and Laboratory Characterization of Fiji Lateritic Soils

Authors: Faijal Ali, Darga Kumar N., Ravikant Singh, Rajnil Lal

Abstract:

Fiji has three major landforms such as plains, low mountains, and hills. The low land soils are formed on beach sand. Fiji soils contain high concentration of iron (III), aluminum oxides and hydroxides. The soil possesses reddish or yellowish colour. The characterization of lateritic soils collected from different locations along the national highway in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. The research has been carried out mainly to understand the physical and strength properties to assess their suitability for the highway and building construction. In this paper, the field tests such as dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, field density and laboratory tests such as unconfined compression stress, compaction, grain size analysis and Atterberg limits are conducted. The test results are analyzed and presented. From the results, it is revealed that the soils are having more percentage of silt and clay which is more than 80% and 5 to 15% of fine to medium sand is noticed. The dynamic cone penetrometer results up to 3m depth had similar penetration resistance. For the first 1m depth, the rate of penetration is found 300mm per 3 to 4 blows. In all the sites it is further noticed that the rate of penetration at depths beyond 1.5 m is decreasing for the same number of blows as compared to the top soil. From the penetration resistance measured through dynamic cone penetrometer test, the California bearing ratio and allowable bearing capacities are 4 to 5% and 50 to 100 kPa for the top 1m layer and below 1m these values are increasing. The California bearing ratio of these soils for below 1m depth is in the order of 10% to 20%. The safe bearing capacity of these soils below 1m and up to 3m depth is varying from 150 kPa to 250 kPa. The field vane shear was measured within a depth of 1m from the surface and the values were almost similar varying from 60 kPa to 120 kPa. The liquid limit and plastic limits of these soils are in the range of 40 to 60% and 20 to 25%. Overall it is found that the top 1m soil along the national highway in majority places possess a soft to medium stiff behavior with low to medium bearing capacity as well low California bearing ratio values. It is recommended to ascertain these soils behavior in terms of geotechnical parameters before taking up any construction activity.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, unconfined compression stress.

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6643 GPU Accelerated Fractal Image Compression for Medical Imaging in Parallel Computing Platform

Authors: Md. Enamul Haque, Abdullah Al Kaisan, Mahmudur R. Saniat, Aminur Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we have implemented both sequential and parallel version of fractal image compression algorithms using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) programming model for parallelizing the program in Graphics Processing Unit for medical images, as they are highly similar within the image itself. There is several improvements in the implementation of the algorithm as well. Fractal image compression is based on the self similarity of an image, meaning an image having similarity in majority of the regions. We take this opportunity to implement the compression algorithm and monitor the effect of it using both parallel and sequential implementation. Fractal compression has the property of high compression rate and the dimensionless scheme. Compression scheme for fractal image is of two kinds, one is encoding and another is decoding. Encoding is very much computational expensive. On the other hand decoding is less computational. The application of fractal compression to medical images would allow obtaining much higher compression ratios. While the fractal magnification an inseparable feature of the fractal compression would be very useful in presenting the reconstructed image in a highly readable form. However, like all irreversible methods, the fractal compression is connected with the problem of information loss, which is especially troublesome in the medical imaging. A very time consuming encoding process, which can last even several hours, is another bothersome drawback of the fractal compression.

Keywords: accelerated GPU, CUDA, parallel computing, fractal image compression

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6642 Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies

Authors: Omar S. Qaftan, T. T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.

Keywords: soil, seismic, earthquake, interaction

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6641 Image Compression Using Block Power Method for SVD Decomposition

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Chawki Youness, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

In these recent decades, the important and fast growth in the development and demand of multimedia products is contributing to an insufficient in the bandwidth of device and network storage memory. Consequently, the theory of data compression becomes more significant for reducing the data redundancy in order to save more transfer and storage of data. In this context, this paper addresses the problem of the lossless and the near-lossless compression of images. This proposed method is based on Block SVD Power Method that overcomes the disadvantages of Matlab's SVD function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a better compression performance compared with the existing compression algorithms that use the Matlab's SVD function. In addition, the proposed approach is simple and can provide different degrees of error resilience, which gives, in a short execution time, a better image compression.

Keywords: image compression, SVD, block SVD power method, lossless compression, near lossless

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6640 Analysis of Structure-Flow Interaction for Water Brake Mechanism

Authors: Murat Avci, Fatih Kosar, Ismail Yilmaz

Abstract:

In this study, structure-flow interaction for water brake mechanism is studied with Abaqus CEL approach. The water brake mechanism is used for dynamic systems such as sled system on rail. For the achievement of these system tests, structure-flow interaction should be investigated in detail. This study is about a sled test of an aircraft subsystem which rises to supersonic speeds thanks to rocket engines. To decrease or to stop the thrusting rocket sleds, water brake mechanisms are used. Water brake mechanism provides the deceleration of the structures that have supersonic speeds. Therefore, structure-flow interaction may cause damage to the water brake mechanism. To verify all design revisions with system tests are so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, structure-flow interaction that belongs to water brake mechanism is solved with Abaqus CEL approach. Fluid and deformation on the structure behaviors are modeled at the same time thanks to CEL approach. Provided analysis results are corrected with the dynamic tests. Deformation zones seen in numerical analysis are also observed in dynamic tests. Finally, Johnson-Cook material model parameters used for this analysis are proven, and it is understood that these parameters can be used for dynamic analysis like water brake mechanism.

Keywords: aircraft, rocket, structure-flow, supersonic

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6639 Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Mariacristina Spizzuoco, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of experimental tests performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small, relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements. Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements. Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, experimental hysteresis loops, wire rope isolators

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6638 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell

Abstract:

The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 48